2020 Recordings

Session Session_Type Science_Section Session_DT Tracking_Num Watch Abs # Title Session_Order Presenter Keywords Authors Institutions Abstract
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82968 Watch 1 The surprising benefits of camel milk. 1 G. M. DeMers camel milk diabetes immunity G. M. DeMers1, D. R. Olver1 1Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA With an ever-growing list of alternatives to traditional cow milk being offered in grocery stores everywhere, there is a new contender in this evolving market: camel milk. In fact, a leading food and beverage website declared camel milk to be one of the top 5 trends shaping the international dairy industry in 2019. With a flavor profile more similar to cow milk than other many other choices (such as plant-based alternatives), camel milk contains many of the essential nutrients associated with cow milk while retaining the true “milk” title. Two species of camels, Dromedary and Bactrian, produce milk that offers additional nutritional benefits attractive to some segments of consumers. Studies of people consuming camel milk have demonstrated lower instances of lactose intolerance reactions, lower blood sugar levels with improved insulin sensitivity, and increase immune support. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, typical camel milk contains 3.1% protein and 3.5% fat. However, there is considerable variation in composition data for some constituents. High levels of camel milk components such as lactoferrin contribute to its antibacterial and antifungal properties. In addition to these benefits, camels are very efficient animals that can produce more milk from poorer quality feedstuffs compared with other species. One disadvantage of camel milk is that traditional dairy products such as butter and cheese are more difficult to manufacture, leading to a mainly fluid-based market. Camel milk is primarily produced in Africa and Asia, with Somalia being the largest producer of camel milk worldwide. In the United States, several Amish and Mennonite farms have begun marketing camel-based dairy products. As the availability of camel milk continues to grow, it has the opportunity to become a growing contender in the dairy aisle.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82354 Watch 2 Evaluating the impact of novel products to the dairy market on fluid milk utilization. 2 A. Crews fluid milk market innovation utilization A. Crews1, J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA In the last decade, the consumption of fluid milk has continued to drop in the United States as consumer preference for milk substitutes continues to rise. With increasing health concerns and diet trends, remaining consumers of fluid milk are pressuring for innovation in the market of dairy food production. Gallon jugs of milk are less desirable with smaller families and a short shelf stability limit its demand, especially when habitual breakfast is becoming less popular and the market for its complimentary good, cereal, is declining. It begs the question as to why fluid milk remains so highly regarded by cooperatives in regions such as the Southeast. Simply put, the mechanics and labor processing facilities value at too large of an expense to give reason to push for investment in an area such as the Southeastern United States with such an unsteady seasonal milk supply. Across the US but especially for producers in the southeastern United States, the need for increased fluid milk utilization is called for. This need for price increase and stabilization for dairy producers coupled with consumer driven markets ultimately calls for the reinvention of standard fluid milk. Novel products changing fluid milk utilization have focused on its inclusion in other products, refinement of the milk product, and more attractive packaging. These products include items such as milk-based coffee products to target a widely consumed product, A2 milk, and milk presented in glass bottles. Ultimately, the fluid milk industry will need to diversify its product offering and methodologies of presentation to remain profitable, and refinement and packaging offer opportunities for stabilization of dairy prices.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82315 Watch 3 Effects of pasteurization method on milk composition. 3 L. M. Adams food safety pathogen sensory analysis L. M. Adams1, G. Mazon1, J. H. C. Costa1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY From 1998 to 2003, 75% of disease outbreaks related to milk consumption occurred in states where raw milk sales are permitted (Lucey, 2015). However, illnesses associated with milk consumption totaling less than 1% of foodborne illnesses because of the pasteurization process (FDA, 2011). The main goal of pasteurization is to decrease pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli in raw milk to a level safe for consumption (Oliver et al., 2005). There are 3 main pasteurization methods: low-temperature long time (63°C for 30 min), high-temperature short time (HTST; 72°C for 15 s), and ultra-high temperature (UHT; 135 to 150°C for 1 to 2 s). According to the International Dairy Foods Association, HTST pasteurization is the most common method used in the United States but yields milk with a lower shelf life than UHT (Bezie et al., 2019). Although UHT pasteurization extends milk shelf life, it also affects milk protein and lipid composition. In the UHT process, the extreme heat exposure denatures proteins at the tertiary and secondary structure level of whey proteins (Qi et al., 2015). Complete proteolysis occurs in the native milk plasmin and bacterial proteinases of UHT processed milk (Datta and Deeth, 2003). Moreover, the process of proteolysis can result in gelatinization of milk leaving a residue and a slight change in flavor when comparing UHT to HTST milk (Meunier-Goddik, 2016). Regarding lipids, research indicates that triglyceride levels are significantly lower in UHT compared with HTST and free fatty acid concentrations increased indicating lipolysis in UHT milk (Xu et al., 2019). Research suggests that those slight changes to milk composition might affect the acceptance of UHT milk by consumers as evidenced by a sensory panel in which HTST milk was liked slightly more than UHT (Chapman and Boor, 2001). In summary, consumer's preferences should be considered when selecting a pasteurization method for milk as it can affect the protein and lipid structure in milk consequently affecting and taste perception.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82831 Watch 4 Gene sequencing of embryos. 1 C. McGehee embryo genomic selection embryo biopsy C. McGehee1, R. Cockrum1, D. Winston1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Before 2009 it required nearly 5 years before the genetic merit of an individual animal was determined. Once genomics was introduced into national evaluations, genetic progress in the dairy industry rapidly increased. The genetic merit of an animal can be determined at a young age and is highly reliable due to the large reference population available. However, the majority of genetic gain has been achieved on the sire side, resulting in genetic lag of cows. One approach to increasing the genetic gain of females is through embryo genotyping. This technology allows producers to make more educated decisions on which embryos to implant. Genotyping embryos, therefore, increases genetic progress by increasing selection intensity. This technology can also identify embryonic defects and genetic recessives to reduce early embryonic loss. Two techniques can be used to acquire biopsies from embryos for genomic testing. The first method is blade biopsy, which can be used for embryos in the late-morula or blastocyst stage sampling cells from the trophectoderm. The second method is ideal for cleavage-stage or morula-stage embryos. This method utilizes a needle to aspirate cells from the embryo; it requires that enough cells be collected to complete gene testing but must ensure there are not too many taken that will compromise the continued development of the embryo. Because sufficient DNA cannot be obtained to conduct a SNP-chip genotyping, enzymatic pre-amplification of the biopsy is required. However, fertility of the genotyped embryos is still a concern. Single-cell gene sequencing is a technology that will be available in the future, which would increase the integrity of the embryos and further the genetic improvement of dairy cows.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82353 Watch 5 Manipulating the circadian rhythms through controlled light-dark phases in the prepartum period on cow performance in the next lactation. 2 A. Rauton circadian rhythm transition lactation performance A. Rauton1, J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA Circadian rhythms, derived from the Greek “circa” meaning about and “dian” meaning day, describe a cycle over a 24-h period, which dictate sleep and wake cycles in most biological organisms. Although many aspects of these rhythms are genetically determined, it has been proven that they can be manipulated by means of food availability, temperature and light. Studies involving circadian rhythms in the dairy cow began with correlations between day length and milk production but have since expanded to include the impact these rhythms have on metabolic parameters, daily activity and hormone production. Since that first development of the positive impact of 16 h of light and 8 h of dark on milk production, most studies have focused their work on impacts during lactation. However, little is known regarding the role of circadian rhythm cycles from the end of a lactation to the beginning of the next. This transition period in dairy cattle means major hormonal shifts and changes in metabolism in an effort to accommodate the energetically demanding onset of lactation. Recent studies have shown that using a phase shifted model of the standard light dark period has the ability to positively impact these changes. This stimulation pattern involves shifting the light and dark phases by 6 h periodically throughout the treatment period. This shift, combined with circadian rhythm timing and synchrony, has been shown to alter many animal processes to include attenuation of melatonin production as well as body temperature. More consistent melatonin levels throughout the transition period prompt the animal to spend more time resting as opposed to being more active while attenuation of body temperature decreases the amount of energy used for heating and cooling throughout the day. Ultimately these culminate in a decrease in energy spent in the time before calving which results in an improvement in milk yield and fat content during the next lactation. These results indicate that by interrupting a cow’s naturally occurring rhythm during the transition period, a producer may be able to alter that cow’s performance in her next lactation. These novel insights into the manipulation of circadian rhythms during the transition period offer a new and innovative way to care for lactating cows before the start of lactation.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t81924 Watch 6 Pain management for disbudding dairy calves. 3 A. K. Bitter dairy calves disbudding pain management A. K. Bitter1, C. C. Williams1 1Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Disbudding and dehorning calves are common practices in the dairy industry. Disbudding is the removal of the horn before it attaches to the frontal sinus. The most common practice of disbudding is with an electric hot iron. Another common method of disbudding is chemical disbudding via caustic paste, and a less common practice of disbudding is by amputation. Once the horn begins to attach to the skull around 2 mo of age, then disbudding is no longer an option. Dehorning is the process of removing the horn when it fuses to the frontal sinus. There are different methods of dehorning including guillotine dehorner, surgical wire, horn saw, Barnes dehorner, or tippers. Dehorning is a more painful procedure because of the fusion of the horn to the tender sinus above the eyes. In both procedures, the calf experiences pain and discomfort. While these procedures are painful to calves, some reasons for disbudding or dehorning include decreasing the risk of injury to other animals and reducing the risk of injuring workers. Disbudding or dehorning a calf is a painful process, and because of this, more dairy farms are beginning to use short and/or long-term pain management for this procedure to practice better management in their dairy operation. The best time to disbud a calf is from one to 6 weeks of age because the horn is not yet attached to the skull; therefore, it is less painful for the calf. There are also various ways to control pain caused by disbudding or dehorning procedures. Research has shown that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local anesthetics, and sedation alleviates the pain calves may experience during and after disbudding. Research has also shown that pain management during disbudding results in improved growth and performance of calves. In order for dairy operations to practice better management practices and increase their level of welfare of their animals, they should disbud their dairy calves from one to 6 weeks of age and use NSAIDs and local anesthesia when disbudding or dehorning.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t81801 Watch 7 Nutritional management of subacute ruminal acidosis in early lactation. 4 M. Mosher early lactation subacute ruminal acidosis nutrition M. Mosher1, E. Eckelkamp1 1University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN Proper nutrition is key to early lactation management, particularly for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Early lactation is one of the most energy demanding periods of a cow’s life. Early lactation marks the end of gestation and parturition and the onset of lactation. Subacute ruminal acidosis is typically defined as the rumen pH dropping below the ideal pH range (6.0 to 6.4) to ≤5.6 for ≥3 h. Low pH can lead to insufficient rumen buffering and decreased production and health issues including: laminitis, gastrointestinal damage, and liver abscesses. Cows with SARA do not exhibit clinical signs leading to missed cases, late diagnosis, or only diagnosing severe cases. Cows with SARA cost the US dairy industry $500 million to $1 billion annually through decreased milk production, decreased milk fat percentage and overall milk quality, and cow mortality. Although treatment is key to all disease management, prevention is key with SARA. Effective SARA prevention relies on proper ration formation. Producers who maintain a forage to grain ratio of 60:40, a high starch percentage, and a low amount of forage neutral detergent fiber can maintain high production with a lower risk of SARA. A grain ratio ≥50% can increase SARA risk and depress milk fat percentage. Too much grain in the diet can lead to excess or abnormal production of volatile fatty acids which can decrease rumen pH. Particle size should also be considered. Particles that are too long (>19 mm) or too short (<4 mm) can lead to an increased risk of SARA. Suggested particle size and distribution were ≤8% of ration ≥19mm, 50% of ration between 7mm to 9mm, 20% of ration between 4mm to 7mm, and 30% of ration ≤4mm. Providing a rumen buffer can also help control SARA, such as sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. Rumen buffers help stabilize the rumen environment and can be used to bring rumen pH back to ideal levels. Through proper nutrition, control of subacute ruminal acidosis can be increased along with cow health and productivity.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82851 Watch 8 Precision and accuracy of mid-infrared spectroscopy for milk urea nitrogen analysis. 1 E. M. Wood MUN spectroscopy E. M. Wood1, M. Portnoy1, D. M. Barbano1, K. F. Reed1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY High levels of urea in blood, milk, and urine have been linked to poor nitrogen efficiency, increased feed costs, poor reproductive performance and increased environmental impact of dairy farming. Bulk tank average milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is often used to manage herd nitrogen efficiency. Current recommendations suggest MUN should be between 8 and 14 mg/dL to maintain milk production and reduce nitrogen losses, but a previous study found that commercial analysis of MUN ranged from 6.5 to 14.9 mg/dL for the same sample set. The objective of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of milk testing lab MUN measurements. Milk samples were collected from multiparous Holstein cows (n = 16) 3 times daily (06:00, 14:00, and 22:00) over 7 consecutive days during early lactation (average DIM of 40 d). Samples were sent for analysis at 2 labs (A and B). Both labs tested samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). Lab B also employed an enzymatic spectrophotometric method for measuring MUN on de-fatted and de-proteinated milk, here considered to be the gold standard protocol. The mean (sd) of MIR MUN for Lab A and B are 8.05 (1.33) and 6.41 (1.78) mg/dL respectively. The differences between the MIR MUN values and the enzymatic assay MUN for each lab were calculated and regressed on mean-centered enzymatic MUN values in a mixed model with random effect for day. Results of the linear regression are presented below. Labs A and B had significant (P < 0.01) negative slope coefficients, indicating MIR methods over predict MUN at low values and underpredict at higher values. The intercept estimates suggest Lab A significantly (P < 0.01) over predicts MUN by 2 mg/dL while Lab B tends (P < 0.10) to overpredict MUN by less than 0.5 mg/dL. Estimates of the residual variance and random effect of date indicate similar precision between labs. In spite of existing bias, results show the MIR accuracy has improved, however, sampled data is below industry average MUN and further work on samples with a wider range of MUN is required. Table 1. Parameter estimates of mixed model regression of MUN differences
Laboratory β0 β1 σDay σResidual
A 2.02 (0.173) −0.555 (0.0639) 0.317 1.44
B 0.481 (0.218) −0.512 (0.0694) 0.422 1.56
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82352 Watch 9 Evaluating the use of pulse oximetry, lactate levels, and lung ultrasounds in predicting respiratory illness in dairy calves. 2 M. Hillis lung ultrasound calves respiratory M. Hillis1, M. Gray1, J. Bohlen1 1Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA The future productivity of a dairy operation is found in the calf barn. Growth and health of dairy calves represent a large expense to dairy producers but one, if done correctly, will provide dividends when lactation begins. The most commonly cited health issues in dairy calves are scours and respiratory diseases with the latter at times being the more elusive to identify. The objective of this study was to investigate new methodologies to ascertain calves at risk for respiratory diseases as well as accurately diagnosing respiratory illnesses. For this study we evaluated Holstein calves (n = 12) for blood lactate levels and pulse oximetry within 6 h of calving and then at 24 h intervals until 3 d of age to assess animals potentially predisposed to respiratory issues. Research shows correlation between high lactate concentrations and neonatal asphyxia in cases of dystocia, while pulse oximetry has long been used as an indicator of respiratory distress in humans and small mammals. Lung ultrasounds, using the 6-point ultrasound lung lesion scoring system, were performed on Holstein heifer calves (n = 15) weekly to identify emerging respiratory issues. Auxiliary health data such as dystocia score, weight, height, and signs of respiratory illness according to the Wisconsin Respiratory Scoring System was also collected. Lactate levels ranged from 4 – 5.2 mmol/L while pulse oximetry ranged from 84 to 98% spO2. Lactate and oxygen saturation were not associated with dystocia score (P > 0.05) nor correlated to incidence of respiratory distress or growth rate of calves (P > 0.05). Only one issue of respiratory distress was identified according to lung ultrasounds and respiratory scoring system thus no conclusive data may be elucidated from this part of the study. Limited respiratory illnesses in the current study impeded the ability to collect worthwhile data related to early and accurate identification of respiratory disorders. However, information regarding methodologies for lung ultrasound and how to use pulse oximetry in calves may prove useful in communications with producers.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82029 Watch 415 Impacts of exogenous estradiol on mammary collagen distribution in Holstein heifers. 3 C. T. Oduyelu   C. T. Oduyelu1, C. L. M. Parsons1, A. J. Geiger1, R. M. Akers1, K. M. Daniels1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Mammary collagen distribution is dynamic during growth. The objective was to determine effects of exogenous estradiol on mammary collagen distribution in Holstein heifers fed an enhanced (EH) diet. Twelve Holstein heifers (6 ± 2d old) were fed milk replacer (28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis), at 1.08 kg powder DM/d. Starter (26% CP; DM basis) was offered beginning at 4wk of age. Heifers received ear implants containing either estradiol (EH-E2; n = 6; 25.7 mg estradiol) or placebo (EH; n = 6) at weaning (8wk). Heifers were slaughtered at 10wk. Mammary samples were collected from 2 zones within front right mammary glands (EH-E2, n = 6; EH, n = 4), formalin fixed, and paraffin embedded. Zone 1 (Z1) was the parenchymal area immediately above the gland cistern. Zone 3 (Z3) was the interface of mammary parenchyma and mammary fat pad. Five-µm thick sections were stained with Picro-Sirius Red and Picro-Fast Green. Four to 6 total matched images per heifer and zone were obtained under both brightfield and polarized monochrome conditions using 20x objective lens magnification. A mask of epithelial areas was created per brightfield image with Image ProPlus (version 7; Media Cybernetics). Cell Profiler (version 2.1.1; www.cellprofiler.org) used the mask and monochrome images to measure stromal collagen birefringence. Dependent variables for each image were: total stromal area, stromal collagen area, and collagen as a percent of stromal area. Data were analyzed with a statistical model that included fixed effects of treatment, zone, and their interaction; heifer within treatment was the random effect. Total stromal area did not depend on treatment, zone, or the interaction. Stromal collagen area was not impacted by interaction or treatment but did depend on zone (P < 0.01). Stromal collagen area was 25,902 ± 1461µm2 in Z1 and 16,159 ± 1461µm2 in Z3. Percent of stromal area occupied by collagen was likewise affected by zone (P < 0.01), averaging 11.8 ± 0.7% in Z1 and 7.2 ± 0.7% in Z3. Overall, collagen deposition in mammary stroma was not impacted by exposure to exogenous estradiol but was dependent on sampling zone, with established areas (Z1) having more collagen than active growth regions (Z3).
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82366 Watch 416 Effect of a live yeast supplement and altered ruminal fermentability of dietary starch on the yields of milk and milk components of mid- to late- lactation dairy cows. 4 U. Abou-Rjeileh live yeast starch milk fat U. Abou-Rjeileh1, A. N. Negreiro1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI We evaluated the effect of a live yeast supplement and changes in ruminal fermentability of dietary starch on feed intake and the yields of milk and milk components of mid- to late-lactation dairy cows (158 ± 76 DIM). Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (45.5 ± 5.1 kg/d) were used in a crossover design with two 28-d periods. A fermentable starch challenge (FSC) on the last 7 d of each period was utilized as a split-plot within period. Cows were blocked by milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments were: 1) control diet with no live yeast supplementation (CON); and 2) diet supplemented with a live yeast supplement (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Phileo by Lesaffre) at 0.03% diet DM (YEAST). Diets were formulated to contain (% DM) 19.8% NDF, 28.8% starch, 16.9% CP, and 4.5% fat. Diets containing a 2:1 ratio (DM basis) of dry ground corn (DGC) to high-moisture corn (HMC) were fed from d 1–21 of each period. During the last 7 d of each period the ratio of DGC to HMC was switched to a 1:2 ratio to increase ruminal starch fermentability. Response variables were averaged for d 17–21 (before the FSC period) and d 27 and 28 (during the FSC period). The statistical model included the random effect of cow and fixed effects of treatment, period, challenge, and their interactions. There was no effect of treatments on DMI or the yields of milk and milk components (all P > 0.13). While there was no main effect of the FSC on DMI or the yields of milk and milk components (all P > 0.30), effects on milk fat content and yield varied for CON and YEAST. During the FSC, milk fat yield decreased from 1.69 to 1.62 kg/d for CON but was not different for YEAST (1.68 to 1.66 kg/d; interaction P = 0.06). Milk fat content decreased from 3.55 to 3.39% for CON but was not different for YEAST (3.51 to 3.47%; interaction P = 0.05). Overall, the live yeast supplement did not impact DMI or the yields of milk and milk components. Results demonstrate that a live yeast supplement may help prevent milk fat depression during transition to a diet with increased ruminal starch fermentability.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t83071 Watch M1 Foaming and baking properties of spray-dried ingredient from whey protein and pectin complexes. 1 J. Xu complexes whey protein J. Xu1, B. Vardhanabhuti1 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Whey proteins are the major food ingredients; however, they are underutilized in food foams compared with egg white protein (EWP). Previous work showed that heated soluble complexes (CPX) formed by heating whey protein isolate and pectin exhibited improved foaming properties. For industrial applications, the CPX need to be spray-dried. The objective of this study was to investigate the foaming and baking properties of spray-dried CPX powder (SP-CPX). SP-CPX solutions (1–5% protein) were prepared, and their foaming properties were compared with EWP. Foams were generated using a KitchenAid mixer. Foaming properties were determined by measuring the overrun and drainage 1/5 life. Finally, mixed SP-CPX and whey protein concentrate (WPC) solution (15% protein) was prepared at 12:88 protein ratio. The solution was used in angel food cake formulation. Baking properties were determined by measuring cake volume and density. As comparison, cakes were also made using EWP and WPC. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey’s HSD were used to determine the statistical difference (P < 0.05). Results showed that, at 1%, SP-CPX could form stable foams with 761% overrun and 11 min drainage time while EWP foams were not stable. Increasing to 2% protein led to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in foam overrun for SP-CPX and the formation of stable EWP foams. Further increase in protein concentration did not affect the overrun (P > 0.05), and there was no significant difference between SP-CPX and EWP. Increasing protein concentration led to increased drainage time; however, SP-CPX foams were significantly more stable than EWP. At 4 and 5% protein, SP-CPX foams did not drain after 150 min. Foaming properties of SP-CPX were proven in angel food cakes. Without SP-CPX, cakes made with WPC had lower volume (267 ± 3 mL) and higher density (0.84 ± 0.01 g/mL). Partially replacing WPC with SP-CPX led to increased volume (434 ± 0 mL) and decreased density (0.53 ± 0.00 g/mL). Cakes made with mixed WPC and SP-CPX were similar to those made with EWP. These results indicate that SP-CPX powder has excellent foaming properties and can be used to improve the baking properties of WPC.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82978 Watch M2 Effects of starch and fat concentrations in starter grain on Jersey calf performance. 2 E. Sgambati calf starch Jersey E. Sgambati1, M. Eastridge1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH The development of replacement heifers is important for maintaining herd size and financial efficiency of dairy farms. We investigated the nutritional needs of Jersey calves, focusing on meeting energy requirements by altering starch and fat concentrations in calf starters. Thirty-six female Jersey calves were grouped by BW and birth date and randomly assigned among 3 calf starters: 35% starch and 2% fat (HST), 20% starch and 2% fat (LST), and 35% starch and 4% fat (HST-F). The fat supplement for HST-F consisted of 20% coconut oil, 45% lard, 15% flaxseed oil, and 20% soybean oil. All of the ingredients were pelleted except the steam-flaked corn and molasses. Calves were fed 4 L of colostrum at birth. All calves were fed the same milk replacer at 4.4 L/d during week 1 of age, 5.2 L/d during wk 2 to 7, and 2.6 L/d during wk 8 before weaning. Intake as measured daily and wither heights and BW were measured weekly. One week after weaning, fecal and feed samples were collected daily for 3 d with the fecal collections representing 24 h/d. Using acid insoluble ash, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and crude protein (CP) were determined. Neither starter (730, 693, and 716 g/d, respectively for HST, LST, and HST-F) nor total DM intakes (1259, 1209, and 1245 g/d, respectively) differed among treatments, and there were no treatment by week interactions. Average daily gains from birth through wk 10 of age were similar among groups (0.586, 0.534, and 0.550 kg/d, respectively), thus BW and wither heights were similar across weeks. Digestibilities of DM (73.4, 66.0, and 70.2%, respectively), NDF (41.6, 50.2, and 41.4%, respectively), and CP (67.6, 65.1, and 62.6%, respectively) were similar among treatments. Fecal scoring was evaluated on a 1–6 scale, with 6 indicating hard, dry feces and 1 indicating runny, liquid feces. For the first 4 wk of age, there were no differences among treatments for average fecal scores and days with fecal scores of 1 to 4. Starch and fat concentrations in the starters appeared to not affect calf performance which can provide flexibility in formulation of starters based on ingredient costs.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82541 Watch M3 Effects of intramammary infections on colostrum quality in Jersey cows. 3 E. M. Hist antibody E. M. Hist1, N. R. Hardy1, K. M. Enger1, B. D. Enger1 1The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster, OH A high-quality colostrum with sufficient antibody concentrations is essential for immune health in the newborn calf. Colostrum is highly variable between cows and among quarters within a cow. Intramammary infections (IMI) often occur during the time of colostrum formation; however, it is unknown if these infections ultimately affect colostrum quality and antibody concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine if antibody concentrations in colostrum from infected mammary glands differed from uninfected. Colostrum was collected from 90 cows across 4 Ohio dairy farms within 12 h of calving. Colostrum samples were aseptically collected from all 4 quarters of the cow by farm personnel and refrigerated at −4°C. Within 24 h of collection, Brix degrees were quantified using a refractometer and samples were cultured to determine infection status. Of the 353 quarters sampled, 88 quarters had an IMI. Antibody concentrations were quantified and compared within cow when a comparison was available among a pair of rear or fore quarters, one infected and one uninfected. This resulted in 8 primiparous quarter pairs and 10 multiparous pairs to be evaluated by ELISA. Statistical analyses were performed in SAS using the MIXED procedure with infection status and parity included as fixed effects; cow nested within farm was a random effect. Overall, Brix degrees were greater in primiparous cows than multiparous (27.2 vs 24.3 ± 1.2; P < 0.05). Infected quarters had lower Brix degrees than uninfected in multiparous cows (23.6 vs 25.1 ± 1.0; P < 0.01), but this was not observed in primiparous cows. Of the paired samples, concentrations of IgG2 tended to be lower in multiparous cows than primiparous cows (2.9 vs 4.5 ± 0.7mg/mL; P = 0.11). Concentrations of IgA, IgM, and IgG1 did not differ based on infection status or parity. Ultimately antibody concentrations were not highly influenced by infection status, but differences were seen between parity groups. These results indicate that variability in colostrum quality is more greatly influenced by factors other than infection status.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82132 Watch M4 Effects of Yucca schidigera based additive on in vitro dry matter digestibility, efficiency of microbial production, and greenhouse gas emissions. 4 X. L. Crumel batch culture greenhouse gases Yucca schidigera X. L. Crumel1, D. P. Compart2, U. Y. Anele1 1North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 2PMI, Arden Hills, MN Two in vitro batch culture experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Saport Feed Additive (Saport, PMI, Arden Hills, MN), a Yucca schidigera based feed additive, on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), short chain fatty acids, microbial mass, efficiency of microbial production and greenhouse gas emissions. In experiment 1, 7 concentrations of Saport were evaluated using alfalfa hay and a concentrate diet to determine the optimum dose to use in experiment 2. The concentrations were 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 g/head/day. Based on the results, 2 g/head/day was selected for experiment 2. For the second batch culture study, 4 dairy diets (2 corn silages and 2 TMR; collected from different farms in Guilford county, NC) were used as substrates and incubated for 3, 6 and 24 h using rumen fluid from 2 ruminally cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were 0 (control) and 2 g/head/day of Saport. Inclusion of Saport had no effect (P = 0.7869) on both apparently and truly degraded DM. Additionally, Saport had no effect (P > 0.05) on short chain fatty acids, microbial mass and efficiency of microbial production. Methane production was reduced by 22.7% with Saport inclusion and this was consistent among the 4 diets. Similarly, lower (P = 0.0132; 18%) carbon dioxide concentration was observed in Saport treatment. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfite concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) for both treatments. However, Saport inclusion at 2 g/head/day did reduce ammonia and hydrogen sulfite concentrations by 13 and 17%, respectively. Regardless of diet type, inclusion of Saport at 2 g/head/day reduced methane and carbon dioxide concentrations. The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions did not result in any increase in either short chain fatty acids, microbial mass or efficiency of microbial production.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82120 Watch M5 Effect of chemical and biological preservatives on the dry matter loss, nutritional composition, microbial counts, and heating of aerobically exposed wet brewer’s grain silage. 5 R. Hollandsworth silage lignosulfonates wet brewer’s grain R. Hollandsworth1, M. Killerby1, S. T. R. Almeida2, Z. X. Ma3, A. Y. Leon-Tinoco1, B. C. Guimaraes2, G. M. Oppong1, J. J. Romero1 1University of Maine, Orono, ME, 2University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil, 3University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Our objective is to identify the most effective preservatives of wet brewer’s grain (WBG) silage, especially during the feedout phase. Treatments (TRT) were sodium lignosulfonate at 1% (NaL1) and 2% (NaL2; wt/wt of fresh WBG), propionic acid (PRP; 0.5% wt/wt of fresh WBG), a combination inoculant (INO; Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus buchneri each at 4.9 log cfu/fresh WBG g), and untreated (CON). Five batches of unroasted WBG were collected from the same source right after lautering and cooled to room temperature for 1 d before treatments were randomly applied to each batch. Treated WBG were packed into 8.8 L mini-silos and stored for 60 d at 21°C. At opening, PRP had a lower DM loss (5.06) and a markedly better preservation of sugars (25.0) relative to all other TRT (~10.5 ± 1.26% and ~13.6 ± 1.36% of DM). Afterward, WBG silage was aerobically exposed for 10 d. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design (5 blocks) and differences were declared at P ≤ 0.05. NaL2 had the highest DM (23.6) and pH (4.96) and lowest NDF (38.3) relative to the other TRT (~22.9 ± 0.158%, ~4.42 ± 0.126, and ~50.4 ± 1.03). PRP DM loss during aerobic exposure (11.7) was no different than CON (13.3) but both were lower than the other TRT (~18.2 ± 1.19%). CON (3.24) had the lowest sugar concentration relative to PRP and NaL2 (~7.59) and INO (6.21 ± 0.778% of DM). Moreover, PRP had the lowest ash concentration (3.92) relative to CON (4.25) and NaL1 and 2 (~5.89 ± 0.104% of DM). PRP had a higher yeast count (8.23) relative to INO (6.69), but no different than CON (7.41 ± 0.433 log cfu/g). Heating degree days across TRT (68.5) were similar to CON (62.2), except for NaL1 (86.0 ± 6.42 ?-d). Furthermore, NaL1 and 2 had higher maximum temperatures (~38.7) relative to the other TRT (~36.5 ± 0.82?). Considering that at silo opening PRP had preserved much more nutrients (especially sugars) than CON and thus was more susceptible to aerobic spoilage, its DM loss during aerobic exposure was no different than CON and it still preserved more sugars.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t82272 Watch M6 Assessment of the effects of intrauterine dextrose infusion on clinical cure rate, daily milk yield, and daily rumination in postpartum dairy cows diagnosed with clinical metritis. 6 J. Hamilton clinical metritis intrauterine dextrose milk yield J. Hamilton1, A. A. Barragan1, E. Hovingh1, L. Byler1, M. Martinez1, S. Bas2, J. Zug3, S. Haan3 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Phytobiotics Futterzusatzstoffe GmbH Bvd, Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina, 3Zugstead Farm, Mifflintown, PA The objective of this study was to assess the effects of intrauterine dextrose (50%) infusion on clinical cure rate, daily milk yield and daily rumination time in dairy cows diagnosed with clinical metritis (CM). Cows (n = 351) from a dairy farm located in Pennsylvania were screened at 7 ± 3 DIM using a Metricheck device to assess vaginal discharge. Cows that presented a fetid red-brownish watery vaginal discharge (n = 53) were classified as CM cows, blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1) CONV (n = 27): 2 injectable (SC) administrations of ceftiofur (6.6 mg/kg; Excede, Zoetis Inc.) 72 h apart; and 2) DEX (n = 26): 3 intrauterine infusions of dextrose (50%; 1 L/cow) 24 h apart. Furthermore, cows that presented a normal vaginal discharge at 7 ± 3 DIM (i.e., dense clear discharge; healthy group; HLT; n = 27) were randomly selected and matched by parity to CONV and DEX cows. Cows were re-screened at 14 ± 3 DIM and 21 ± 3 DIM to assess clinical cure rate. Daily milk yield and rumination time data for the first 150 DIM were collected from on-farm computer records (SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel). The data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS as a randomized complete block design. There was no difference in clinical cure rate at 14 ± 3 DIM (CONV = 50.27 ± 12.49%; DEX = 45.9 ± 12.37%) and 21 ± 3 DIM (CONV = 88.05 ± 6.59%; DEX = 88.51 ± 6.35%) between CONV and DEX groups. Overall, cows in the CONV and HLT groups tended to produce 3.41 kg/d and 3.71 kg/d more milk, respectively, compared with cows in the DEX group during the first 150 DIM (CONV = 43.46 ± 1.22 kg/d; DEX = 40.04 ± 1.18 kg/d; HLT = 43.75 ± 1.20 kg/d). There was no difference in daily rumination time during the first 150 DIM between study groups (CONV = 564.29 ± 8.21 min/d; DEX = 542.29 ± 8.09 min/d; HLT = 553.94 ± 7.98 min/d). The results from this study suggest that although intrauterine infusion of dextrose may achieve similar clinical cure rates as a conventional antibiotic treatment, the treatment may not be as effective at restoring milk production in CM cows.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition   ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/22/2020 0:00 t81925 Watch M137 On-farm assessment of insulin sensitivity from glucose responses to insulin infusion in neonatal dairy calves. 7 N. P. Uzee insulin sensitivity dairy calves on-farm assessment N. P. Uzee1, C. C. Williams2, E. L. Oberhaus2, S. J. Blair2, B. S. Whitley1 1Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 2LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA Six male Holstein calves were used to assess glucose responses to insulin to develop an on-farm method of measuring insulin sensitivity with 4 blood samples. Calves were housed in individual hutches and fed milk replacer twice daily according to manufacturer recommendations. Milk replacer was reduced to one feeding daily on d 42, with weaning on d 49. Calf starter and water were offered free choice beginning on d 3. At 3, 6 and 9 weeks of age, insulin tolerance tests were conducted at 0700 h. Calves were not fed the AM feeding or allowed access to feed for the duration of the test. Insulin (7.5 mU/kg BW, 15 mU/kg BW, 30 mU/kg BW, 45 mU/kg BW, or 60 mU/kg BW) was infused through a jugular catheter (14 gauge, 3.5 in; MILA International, Inc.; Erlanger, KY) at time 0. Insulin concentrations were selected based on calf age, with calves at 3 wk receiving 7.5, 15, and 30 mU/kg and calves at 6 and 9 wk receiving the higher doses. Blood was collected at −10 and 0 min pre-insulin infusion and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min post- insulin infusion and immediately tested for glucose concentrations using an Abbot Precision Xtra meter. The percentage decline in glucose concentrations at 40 and 60 min was calculated and plotted against the natural log (ln) of the insulin dose for each calf. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the regression equation for each calf, and the ln of the dose of insulin resulting in a 50% decline in glucose concentration [ln(ED50)] was estimated from that equation. The ED50 was calculated by taking the antilog of ln(ED50). These values were used to determine the insulin dose that best predicts insulin sensitivity. Results indicated that mean insulin concentrations of 13, 33, and 36 mU/kg BW at 3, 6, and 9 weeks, respectively, were determined to result in a 50% decline in blood glucose post infusion using only 4 blood samples (−10, 0, 40, and 60 min post insulin). This method for assessing insulin sensitivity with fewer blood samples and no laboratory analyses will benefit researchers in quickly generating research data in dairy calf projects.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t83176 Watch 39 Effect of metritis on the pattern of behavioral, physiological, and performance parameters monitored by sensors in dairy cows. 1 M. M. Pérez metritis sensor dairy cow M. M. Pérez1, E. M. Cabrera1, C. Rial1, I. Foddanu1, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to compare the pattern of multiple behavioral, physiological, and performance parameters collected by sensors in Holstein cows diagnosed or not with metritis (MET). Cows underwent clinical examination daily from calving until 28 DIM. Sensor parameters monitored and collected were: physical activity (ACT), rumination (RUM) and eating (EAT) behavior, reticulo-rumen temperature (TEMP), and milk production (MILK) and milk components (fat and protein). Groups of cows were formed as follows: cows diagnosed with MET only (METO; n = 149), cows diagnosed with MET plus another disorder (MET+; n = 78) within 7 d before or after diagnosis of MET, and cows with no evident signs of clinical disease (NCD; n = 824). Data from d −7 to 7 after diagnosis of MET were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements including group, time, and their interaction as fixed effects and controlling by lactation number (1, 2, 3+). The mean DIM at diagnosis of MET was considered study d 0 for cows in the NCD group. Cow within-group was included as random effect and was the subject of repeated measures. MILK was lower (P < 0.01) for cows in METO and MET+ from d −4 to 7. Cows in METO and MET+ had greater (P < 0.01) fat and fat-to-protein ratio than cows in NCD from d −7 to 7. For cows in METO and for MET+, ACT was lower (P < 0.01) than for cows in NCD from d −3 to −1 and from 1 to 7, respectively. EAT was reduced (P < 0.01) for cows in both METO and MET+ compared with NCD from d −6 to 7. Cows in MET+ had lesser (P < 0.01) RUM than cows in NCD from d −4 to 7 whereas cows in METO had lesser (P < 0.01) RUM than cows in NCD from d −4 to 4. Cows in METO had greater (P < 0.01) TEMP than cows in NCD from d −7 to 7, whereas cows in MET+ had greater (P < 0.01) TEMP than cows in NCD from d −1 to 7. We conclude that cows with metritis only and cows with metritis and another disorder observed within 7 d before or after diagnosis of metritis had specific patterns of behavioral, physiological and productivity parameters which might be used to predict the occurrence of metritis.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t83119 Watch 40 Induced endometritis affects production in early lactation. 2 A. Husnain dairy cow endometritis production A. Husnain1, U. Arshad1, M. B. Poindexter1, R. Zimpel1, A. Vieira-Neto1, Z. Ma1, K. C. Jeong1, W. W. Thatcher1, C. Nelson1, J. J. Bromfield1, J. E. P. Santos1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Objectives were to investigate the impact of induced endometritis on performance in early lactation. The hypothesis was that induced endometritis induces localized and systemic inflammatory responses that depress production. Postpartum Holstein cows without any clinical disease in the first 30 DIM and less than 10% polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in endometrial cytology had the estrous cycle synchronized starting at 29 DIM. Cows were blocked by parity and genomic breeding value for fertility and, within block, assigned randomly to remain as untreated controls (CON; n = 19) or to receive an intrauterine infusion of 5x108 colony-forming units of Escherichia coli and 5 × 108 colony-forming units of Trueperella pyogenes on d 6 of an estrous cycle at 44 DIM (INF; n = 19). Endometrial cytology was taken on d 2 and 7 after treatment to evaluate PMN and mRNA expression of inflammatory genes. Rectal temperature, milk yield and components were evaluated from d −7 to 7 relative to treatment. Data were analyzed by mixed models with the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. Treatment increased (P < 0.01) the proportion of PMN in the endometrial cytology on d 2 (CON = 3.9 ± 1.1 vs. INF = 39.9 ± 6.6%) and 7 (CON = 8.5 ± 2.2 vs. INF = 19.0 ± 4.3%) after infusion. Using a cut-off of 10% PMN as subclinical endometritis (SCE), 28.7 ± 9.8 of CON and 91.9 ± 5.3 of INF developed SCE (P < 0.001). Rectal temperature did not differ (P = 0.52) between CON and INF and averaged 38.9 and 38.9 ± 0.1°C, respectively. Yield of milk in the 7 d following treatment tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in CON than INF (CON = 44.0 vs. INF = 40.9 ± 1.8 kg/d). Treatment did not affect the yields of ECM (CON = 42.8 vs. INF = 41.9 ± 1.9 kg/d; P = 0.65), fat (CON = 1.45 vs. INF = 1.52 ± 0.07 kg/d; P = 0.45), or protein (CON = 1.22 vs. INF = 1.14 ± 0.07 kg/d; P = 0.20), but lactose yield was greater (P = 0.02) in CON than INF (CON = 2.37 vs. INF = 2.09 ± 0.12 kg/d). The somatic cell score (SCS) did not differ (P = 0.95) between treatments (CON = 2.7 vs. INF = 2.7 ± 0.3). Induction of endometritis induced an influx of PMN, increased incidence of SCE and affected yields of milk and lactose in early lactation cows.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t82614 Watch 41 Assessment of the accuracy and test characteristics of a multivariable metabolic index to predict hyperketonemia in early postpartum Holstein dairy cows. 3 L. Caixeta hyperketonemia prediction transition period Z. Rodriguez1, L. Caixeta1, P. Ferro1, N. Moraes1, M. Endres1, K. Nakagawa2, A. Imaizumi2, I. Shinzato2, T. Fujieda2 1University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, 2Ajinomoto Co. Inc, Kawasaki, Japan Hyperketonemia (HYK) is a prevalent metabolic disorder associated with suboptimal health and performance in dairy cattle. Thus, early detection and prevention of HYK are important to improve animal welfare and decrease economic losses. A multivariable metabolic index (MI) using pre-partum concentration of different amino acids and blood metabolites was developed to predict the occurrence of HYK in Holstein dairy cows. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of this MI and the variability of test characteristics at different MI thresholds. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in a commercial dairy in Minnesota at 21 ± 3 d before expected calving date (3 weeks pre-partum) for the measurement of blood metabolites and calculation of the MI. After calving, blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was measured at 3 ± 1 and 7 ± 1 DIM for diagnosis of HYK. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB >1.2 mmol/L. Cows were enrolled between February and September 2019. Statistical analyses were performed using R software (version 3.4.4). The area under for the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) at 6 different predictive thresholds were calculated as test characteristics. The prevalence of HYK was 19.0% (95%CI: 15.9 – 22.5). The diagnostic accuracy of the MI to predict HYK was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.73 – 0.85). The best Se and Sp based on Youden’s index were 75% and 76%, respectively based on d 7 (Table 1). In conclusion, the MI was able to predict HYK with high accuracy and acceptable Se and Sp up to 3 weeks before the disease onset on the postpartum period. Table 1. Test characteristics1 at different metabolic index (MI) thresholds
MI Threshold Se (%) Sp (%) PPV (%) NPV (%)
−0.7 45 90 40 92
−1.1* 75 76 31 95
−1.2 79 70 28 96
−1.5 88 50 21 97
−1.8 92 30 16 96
−2.3 96 10 14 95
1Se = sensitivity; Sp = specificity; PPV = positive predictive value; NPV = negative predictive value. *Represents the MI value with the highest Youden’s index.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t81659 Watch 42 The association of prepartum urine pH, and plasma total calcium at calving in Holstein dairy cows. 4 P. Melendez hypocalcemia urine pH anionic diets P. Melendez1, J. Bartolome2, C. Roeschmann3, B. Soto2, A. Arevalos4, J. Moller4 1University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, 2National University of La Pampa, Gral. Pico, Argentina, 3University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, 4Fundo Los Laureles, Chahuilco, Chile Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder affecting dairy cows around parturition. A successful strategy to prevent clinical hypocalcemia is the use of anionic diets to induce a mild metabolic acidosis, increasing the responsiveness of receptors to PTH. The assessment of urine pH is a quick and inexpensive tool to monitor the degree of metabolic acidosis imposed by the anionic strategy. What urine pH is the ideal for the prevention of milk fever has been very controversial. The aim was to assess urine pH on prepartum Holstein cows fed anionic diets and determine its association with plasma total Ca (tCa), tMg, P, BHB at parturition. The study was conducted on a grazing dairy in Chile. At 30 d before expected parturition, cows were moved to a prepartum lot receiving 80% of their DM as a mixed ration and 20% from pasture (DCAD −109 mEq/kg DM). During Fall 2019, 345 prepartum cows were eligible for urine collection. Weekly, about 20% of the group were randomly sampled for urine pH using a portable electronic pH meter. The inclusion criteria of each sampled cow was that they had to stay at least one week in the prepartum group consuming the anionic diet. Within 6 h from calving a blood sample was obtained to collect plasma. At the end, 60 cows were tested for urine pH and blood metabolite concentrations at calving. The concentration of plasma tCa, P, tMg and BHB at d 1 pp were assessed. Metabolites were analyzed by ANOVA for polynomial regression (PROC GLM, SAS 9.4). Ten cows (16.6%) had a urine pH <6.0, 35 cows (58.3%) had a tCa concentration <2.15 mmol/L. There was a quadratic effect of urine pH on tCa. The concentration of plasma tCa was higher when the prepartum urine pH was between 6.0 and 7.5 (2.24–2.3 mmol/L), while decreased with pH <6.0 and > pH 7.5 (<2.22 mmol/L). No variables were associated with tMg at calving. There was a trend (P = 0.11) for a quadratic effect of urine pH on the concentration of BHB at parturition. BHB was higher when urine pH was <6.0 and >7.5. In conclusion, cows with prepartum urine pH <6.0 and >7.5 had a lower concentration of plasma tCa, and tended to have a higher concentration of BHB. These results indicate that anionic salts should be fed with caution, avoiding underfeeding and overfeeding. The target urine pH should be between 6.0 and 7.0.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t82708 Watch 43 Association of calcium and energy balance metabolites in the first 3 days after parturition with disease and production outcomes in multiparous Jersey cows. 5 P. R. Menta calcium energy balance milk production P. R. Menta1, L. Fernandes1, D. Poit1, M. Celestino1, V. S. Machado1, M. A. Ballou1, R. C. Neves1,2 1Department of Veterinary Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 2Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Our objectives were to understand the associations of total Ca concentration (tCa) measured at 1 through 3 DIM, and free fatty acids (FFA), BHB and glucose (GLU) measured at DIM 3 with (1) the risk of multiparous Jersey cows being diagnosed with early-lactation diseases and culling using multivariable Poisson regression; (2) milk production in the first 9 wk of lactation using generalized linear mixed models; and, (3) the risk of pregnancy in the first 150 DIM using Cox Proportional hazards modeling. A total of 380 cows were enrolled in a cohort study from one herd in West TX. Total Ca measured at DIM 1 through 3 was not associated with the risk of metritis. Cows with increased FFA and BHB had a higher risk to be diagnosed with metritis (P = 0.05) and clinical mastitis (P = 0.04), respectively. Increased concentrations of GLU (P = 0.007), FFA (P = 0.04), and tCa (P = 0.004) at 3 DIM were associated with the risk of culling. Reduced tCa at both DIM 1 (≤1.84 mmol/L; P < 0.0001; +3.85 kg per d) and 2 (≤1.88 mmol/L; P = 0.03; +1.84 kg per d) were associated with increased milk production across the first 9 wk of lactation compared with herdmates with increased tCa. Total Ca was not associated with milk production at DIM 3, with FFA (≥0.55 mmol/L; P = 0.02) and GLU (≤2.95 mmol/L; P = 0.002) being associated with increased milk production. None of the metabolites measured were associated with the risk of pregnancy in the first 150 DIM. Our results demonstrate that reduced tCa concentrations in the first 2 DIM and reduced GLU at 3 DIM are associated with increased milk production. Increased concentrations of FFA were associated with higher milk production but with increased risk of metritis.
Animal Health (M1) Transition Cow 1   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:00 t82993 Watch 44 Effects of carprofen on inflammation biomarkers and health of transition Holstein cows. 6 S. T. Quanz metritis maresin-1 adiponectin S. T. Quanz1, A. R. Rodríguez2, H. A. Bustamante2, L. K. Mamedova1,3, B. J. Bradford1,3 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Los Rios Region, Chile, 3Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of carprofen on transition cow inflammation biomarkers and health. Late-gestation multiparous cows (n = 62) were enrolled at the beginning of the close-up period and randomly assigned to treatments at parturition. Cows received either no treatment (control) or subcutaneous carprofen (1.4 mg/kg BW) 24 – 48 h postpartum. Cows treated with antibiotics or anti-inflammatories during the close-up period were removed from the study (6 treatment, 2 control). Health was observed daily for 21 d postpartum. For the first 120 d of lactation, cows were confined and fed a TMR, and then moved to a rotational grazing system and supplemented. Blood plasma and serum were collected from the coccygeal vein 21 d before expected calving and once weekly for 3 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin was determined by enzymatic activity, plasma fibrinogen and total protein concentrations by refractometry, and plasma maresin-1 and adiponectin concentrations by ELISA. Treatment, disease, and time were modeled as fixed effects with parity as a random effect; significance was declared at P < 0.05. Treatment cows had fewer instances of clinical metritis (36% vs. 66%, P ≤ 0.05), but there was no effect on puerperal metritis, displaced abomasum, pneumonia, clinical mastitis, or lameness incidence (P > 0.10). Carprofen had no effect on adiponectin or fibrinogen concentrations (P > 0.10) but increased total plasma protein concentration (P ≤ 0.05) and tended to increase maresin-1 (P = 0.09), a resolving oxylipid. Carprofen tended to decrease plasma haptoglobin (P = 0.07). Cows with clinical metritis had greater concentrations of fibrinogen and haptoglobin (P ≤ 0.05), but there were no disease × treatment interactions (P > 0.10). Carprofen tending to increase adiponectin concentration only among cows with clinical metritis (P = 0.06; disease × treatment interaction P < 0.05). Overall, carprofen decreased the incidence of clinical metritis while also altering biomarkers in a manner suggesting decreased systemic inflammation, consistent with a more successful navigation of the transition period.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82854 Watch 45 The effect of fecal microbiota transplants in pre-weaned dairy calves. 1 G. S. Slanzon fecal microbiota transplant calf G. S. Slanzon1, L. M. Parrish1, S. C. Trombetta1, W. M. Sischo1, C. S. McConnel1 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA The GI tract of dairy calves contains a complex community of microorganisms that can be disrupted by GI disease. Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) may be an alternative for restoring the GI microflora. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of FMT on the fecal microbiome in pre-weaned dairy calves on a calf ranch in the western US. FMT product was made from Salmonella negative, concentrated fecal matter obtained from healthy calves (5–24 d of age) several weeks before this study and described elsewhere. Calves (n = 151) were randomly assigned to FMT treatment groups, clinically assessed twice daily from 1 to 21 d of age, and enrolled in the trial from 4 to 12 d of age. At enrollment, calves with fecal scores ≤ 2 and no clinical illness were classified as healthy. Those with fecal scores of 3 (loose) or 4 (watery) were diagnosed with diarrhea and classified as bright-sick (BS) or depressed-sick (DS) according to their behavior. Fecal samples were collected 10 d after enrollment (13 to 21 d of age) from calves that did (n = 82) or did not (n = 69) receive FMT (35g PO SID for 3 d). The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from fecal samples and analyzed using the DADA2 pipeline. An ASV table was used to compare taxonomic profiles and differences were identified by LEfSe (P < 0.05; LDA score > 2). The genus Lactobacillus was abundant in healthy calves that remained healthy post-FMT. Healthy calves that remained healthy without FMT had an abundance of the family Actinomycetaceae. Healthy calves that progressed to BS without FMT had an abundance of the family Lachnospiraceae. Healthy calves that progressed to BS post-FMT had an abundance of the family Lactobacillaceae. A chi-squared test of independence examined the relationship between FMT administration and changes in clinical outcomes. The proportion of initially healthy calves that progressed to BS, DS or died did not differ by FMT administration (P = 0.14). However, BS and DS calves without FMT treatment were more likely to recover to a healthy state (p-value = 0.02), necessitating a reconsideration of the characteristics and utility of FMT in dairy calves.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82517 Watch 46 Seaweeds supplementation affects the short-chain fatty acids profile in digesta from milk-fed Holstein calves. 2 M. B. Samarasinghe seaweed short-chain fatty acids calf M. B. Samarasinghe1, M. Vestergaard1, J. Sehested1, T. Larsen1, L. E. Hernández-Castellano1 1Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Foulum, Tjele, Denmark This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing 3 different seaweeds on ADG, organs’ weight, pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) profile in digesta from milk-fed calves. Forty Holstein calves in 10 blocks (4 animals/block) with birth BW 41 ± 4 kg and plasma BRIX% ≥ 8.7% at d 2 after birth were used. From d 2 until d 49, control calves (CTRL, n = 10) received cow milk without seaweeds twice per day (8L/d). Experimental calves received cow milk supplemented with either Ulva lactuca (SW1, n = 10), Ascophyllum nodosum (SW2, n = 10), or Laminaria saccharina (SW3, n = 10). Dried and ground seaweeds were offered in a concentration of 25 g/4 L of milk twice daily. Calves were slaughtered either on wk 5 (n = 20) or wk 7 (n = 20) of life. After slaughtering, the small intestine was divided into 3 equal sections (i.e., SI1, SI2 and SI3). Digesta from SI2 and mid-colon (Mcol) was used to determine the SCFA profile. In addition, organs’ weight and digesta pH were recorded. The statistical model included a one-way ANOVA with treatment as fixed effect and block as covariate. No differences in ADG, proportional organs’ weight and digesta pH were detected (P > 0.05). Total SCFA concentration in Mcol digesta tended to be lower in SW1 (57.6 mmol/L) and SW3 calves (55.6 mmol/L) than in CTRL calves (78.8 mmol/L) on wk 5 (P = 0.06). However, no differences were detected in total SCFA concentration in SI2 digesta from any of the groups on wk 5. Acetic acid percentage in Mcol digesta was higher in SW2 calves than in CTRL calves on both wk 5 (71.4 vs. 65.7%, respectively) and wk 7 (74.2 vs. 63.3%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Additionally, propionic acid percentage in Mcol digesta was lower in SW2 calves (13.8%) compared with CTRL calves (21.2%) on wk 7 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, butyric acid percentage in Mcol digesta was lower in SW1 (5.62%) and SW2 calves (6.46%) than in CTRL calves (8.68%) on wk 7 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, compared with control, seaweeds supplementation increased the acetic acid percentage and reduced the propionic and butyric acid percentage in mid-colon digesta from milk-fed Holstein calves on wk 7 of life.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t81958 Watch 47 Supplementation of seaweeds improves the immune status of milk-fed Holstein calves. 3 M. B. Samarasinghe seaweed immunity calf M. B. Samarasinghe1, M. Vestergaard1, J. Sehested1, T. Larsen1, L. E. Hernández-Castellano1 1Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Foulum, Tjele, Denmark Seaweeds are used as functional feed ingredients as they contain a variety of complex polysaccharides, vitamins, chelated minerals and antioxidants, which are known to promote immune status, hence health and growth of humans and livestock. This experiment aimed to study the systemic immune status of calves fed milk supplemented with either Ulva lactuca, Ascophyllum nodosum, or Laminaria saccharina. Forty Holstein calves in 10 blocks of 4 with birth BW 41 ± 4 kg and plasma BRIX% ≥ 8.7% 2 d after birth were used. Calves were fed 4 L of cow milk twice a day (8 L/day). From d 2 until d 28, calves in the control group (CTRL, n = 10) received milk without seaweed. Experimental calves received milk supplemented with either Ulva lactuca (SW1, n = 10), Ascophyllum nodosum (SW2, n = 10) or Laminaria saccharina (SW3, n = 10). Dried and ground seaweeds were offered in a concentration of 25 g/4 L of milk. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after birth. Plasma concentrations of immunoglobulins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were analyzed by ELISA, fibrinogen (Fib) by immune reaction and turbidimetry, and total protein, albumin and haptoglobin by spectrophotometric methods. The statistical model included the effect of treatment, sampling day, and their interaction, block and calf. Autoregressive covariance structure was applied for repeated measurements. No differences in ADG were detected between the groups (0.9 ± 0.03 kg/day) during this study. However, plasma concentrations of Fib (P = 0.05) and SAA (P = 0.04) were significantly different between treatment groups and there was a tendency for TNF-α (P = 0.07). At d 14, Fib was significantly higher in calves fed with SW1 (5.7 ± 0.5 g/L) and SW2 (5.4 ± 0.5 g/L) compared with the CTRL group (3.9 ± 0.5 g/L). In addition, plasma SAA was significantly higher in SW2 (181 ± 31 mg/L) and SW3 (214 ± 31 mg/L) calves than in CTRL calves (103 ± 31 mg/L) at d 14. These results indicate that milk supplementation with seaweeds improves the systemic immune status in milk-fed calves.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82527 Watch 48 The effect of tributyrin supplementation to milk replacer on growth performance, diarrhea frequency, and blood biochemical parameters of dairy calves. 4 S. Liu calf tributyrin S. Liu1, J. Zhou1, J. Wu1, J. Ma1, Z. Cao1 1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rumen unprotected tributyrin supplementation to milk replacer on performance, diarrhea frequency and blood concentrations of metabolite of dairy calves. Forty-eight newborn Holstein female calves (39.6 ± 2.7 kg of BW; mean ± SD) were randomly allocated to 3 treatments to assess the effects of supplementing the milk replacer at 2.8 g/kg (TB8) or 5.6 g/kg (TB16) of powder with tributyrin compared with no supplementation (CON). Calves were weaned on d 56 and were raised until the end of this study (d 77). Starter intake, fecal consistency scores, BW and blood were collected. Data were analyzed separately by stage: pre-weaning (d 1 - d 56) and post-weaning (d 57 – d77). All repeated, continuous data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The results showed that during the pre-weaning period, calves in TB8 and TB16 had higher dry matter intake compared with CON, and the average daily gain of TB16 was higher than that of CON. After weaning, calves in TB16 had higher dry matter intake compared with CON, and all treatments had similar average daily gain. Tributyrin addition reduced the diarrhea frequency throughout the study. The results related to blood showed that no differences were found among treatments on concentrations of growth hormones, insulin and total protein throughout the study. The concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate in TB16 was higher than that of CON and TB8 in wk 11, and no differences were found in other time points. The concentrations of plasma endothelin and serum amyloid A in CON increased after weaning, and plasma endothelin concentration was higher than TB16 in wk 9. In conclusion, rumen protected tributyrin supplementation to milk replacer could improve growth performance and reduce diarrhea frequency of calves. Supplementing the milk replacer at 5.6 g/kg of powder performed better.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82222 Watch 49 Effects of feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on the health and growth performance of Holstein dairy calves through 4 months of age. 5 R. N. Klopp calf health Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product growth R. N. Klopp1, I. Yoon2, J. P. Boerman1 1Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN, 2Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) on growth and health of calves in the first 4 mo of life. Holstein bull calves were blocked by BW and serum total protein and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments; CON (24% CP:17% fat milk replacer (MR), 18% CP starter, 18% CP grower, and 16% CP grower with no SCFP added) or SCFP (24% CP:17% fat MR with 1 g/d of SmartCare (Diamond V), 18% CP starter with 0.8% NutriTek (Diamond V), 18% CP grower with 0.44% NutriTek, and 16% CP grower with 0.275% NutriTek). Calves were offered 2.84 L (12.5% solids) of MR twice daily (0630 and 1630 h) through d 51, from d 52–56 calves were fed MR once daily (0630 h), and weaned on d 56. From d 1–56, calves received ad libitum access to a texturized calf starter and water. On d 57, calves were switched to an 18% CP grower and on d 71, calves were switched to a 16% CP grower. Individual calf BW, BCS, hip height (HH), and hip width (HW) were measured biweekly from d 0–112. Intake was recorded daily and feed efficiency (FE) and ADG were calculated. Daily fecal and respiratory scores were recorded for each calf through d 56 and all medical treatments were recorded for the duration of the study and grouped based on illness. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design in SAS v.9.4 with repeated measures when applicable. No treatment effect was observed for BW, BCS, HH, or HW at d 0, d 56, or d 112 (all P ≥ 0.11). A treatment tendency was observed for post-weaning ADG (P = 0.07) with SCFP calves having higher ADG compared with CON calves. SCFP calves had improved FE compared with CON post-weaning (P = 0.02). A treatment effect was seen for respiratory illness (P = 0.001), with SCFP calves being treated less frequently than CON (0.95 vs. 0.31 treatments/calf). This study suggests that feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products to calves could improve ADG and FE post-weaning as well as reduce the incidence of respiratory disease through 4 mo of life.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82733 Watch 50 Evaluation of Lifeline Protect at arrival and NutraPro formulated into a traditional milk program under California feeding and housing conditions during the winter season on calf growth, morbidity, and mortality. 6 M. Fringer plasma M. Fringer1, J. M. Campbell2, S. Williamson1, K. S. Thompson1 1California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, 2APC Inc, Ankeny, IA Several environmental factors affect calf’s health, including nutrition. Functional plasma proteins (FPP) fed to neonatal calves have been reported to improve performance and reduce fecal scores, medical treatments and mortality. However, research evaluating Lifeline Protect (colostrum supplement) (LP) and NutraPro (spray-dried plasma, NP) in a traditional California milk and housing program is limited. The objective was to evaluate a FPP program consisting of LP upon arrival and NP added to the milk feeding program for dairy calves during cold stress on performance, morbidity, and mortality. Milk fed to calves was a mixture of whole milk and milk replacer fortified to 14% solids. A step-down program was used so that d-56 calves were weaned. Holstein bull calves (n = 54) were sourced from 8 different dairies and transported to Fresno State University campus on January 2019. Calves were randomized to 1 of 2 feeding treatment groups based on dairy origin, serum total protein level and BW, and then housed in wooden, 3-hole calf hutches. Treatments groups consisted of a control milk program (CMP) using whole milk with added milk replacer to balance solids to 14% and the FPP program consisting of LP (50 g globulin/calf) upon arrival and thereafter using whole milk with 5% NP plus milk replacer to 14% solids. Weekly BW was recorded. Bottles were weighed before and after each feeding to determine milk intake. Daily grain consumption was recorded. Twice daily health and fecal scores were taken to evaluate morbidity. In the first 14 d, calves fed FP were heavier (P < 0.05: 44.8 vs. 43.5 kg) compared with CMP calves. By 56 d, FP calves were 74.5 kg vs 73.9 kg for calves fed CMP. Over the 8-week period, attitude score, average fecal score and number of medications per calf (7.3 vs. 12) was reduced (P < 0.05) for calves fed FPP compared with CMP. Survival was numerically increased for calves fed FPP (92%) vs CMP (80.8%). Calves fed FPP performed better and had less medication treatments, morbidity, and mortality compared with calves on CMP.
Growth and Development (M1)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:00 t82542 Watch 51 Effects of transition milk on intestinal development of neonatal calves. 7 B. Van Soest calf transition milk intestinal development B. Van Soest1, M. Weber Nielsen1, A. Moeser1, A. Abuelo Sebio1, M. VandeHaar1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Transition milk (TM, milk from the 2nd through 4th milkings after calving) feeding in the first week of life increases BW gain throughout the preweaning period. The objective of this study was to determine if TM enhances intestinal development compared with milk replacer (MR). We tested this idea on 23 newborn Holstein bull calves, born 6 different weekends within 12 h of each other per week. Calves were fed 2.8 L of colostrum within 15 min of birth randomly assigned to MR or TM treatments within block and fed treatments 3 times per day. TM was collected, pooled by milking number, and fed at 1.89 L (255 g DM) per feeding as follows: milking 2 at feedings 2 to 5, milking 3 at feedings 6 to 8, and milking 4 at feedings 9 to 12. In this study, TM was not pasteurized and had an average composition of 30% fat and 39% protein on a DM basis and 20 g IgG/L. Calves fed MR received 275 g DM MR (21% fat and 27% protein) at all 12 feedings. Both treatments had average refusals of 10%. At 0730 h on d 5, calves were injected IV with 5 mg of bromodeoxyuridine per kg BW and euthanized 130 min later. Sections of the duodenum, proximal jejunum, mid jejunum, and ileum were excised to evaluate morphology. Compared with MR, TM nearly doubled villus length, villus width, villus to crypt ratio, and mucosal length in all sections (P < 0.01 for all). Compared with MR, TM increased submucosal thickness 70% in the proximal and mid jejunum (P < 0.001) and tended to increase submucosal thickness in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.1). Treatment did not alter crypt depth. In all sections, labeling with bromodeoxyuridine was increased 50% (P < 0.01 for all) by TM compared with MR in the cells along the epithelium of the crypts and within the villi, indicating that TM increased cell proliferation compared with MR. We conclude that feeding TM enhances development of the small intestine in the first few days of life compared with MR. This increased development might explain why calves fed TM compared with MR in the first 4 d of life grow faster.
Lactation Biology (M1)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:00 t82002 Watch 52 Disruption of circadian clocks in the prepartum dry period negatively affect mammary development. 1 K. Teeple circadian mammary development K. Teeple1, A. Suarez-Trujillo1, C. McCabe1, J. Townsend2, S. Donkin1, K. Plaut1, J. Boerman1, T. Casey1 1Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Circadian clocks generate 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior to coordinate internal metabolism and synchronize it to the environment. Studies of rodents indicate that disruption of circadian clocks negatively impacts mammary development. Our objective was to disrupt circadian clocks of cattle by exposing them to light (L)-dark (D) cycle phase shifts during the prepartum nonlactating dry period, and determine the effect on mammary development. Multiparous cattle were dried off at 60 d before expected calving (BEC) and assigned to control (n = 6) or phase shifted (PS; n = 6) treatments. Control were exposed to 16 h of L: 8 h D. PS group light exposure shifted forward 6 h every 3 d. Both groups began treatments 35 d BEC and stayed on respective treatments until calving. Following parturition all cows were exposed to 16:8 h L:D cycle. Mammary biopsies were taken at 21 d BEC and 21 d postpartum (PP). Biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostained for proliferating cell marker KI67. Images (n = 5/biopsy/cow) of tissue were captured at 40X to measure alveolar, lumen, and intralobular stromal area using ImagePro Plus 5.1. To determine proliferation index of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and stromal cells, the total number of KI67 stained and unstained cells were counted (5 images/biopsy/cow) at 200X. The lumen to epithelial ratio was calculated by dividing the luminal area by the alveolar area. Milk yield was measured daily through 60 d PP. SAS (V 9.4) PROC MIXED was used for statistical analysis. Proliferation index of MEC at 21 BEC was lower (P < 0.05) in PS (5.2% ± 0.8) vs control (12.4% ± 0.8) cows; there was no difference in proliferation rates at 21 PP (C = 0.77% ± 0.75; PS = 0.78% ± 0.70). Alveolar area was different between time points (P = 0.002). Treatment and time point affected lumen to epithelial ratio (P < 0.05). Milk production was lower (P < 0.05) in PS (40.3kg ± 0.803) vs control (42.5kg ± 0.803). Findings support that phase shifting the L:D cycle alters mammary development during the prepartum period, and indicate that disruption of clocks may affect milk production.
Lactation Biology (M1)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:00 t82177 Watch 53 Light-dark phase shift circadian disruption does not affect cortisol and progesterone concentrations in periparturient dairy cows. 2 A. Suarez-Trujillo circadian rhythms cortisol progesterone A. Suarez-Trujillo1, J. Franco2, T. Steckler1, J. Boerman1, K. Plaut1, T. M. Casey1 1Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 2Metabolite Profiling Facility, Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette. IN Circadian-metabolic-reproductive systems are integrated and reciprocally regulated. Circadian clocks set the daily rhythms of multiple hormones that influence metabolism and reproduction. Currently, there is little understanding regarding how reproductive state effects circadian clock function, and how circadian clocks regulate metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. A previous study showed that exposure to chronic light-dark phase shifts (PS) during the dry period in dairy cows resulted in loss of the centrally generated circadian rhythms of melatonin and core body temperature, as well as decreased blood glucose and increased overall melatonin levels. These changes were related to increased milk production postpartum. The objective of this study was to measure cortisol (CORT) and progesterone (P4) in the transition period dairy cows exposed to PS to determine how altering central clock function effects these metabolic and reproductive hormones. Beginning 5 wk before expected calving (BEC) multiparous cows were assigned to control (n = 16) and exposed to 16h light: 8h dark or phase-shifted (n = 16) by 6h every 3d until parturition. All cows were exposed to control lighting after calving. Blood samples were taken at 0600 on d 35 BEC, 21 BEC, 2 BEC, and d 0, 2, 9, 15 and 22 postpartum. A subset of cows (n = 6/group) were sampled every 4 h over 48 h at 3 time points: d 23 BEC, 9 BEC, and 5 DIM, and data was analyzed for fit to 24 h rhythm in R cosinor analysis. CORT and P4 were measured using LC MS/MS. Two-way ANOVA analysis of the concentration of CORT and P4 found no effect of treatment (CORT P = 0.48; P4 P = 0.52). Cosine analysis of CORT and P4 concentration determined that neither treatment showed circadian rhythms in the 3 studied periods. Results suggest that CORT or P4 levels cannot account for treatment differences in milk yield and glucose. Lack of circadian rhythms in of hormone levels suggest that in periparturient cows 24 h profiles of CORT and P4 levels reflect reproductive state, and this milieu may mask circadian rhythms.
Lactation Biology (M1)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:00 t82293 Watch 54 Mammary gland transcriptome profiling reveals an abundance of transcripts for cell maintenance and protein turnover. 3 L. Beckett   L. Beckett1, J. Thimmapuram1, S. Xie1, T. Casey1, S. S. Donkin1 1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Identifying gene networks that support milk synthesis is critical to understanding mechanisms that control efficient milk production and response to nutrient supply. The objective of this study was to analyze the coding mammary transcriptome in early lactation cows across magnitudes of normalized RNA-seq read counts as a relative indicator of their importance in supporting milk synthesis. Forty-five mL of milk was collected from multiparous cows (n = 6; DIM 68 ± 3 d) following 2 treatment periods of a post-ruminal lysine infusion of 0 and 63 g/d for 10 d, which was part of a larger study. Total RNA was isolated (n = 12 samples), libraries prepared, and paired end reads were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. Of the total reads (236M ± 39M), 79% mapped to the ENSEMBL bovine genome. EBseq analysis found no significant effect of lysine infusion on the transcriptome, therefore, reads were averaged across both treatments. Gene transcripts (12,730) with a normalized read count mean ≥ 5 were divided into 9 categories by magnitude of read counts (Table 1) for functional annotation analysis. The 13 most abundant transcripts were casein and whey proteins, regulators of milk fat synthesis and secretion, a ubiquitinating protein, and a tRNA transporter and together accounted for 67% of the 23M coding reads. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed mTOR, JAK/STAT, PPARα, and ubiquitin proteasome pathways were enriched with reads ≥ 200. Genes with < 200 reads corresponded to tissue homeostasis and immune response. Some of the most abundant genes corresponded to maintenance of translation, protein turnover, and amino acid recycling suggesting their importance in supporting mammary function and milk synthesis. Table 1. Magnitude of read count categories for functional annotation analysis
Magnitude of normalized read counts No. of Genes % Reads Ontological category
≥50k 13 67 Milk protein
<50k to ≥5k 147 6.9 Translation
<5k to ≥1k 813 6.6 Glycolysis
<1k to ≥500 1,225 3.7 Proteasome
<500 to ≥200 2,850 4.0 Ubiquitin
<200 to ≥100 2,314 1.5 Mitochondria
<100 to ≥50 1,858 0.6 DNA repair
<50 to ≥10 2,761 0.3 Immune response
<10 to ≥5 749 0.023 Complement cascades
<5 3,803 9.4
Total 16,533 100  
Lactation Biology (M1)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:00 t82082 Watch 55 Elevated circulating serotonin alters calcium metabolism in mid-late lactation dairy cows. 4 M. K. Connelly serotonin calcium M. K. Connelly1, H. P. Fricke1, J. Kuehnl1, M. Klister1, L. L. Hernandez1 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI Serotonin is an evolutionary conserved monoamine that modulates a variety of physiological functions. Of interest in the dairy cow is serotonin’s action on calcium homeostasis due to the increased calcium demand that occurs during lactation. Understanding serotonin’s mechanism, specifically at the level of the mammary gland, is critical to understanding the role of serotonin during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how intravenous infusion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in mid-late lactation dairy cows altered calcium metabolism. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity in a randomized complete block design. Cows were intravenously infused daily at a constant rate with (1) 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP (n = 6) or (2) 0.9% saline (n = 6) for 3 consecutive days with sampling through 24h post termination of final infusion. Baseline mammary biopsies, blood and milk samples were taken one day before initiation of treatment. Additional mammary biopsies and blood samples were collected at 0, 8, and 24h post final intravenous treatment. Mammary tissues were analyzed via qPCR to evaluate calcium metabolism genes. Milk samples were taken each morning before infusion and the morning following final infusion. Circulating serotonin increased in 5-HTP infused cows (P = 0.03), while circulating calcium concentrations were decreased (P = 0.03) relative to control cows. Relative expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and calcium release-activated channel protein 1 were upregulated in 5-HTP treated cows when compared with control cows (P = 0.118 and P = 0.116, respectively). Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased (P = 0.01) milk serotonin concentrations on d 4 and increased milk calcium concentration (P = 0.03) on d 3 of the experiment. Eight hours after final intravenous treatment, relative expression of parathyroid hormone-related peptide was increased (P = 0.04) and mammary gland serotonin content tended to be elevated (P = 0.08) relative to control. This supports previous rodent and cow data from our lab on serotonin’s regulation of mammary gland physiology and calcium trafficking.
Lactation Biology (M1)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:00 t81871 Watch 56 Methionine supplementation impacts casein gene expression and cell death in the mammary tissue of lactating dairy goats fed low and adequate net energy supplies. 5 M. Boutinaud dairy goat mammary tissue amino acid supplementation M. Boutinaud1, E. Chanat1, A. Leduc1, S. Wiart1, P. Debournoux1, L. Balhoul2, S. Lemosquet1 1INRAE Agrocampus Ouest, PEGASE, Saint Gilles, France, 2Centre of Expertise and Research in Nutrition, Adisseo France S.A.S, Commentry, France Methionine supplementation is known to modulate milk and protein yields in dairy ruminants. However, the mechanism involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. The cellular and molecular responses in the mammary tissue to methionine (Met) supplementation through HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo) at low (LE) and adequate levels (AE) of NEL were investigated according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement on 48 multiparous Alpine goats at mid lactation, assigned to a randomized block design in 4 groups during 5 weeks. Each goat was genotyped for CSN1S1 gene to balance each group according to the high or low genotypes for CSN1S1 gene. A fixed amount of hay was distributed per group (1.17 Mcal/kg DM) and a fixed amount of concentrates was distributed individually (1.72 vs. 1.83 Mcal/kg DM in LE and AE, respectively). Metabolizable methionine were 1.95 vs. 2.45% of metabolizable protein in unbalanced (LE and AE) vs. balanced (LEMET and AEMET) diets, respectively. Goats (23) were slaughtered after 5 weeks of treatment. Mammary tissues were collected for the analyses of milk protein mRNA levels by real time RT-PCR and apoptosis by immunohistochemistry using TUNEL assay. A variance analysis was performed with genotype, E, Met and E x Met, E x genotype, Met x genotype interactions as fixed effects and for milk, pre-treatment data yields was used as a covariate. Met supplementation increased milk protein yield (+6.5 g/d; P = 0.03). The treatments did no modify LALBA whereas an interaction E x Met (P = 0.001) were observed for both CSN3 and CSN1S1 mRNA levels showing 2-fold increases with Met supplementation in goats fed AE diet. The supplementation of Met reduced by 51% apoptosis rates in the mammary tissue (P < 0.01). Apoptosis rate was correlated with milk yield (−0.48; P < 0.05). These results suggest that Met increased casein gene expression at AE level and reduced cell death which could partly explain the positive effect of Met supplementation on milk synthesis in the goat mammary tissue.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M1)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:00 t82576 Watch 57 Effects of exposure to heat stress during late gestation on the daily time budget of nulliparous Holstein heifers. 1 I. M. Toledo heat stress late gestation behavioral activity I. M. Toledo1, V. Ouellet1, B. D. Davidson1, G. E. Dahl1, J. Laporta1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Exposure of dairy cows to heat stress negatively affects cow welfare and performance during all the phases of the lactation cycle. Negative effects include decreased milk yield, reduced immune status during the transition period, and altered natural behavior. While we understand heat stress responses in cows, one question that has yet to be answered is how late gestation heat stress affects the daily time budget of pregnant heifers. Automated monitoring devices (Nedap, Netherlands) were used to document the behavioral activity of heifers during pre- (final 60 d of gestation) and postpartum (first 60 d of lactation) periods. Twenty-five pregnant Holstein heifers were housed in a freestall barns and enrolled to heat stress (HT; shade; n = 13) or cooling (CL; shade, soakers and fans; n = 12) treatments prepartum. All heifers were cooled postpartum. Heifers received a leg tag, which measured daily lying time, number of steps, and standing bouts, and a neck tag which measured eating and rumination times. Heat stressed heifers tended to spend more time eating (224 vs 183 min/d; P = 0.07) and less time ruminating (465 vs 518min/d; P = 0.05) during the prepartum period compared with CL, but DMI did not differ. During the postpartum period, HT spent more time eating (209 vs 180 min/d; P < 0.05) during wk 1 to 4 of lactation, but no differences in rumination was observed (P = 0.85). Lying time was reduced (P = 0.01) by 59 and 88 min during weeks −7 and −6 prepartum and 84 and 50 min (P = 0.05) during wk 2 and 3 postpartum in HT. The number of steps was greater for HT during the postpartum period, from wk 2 to 9 (3038 vs 2653 steps/d; P = 0.02). Eating frequency was similar during pre- and postpartum (P < 0.67), however, HT had larger meals at night during the pre and postpartum periods compared with CL heifers. In summary, exposure to heat stress during late gestation affects the daily time budget of first lactation heifers during both the pre and postpartum periods. Insights onto heat stress effects in heifers may contribute to the development of more effective management strategies to mitigate heat load.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M1)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:00 t82685 Watch 58 Metabolic and productive characteristics of sensitive and heat-tolerant phenotypes in dairy sheep. 2 A. A. K. Salama heat tolerance metabolic indicators dairy sheep B. Chaalia1, S. Serhan1, S. Gonzalez-Luna1, X. Such1, A. A. K. Salama1, G. Caja1 1Research Group in Ruminants (G2R), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain The objective was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) on Manchega dairy ewes differing in their phenotypical heat tolerance. Dairy ewes (n = 24) in late-lactation (158 ± 5 DIM) were submitted to a short-term (2 h) heat challenge (36°C, 43% humidity) in a temperature-controlled room. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were recorded, and the ewes were classed by the RT and RR change ratio (CR = after/before HS). The CR values distributed normally and averaged 5.15 ± 0.22. Ten ewes differing in CR (Tolerant: A, 4.61 ± 0.24, n = 5; Sensitive: B, 5.69 ± 0.14, n = 5; P < 0.01) with similar milk yield were used in a crossover design of 2 periods (3 wk each) and 2 climatic conditions: 1) thermo-neutral (TN; 15 to 20°C day-night), and 2) HS (day, 37°C; night, 30°C). Humidity (50%) and dark-light (12–12 h) were constant. RT and RR, milk yield, and feed and water intakes were recorded daily. Milk and blood samples were collected and analyzed weekly. At d 19 of each period, ewes were submitted to glucose tolerance test (GTT; 0.25 g/kg BW) with blood samples collected at 10 time points (min ?15 to 120) for the analysis of glucose and insulin. Compared with TN, HS ewes experienced increased (P < 0.001) RT (+0.54°C), RR (+177%), water consumption (+35%), whereas feed intake decreased (−20%; P < 0.001). Milk yield (0.63 ± 0.05 kg/d) did not vary between treatments, but milk fat and milk protein contents decreased (P < 0.01) 14 and 17%, respectively in HS. The TN and HS ewes had similar blood glucose, insulin and NEFA, but HS had greater prolactin and creatinine values (+415 and 10%, respectively; P < 0.01). No differences were detected in RT, RR, feed intake, water consumption, milk yield, or milk composition between A and B phenotypes. Compared with TN, HS ewes had a similar insulin response to GTT (P > 0.10), but numerically greater (P = 0.17 to 0.19) glucose disposal. The A ewes under HS tended to have greater insulin secretion during GTT, but similar glucose disposal compared with B ewes. In conclusion, Manchega dairy ewes in were relatively tolerant to HS conditions, with few differences between A and B heat tolerance phenotypes.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M1)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:00 t82570 Watch 59 Pasture housing increases heat stress in late pregnant heifers: Management challenges for productivity and health. 3 I. M. Toledo lying time eating time behavioral activity I. M. Toledo1, B. D. Davidson1, V. Ouellet1, G. E. Dahl1, J. Laporta1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Exposure of dairy cows to heat stress during late gestation negatively impacts productivity and efficiency. Whereas cooling of dry cows is well accepted, late gestation heifers are often exposed to pasture management and thus heat stress. A better understanding of how heat stress affects the daily time budget of late gestation dairy heifers may aid in the management of these animals in adverse environmental conditions. Holstein heifers were either housed on pasture (PA; n = 6) or in a freestall barn and enrolled to heat stress (HT; shade; n = 6) or cooling (CL; shade, soakers and fans; n = 5) treatments. Automated monitoring devices (Nedap, Netherlands) were used to document behavioral activity. Heifers received a leg tag to measure daily lying time, number of steps and standing bouts and a neck tag to measure eating and rumination time. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and black globe temperature (BG) were recorded. Respiration rates (RR; breaths per min, bpm) were recorded thrice weekly for all groups. Average THI was 78 and BG was 29°C during the study period. RR were greater (P < 0.01) in PA and HT (96 and 61 bpm) compared with CL (48 bpm). Pasture heifers spent more time eating relative to HT and CL (270 ± 16.3 vs 163 ± 16.30 and 158 ± 18.0 min/d; P < 0.01) Rumination time was lower in PA compared with CL (357 ± 21.3 vs 438 ± 23.4 min/d; P = 0.05), but no difference was observed between PA and HT (P = 0.48). Pasture heifers spent less time lying down compared with CL and HT (582 ± 26.0 vs 837 ± 28.0 and 784 ± 24.2 min/d; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the number of steps was greater for PA compared with CL and HT heifers (5097 ± 184 vs 2060 ± 200 and 2159 ± 179 steps; P < 0.01). No difference in standing bouts was observed among the groups. In summary, exposure to heat stress during late gestation affects the daily time budget of pregnant heifers, especially if they are housed in pasture conditions. Insights onto heat stress effects on the daily time budget of late gestation heifers may contribute to the development of more effective management strategies to decrease the negative effects of heat exposure.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M1)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:00 t81790 Watch 60 Methods for assessing chronic heat stress in dairy calves in a subtropical environment. 4 V. Ouellet hyperthermia correlation threshold V. Ouellet1, B. Dado-Senn1, G. E. Dahl1, J. Laporta1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Dairy calves are susceptible to heat stress as demonstrated by elevated physiological responses and reduced feed intake measured under high temperature and humidity. Yet methods to assess chronic heat stress have not been well-characterized in calves. Objectives were to evaluate the relationship between common environmental and animal-based indicators of heat stress in calves exposed to chronic heat stress or continuous cooling in a subtropical climate. Further, segmented regressions were performed to detect temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds at which a change in physiological response was observed. Holstein calves were exposed to heat stress (HT, shade of barn, n = 24) or cooling (CL, shade of barn plus 2 fans, one at the calf level and one oscillating ~2 m above the ground; n = 24) from 2 to 42 d of age. Environmental (ambient temperature, humidity, THI, and wind speed) and animal-based (respiration and heart rate, RR, HR; rectal and skin temperature, RT, ST) indicators were recorded thrice daily whereas milk replacer and grain intake (MI, GI) were recorded daily from 15 to 42d of age. In both treatments, there was a positive correlation between most of the animal-based indicators and ambient temperature and THI, with the highest correlation obtained with ST (r ≥0.72). Adding environmental indicators to regression equations to model animal-based indicators greatly improved the r2 of the equations. Among all environmental indicators, THI obtained the highest r2 when predicting rump ST (r2 ≥ 0.92). Segmented regression indicated that THI breakpoints at which RT and RR begin to rise and MI started to decrease under chronic heat stress were 67, 65, and 82 for RT, RR and MI respectively. Cooled calves had a threshold of 69 for RR but no breakpoints were identified for RT or MI, and ST variables in either treatment. In summary, our results suggest that ST is the optimal animal-based indicator to quantify heat load and THI is the best environmental indicator of heat stress in calves in a subtropical environment. At a practical level, heat mitigation should be applied when THI reaches 65 if calves are exposed to chronic heat stress.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M1)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:00 t82091 Watch 61 Estimation of daily maximum temperature-humidity index thresholds affecting milk traits in Italian Brown Swiss. 5 A. Maggiolino heat stress temperature-humidity index (THI) Brown Swiss A. Maggiolino1, G. Dahl2, N. Bartolomeo3, A. Rossoni4, P. De Palo1 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari “A. Moro,” Bari, Italy,, 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari “A. Moro,” Bari, Italy,, 4Italian Brown Swiss Breeders Association, Verona, Italy It is known that heat stress affects dairy cows’ production and reproduction affecting both physiological and behavioral patterns. The aim of the work was to detect the temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds, from the day of test-day sampling until 15 d before, for multiple milk production traits in Italian Brown Swiss dairy cows. A 10-yr data set (2009 – 2018) of test-day records was used. After the editing according to different criteria, the final set provided 202,776 test-day records of 23,296 Brown Swiss cows. All data were matched with the maximum daily THI calculated by temperature and humidity hourly recorded. First, a mixed linear model was fitted to obtain least squares estimates of THI effect on production traits. In a second set of analyses, the solutions for the THI class per parity class effect in the first model were used as the dependent variables to estimate change points in the relationship between production parameters and heat load, applying a 2-phase regression analysis. Results showed that there were no THI thresholds for milk yield in Brown Swiss, in all parities categories. On the contrary, FCM was affected by heat stress with average THI thresholds over 75. Protein yield and cheese production were affected by heat stress with average THI over 74. Brown Swiss showed higher thermal tolerance aptitude than Holstein cows. Heat stress negatively affect cow’s performance, although in Brow Swiss it occurs at daily maximum THI higher 2 to 3 points more than Holstein cows. The lack of fitting of the 2-phase regression model on milk yield in Brown Swiss highlights a different metabolic pathway of this breed than Holstein during heath stress. With the raise of THI, Brown Swiss cows tended to produce the same amount of milk, but with a decreasing quality, mainly for protein yield, and then with a significant effect on cheese yield, the most important use of this milk. Further studies are necessary to estimate the heat tolerance genetic component that could and should be included in the selection procedures.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t82667 Watch 62 Meta-analysis to quantify the effect of chromium supplementation on production in dairy cows and how it is affected by Cr source and stage of lactation. 1 Y. Roman-Garcia chromium Y. Roman-Garcia1, D. Kleinschmit2, L. Moraes1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN The objective was to quantify the effect of Cr supplementation on production and how the effect changes based on Cr source and stage of lactation. A meta-analysis was performed with data from 28 studies and 93 treatment means from experiments testing the supplementation of Cr starting in the dry period (n = 38) and during lactation. Studies utilized Cr as Cr-Picolinate, Cr-Yeast, Cr-Chelate, Cr-Methionine, or Cr-Propionate. Using the metaphor package in the R software, we modeled the mean difference between the experimental (cows receiving Cr) and control groups. Response variables were milk yield (MY; kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; kg/d), and dry matter intake (DMI; kg/d). Difference in MY had a quadratic response to Cr supplementation expressed in mg/d and a quadratic response to days in milk (DIM). The model ΔMY = –4.65 (±1.85) + 0.640 (±0.264) × Cr – 0.0477 (±0.0173) × Cr2+ 0.0949 (±0.0318) × DIM – 0.0005 (±0.0002) × DIM2 suggest supplementation of Cr is maximized at 6.7 mg and when cows are at 95 DIM. Maximum increase in MY is 2 kg/d and then continues at a decreasing rate up to 13 mg of Cr and in cows up to 156 DIM. Using Cr-methionine further increases MY by 2 kg/d but there was no difference with other sources of Cr. With the model for ΔECM = –4.21 (±1.65) + 0.697 (±0.216) × Cr – 0.0510 (±0.0142) × Cr2 + 0.0843 (±0.0310) × DIM – 0.0004 (±0.0004) × DIM2 supplementation of 6.8 mg of Cr to cows up to 105 DIM is suggested for a maximum increase of 2.6 kg/d of ECM. Increase in ECM was not affected by Cr source. model ΔDMI = –3.19 (±0.76) + 0.214 (±0.099) × Cr – 0.0113 (±0.0066) × Cr2 + 0.0607 (±0.0145) × DIM – 0.0003 (±0.0003) × DIM2 suggest a dose of 9.5 mg of Cr up to 101 DIM to maximize DMI by 0.9 kg/d. DMI is increased another 2.9, 2.5, and 1 kg/d by Cr-Yeast, Cr-Methionine and Cr-Propionate respectively. Overall, the effect of Cr supplementation is affected by stage of lactation and Cr source. With these models and the cost of the different Cr products we can predict what stage of lactation, Cr amount, and sources would be most effective and give a recommendation that would maximize profits.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t82762 Watch 63 Effect of supplementary source of selenium on animal performance during intramammary endotoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows. 2 K. M. Cruickshank trace mineral immunity nutrition K. M. Cruickshank1, B. Hatew2, E. S. Ribeiro1, M. A. Steele1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada The objective of this experiment was to determine how source of supplementary selenium (Se) affects animal performance during an intramammary endotoxin challenge. Twenty mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows (591 ± 46 kg BW) were blocked by days in milk (157 ± 17 DIM) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) 0.30 ppm (100% NRC requirements on a dry matter basis) of supplementary organic (selenized yeast) Se premix, or; 2) 0.30 ppm of supplementary inorganic (sodium selenite) Se premix, top dressed and mixed into a basal ration that was fed once daily. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were recorded daily. Following a 75-d dietary adaptation period, cows received an intramammary infusion of 50 µg of lipopolysaccharides (LPS; Escherichia coli strain O111:B4) diluted in 10 mL of sterile saline in one front quarter. Rectal temperatures were recorded at −1.5, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 48 h. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS. Statistical models included the fixed effects of treatment, time, and their interaction, and the random effects of block and cow nested within treatment. During the adaptation period, average daily DMI (23.54 ± 0.483 kg) and milk production (34.97 ± 1.730 kg) were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Results revealed no treatment differences in daily milk production and DMI during the LPS challenge, although there was a time effect for all parameters (P < 0.001). There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for inorganic cows to have higher DMI in the 12 h following LPS infusions. Cows experienced a significant (P < 0.001) change in body temperature during the day of LPS infusions, with a peak temperature occurring 6 h following infusions (40.59 ± 0.107°C), with no differences between treatments. These results indicate that animal performance during immune challenge is minimally affected by source of supplementary Se. Further analysis is required to determine antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in cows supplemented with differing sources of Se.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t82928 Watch 64 Impact of supplementary trace mineral source on health and reproduction in lactating dairy cows. 3 B. Mion trace minerals health reproduction B. Mion1, J. F. W. Spricigo1, K. King1, L. Ogilvie1, O. Chiu1, L. Lobe1, B. Van Winters1, E. Merry1, S. LeBlanc2, M. A. Steele1, B. W. McBride1, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of supplementary trace minerals source, inorganic (ITM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn sulfates and sodium selenite) or organic (OTM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn proteinates and Se yeast; Bioplex Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc.), fed at 100% of recommended levels, on the incidence of clinical disease and the intervals from calving to resumption of estrous cyclicity and to first AI. Heifers and cows (n = 240) were enrolled at 45 ± 3 d before expected calving date, blocked by parity and BCS, and allocated randomly to ITM or OTM supplementation. Automatic feeding gates were used to assign treatments to individual cows through 150 DIM. After calving, diagnoses of clinical diseases were performed by the research team and farm personnel. Starting on d 21 ± 3, ovarian structures were examined weekly by ultrasonography to determine the first appearance of a corpus luteum. Cows received injections of PGF2? on d 42 ± 3 and 56 ± 3, and estrus behavior was evaluated using activity monitors. Continuous data were analyzed by ANOVA and binary data were analyzed by logistic regression using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Statistical models included the effects of treatment, parity, season, and their interactions. P values < 0.05 were considered statistical difference and P values < 0.1 were considered tendency. Analyses of data from 209 cows indicated that fewer cows in OTM group tended to have postpartum diseases than cows in ITM (ITM = 26.5 vs. OTM = 14.6%; P = 0.07). Cows in OTM group resumed postpartum estrous cyclicity earlier than cows in the ITM group (ITM = 5.3 ± 0.2 vs. OTM = 4.7 ± 0.2 wk; P = 0.04). OTM had a greater proportion of estrous cyclic cows than ITM in wk 4 (ITM = 39.2 vs. OTM 55.7%, P = 0.03) and 5 (ITM = 56.4 vs. OTM = 75.0%, P = 0.01), but not wk 6 (INO = 78.1 vs. OTM = 88.2%, P = 0.09) and later. No differences between treatments were observed in proportion of cows detected in estrus after the second PGF (ITM = 65.2 vs. OTM = 64.6%, P = 0.94) or the interval from calving to first AI (ITM = 63.2 ± 0.9 vs. OTM = 64.4 ± 0.9 d; P = 0.32). Our results indicate that replacement of ITM by OTM in pre- and postpartum diets improved postpartum health and hastened resumption of estrous cyclicity.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t82972 Watch 65 Impact of supplementary trace mineral source on production, feed intake and efficiency, metabolism, and rumen parameters in dairy cows. 4 B. Mion trace minerals feed intake milk production B. Mion1, J. F. W. Spricigo1, E. Cran1, L. Ogilvie1, K. King1, S. Anan1, D. Stratas1, B. Smith1, Y. Chen2, L. L. Guan2, T. J. DeVries1, S. J. LeBlanc3, M. A. Steele1, B. W. McBride1, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph. ON, Canada, 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of supplementary trace minerals source, inorganic (ITM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn sulfates and sodium selenite) or organic (OTM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn proteinates and Se yeast; Bioplex Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc.), fed at 100% of recommended levels, on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), gross feed efficiency, blood metabolites, rumen fluid pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and rumination activity. Heifers and cows (n = 240) were enrolled at 45 ± 3d before expected calving date, blocked by parity and BCS, and allocated randomly to ITM or OTM treatments. Cows in both groups were fed the same diet, except for the source of supplemental TM, using automatic feeding gates to assign treatments to individual cows, which were fed until 150 DIM. Blood was collected on d −4, 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 23, and 65 relative to calving. Cows were fitted with a neck-based collar to measure rumination activity, and ruminal fluid was collected on d −21, 23 and 65 ± 3 relative to calving. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Statistical models included the effects of treatment, parity, season, time, and their interactions. For repeated measures, data were summarized weekly and cow nested within treatment was considered a random term. Analyses of data from 145 cows indicated differences in prepartum DMI (ITM = 12.3 ± 0.3 vs. OTM = 13.1 ± 0.3 kg/d; P = 0.04). Cows in OTM group had reduced concentration of NEFA (ITM = 0.55 ± 0.02 vs. OTM = 0.48 ± 0.02 mmol/L; P < 0.01), and greater concentration of albumin (ITM = 35.29 ± 0.21 vs. OTM = 35.89 ± 0.21 g/L; P = 0.04) in serum compared with cows in ITM group. Cows in OTM tended to have greater concentration of butyric acid (ITM = 9.4 ± 0.5 vs. OTM = 10.7 ± 0.5 µmol/mL; P = 0.06), valeric acid (ITM = 1.5 ± 0.07 vs. OTM = 1.7 ± 0.07 µmol/mL; P = 0.06) and total VFA (ITM = 96.5 ± 2.7 vs. OTM = 102.7 ± 2.7 µmol/mL; P = 0.10) in ruminal fluid on d 23 than cows in ITM. Cows in ITM spent more time ruminating during the prepartum (ITM = 480 ± 13 vs. OTM = 442 ± 13 min/d; P = 0.04) and postpartum periods (ITM = 468 ± 11 vs. OTM = 430 ± 11 min/d; P = 0.01. Postpartum DMI, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, protein, and fat, gross feed efficiency, and ruminal fluid pH did not differ between treatment (P > 0.1). Our results indicate that replacement of inorganic sources of supplementary TM by organic sources affects prepartum feed intake and rumen parameters, and slightly improve the postpartum metabolism of dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t82985 Watch 66 Controlled trial of the effect of negative dietary cation-anion difference on postpartum health and culling of dairy cows. 5 R. Couto Serrenho milk fever transition cow nutrition R. Couto Serrenho1, T. C. Bruinje1, E. I. Morrison1, T. J. DeVries2, T. F. Duffield1, S. J. LeBlanc1 1Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a negative dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) dry cow diet on postpartum health and culling. Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms in Ontario, Canada were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial from November 2017 to April 2019. Close-up pens (1 per farm) with cows 3 wk before expected calving were randomly assigned to a negative DCAD (TRT; −100 mEq/kg DM; target urine pH 6.0–6.5) or a control diet (CON; +95 mEq/kg DM with a placebo supplement). Each pen was fed TRT or CON for 3 mo (one period) then switched to the other treatment for the next period, with 4 periods per farm. Body condition score (BCS) was measured at enrollment and urine pH was measured weekly until calving. Data from 1086 animals (TRT: n = 681; CON: n = 405) that received the assigned diet for >2 wk were included. The incidence of milk fever (MF), retained placenta (RP), metritis, ketosis (blood BHB >1.2 mmol/L, measured weekly in wk 1 and 2), clinical mastitis <30 DIM (CM), displaced abomasum (DA), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD, assessed once at wk 5), ≥ 1 disease (DIS) or culling by 35 DIM were analyzed with logistic regression models with treatment, parity, BCS, and their interactions, accounting for pen-level randomization and clustering of animals within farm with random effects. There were no interactions of treatment with parity or BCS for any outcome. There were only 43 cases of MF, allowing only univariable analysis. The incidence of MF was 5 ± 3% in CON and 1 ± 1% in TRT (P = 0.18). There were no treatment effects (CON vs TRT, LSM ± SE) on RP (7 ± 3%; 6 ± 2%; P = 0.71), metritis (11 vs 12%; SE = 4; P = 0.83), ketosis (21 vs 23%; SE = 4; P = 0.59, PVD (13 vs 12%; SE = 3; P = 0.51), or DIS (44 vs 41%; SE = 7; P = 0.41). Cows fed TRT had lesser incidence of CM (4 vs 2%; SE = 1, P = 0.09) and DA (3 vs 1%; SE = 1, P = 0.05). Culling <35 DIM tended to be greater in CON (7 ± 2%) than TRT (5 ± 1%, P = 0.11). Under commercial herd conditions, a negative DCAD fed 3 wk before parturition improved some but not all health outcomes assessed.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M1)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:00 t83060 Watch 67 Impact of supplementary trace mineral source on immune cell function of dairy cows and its association with postpartum diseases. 6 L. Ogilvie trace minerals immunity health L. Ogilvie1, J. F. W. Spricigo1, B. Mion1, B. Van Winters1, M. A. Steele1, B. W. McBride1, S. J. LeBlanc2, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of supplementary trace minerals source, inorganic (ITM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn sulfates and sodium selenite) or organic (OTM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn proteinates and Se yeast; Bioplex Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc.), fed at 100% of recommended levels, on neutrophil function in vitro and their association with postpartum disease. Heifers and cows (n = 240) were enrolled at 45 ± 3 d before expected calving date, blocked by parity and BCS, and allocated randomly to ITM or OTM supplementation. Cows in both treatments were fed the same diet, except for the source of supplementary TM. Automatic feeding gates were used to assign treatments to individual cows. Blood was collected on days −10 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 relative to calving in a subgroup of cows (n = 104) to measure neutrophil phagocytic capacity in vitro using fluorescence-labeled beads and flow cytometry. Diagnoses of clinical diseases were performed by the research team and farm personnel. To evaluate the association of in vitro assay responses with the incidence of postpartum disease, cows were categorized as low response (below median) or high response (above median). Continuous data were analyzed by ANOVA and binary data were analyzed by logistic regression using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Statistical models included the fixed effects of treatment, parity, season, and their interactions. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.60) the percentage of neutrophils performing phagocytosis on d −10 or 7, which averaged 24.6 and 23.9% respectively. However, the mean fluorescence intensity of phagocytosis on d 7 was greater for OTM than ITM (SQRT scale: 91 vs. 85 ± 1.8, respectively; P = 0.03). Cows classified as low prepartum phagocytosis intensity tended to have greater incidence of postpartum diseases (low = 33.3 vs. high = 15.3%; P = 0.06). In conclusion, replacement of inorganic sources of supplementary TM by organic sources modestly improved one measure of phagocytic capacity of neutrophils in vitro. In addition, phagocytosis intensity response of our in vitro assay was negatively associated with incidence of postpartum diseases.
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t81779 Watch 68 Relationship between nutrient metabolism during the periparturient period and health measures in a Pacific Northwest dairy herd. 1 C. Y. Tsai lipid-soluble vitamin health status dairy cow C. Y. Tsai1, H. H. Hung1, T. Weber1, W. J. Price2, P. Rezamand1 1Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Statistical Programs, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID During the periparturient period, dairy cows mobilize stored nutrients to support fetal development and milk production. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the serum lipid-soluble vitamins of dairy cows and calves with health status of the cows during the periparturient period. Blood samples of cows were obtained from early Spring to Winter of 2018 for a total of 645 periparturient cows on d −21, d −7, d 1, d 7 and d 14 relative to calving. Blood samples of calves were obtained (n = 459) within the first 4 d of life. Sera were analyzed for lipid-soluble vitamins (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol) via HPLC. Health records were categorized based on the occurrence of postpartum diseases (lameness, mastitis, pneumonia). The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and correlations in SAS with significance declared at P ≤ 0.05 and tendency when P < 0.1. Results showed that cows with mastitis had greater serum retinol compared with that of healthy cows postpartum (P < 0.01). There was some evidence of a serum α-tocopherol time × mastitis interaction (P = 0.08). There was a significant interaction between the time relative to calving and season on serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentration regardless of health status (P < 0.001). For mastitic cows, there were negative correlations for serum retinol and β-carotene between cows and calves on d 14 postpartum. In addition, negative correlations were observed between cows and calves for lameness (β-carotene) and pneumonia (α-tocopherol) on d 14 postpartum. In summary, disease affects the lipid soluble vitamins status of periparturient cows, and consequently calves may experience health issues.
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t82639 Watch 69 Hepatic differential gene expression of cows clustered by postpartum metabolites: A model for susceptibility to lipid-related metabolic disorders. 2 R. Pralle ketosis fatty liver RNAseq R. Pralle1, W. Li2, H. White1 1Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2Cell Wall Biology and Utilization Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Madison, WI We propose that cows developing metabolic disorders (MD) in the absence of induction, compared with those that do not, represent groups of MD susceptibility. Our study objectives were to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) and enriched metabolic pathways (EMP) associated with susceptibility to MD. From a larger multiparous transition cow study, the control treatment (n = 13) was clustered (K-means, R, v. 3.5.2) based on postpartum blood fatty acid, BHB, and liver triglyceride concentrations. Metabolite means within the largest 2 clusters revealed one cluster with a preferable low metabolite concentration profile (less susceptible, LS) and a cluster with disfavorably greater metabolite concentrations (MD susceptible, MS). From each cluster, 3 cows were selected for whole transcriptome RNaseq of liver tissue collected at +1 and +14 d relative to calving (DRTC). Alignment of reads to the Bos taurus genome, DEG analysis between LS and MS clusters within DRTC, and EMP analysis were done using STAR (v.2.5.2b), Cufflinks (Cuffdiff, v.2.2.1), and DAVID (v.6.8), respectively. DEG and EMP were considered significant and tendencies when P ≤ 0.05 and 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10, respectively, after FDR-adjustment. Within +1 DRTC, 102 significant and 35 DEG tendencies were observed. Unique genes with an absolute fold change (FC) > 5.2 were REC8, IFI6, and IFI27. There were 175 significant and 48 DEG tendencies on +14 DRTC; unique genes (FC > 8) included MEDAG, FABP4, HP, and SAA2. Between DRTC, 44 DEG with P ≤ 0.10 were shared, including ULBP27, SFRP2, and PDYN. Unique +1 DRTC EMP included protein processing by the endoplasmic reticulum, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, and phagosome. Protein digestion and absorption, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, and PPAR signaling pathway were unique EMP to +14 DRTC. Four EMP were shared between DRTC including glutathione metabolism and cytochrome P450 metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. These results suggest hepatic transcriptome features of MD susceptibility relate to immunity, inflammation, regulation of lipid metabolism, and P450-mediated metabolism.
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t83173 Watch 70 Effect of metabolic and digestive disorders on patterns of behavioral, physiological, and performance parameters of lactating dairy cows. 3 M. M. Perez sensor disease dairy cow M. M. Perez1, E. M. Cabrera1, C. Rial1, D. V. Nydam2, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to characterize the pattern of multiple behavioral, physiological, and performance parameters collected by sensors in Holstein cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis (KET) and indigestion (IND). Sensor parameters included activity (ACT), resting (RET), rumination (RUM) and eating (EAT) behavior, reticulo-rumen temperature (TEMP), milk production (MILK), milk components (FAT; PROT = protein), milk conductivity (CON), and BW. Cows were clinically examined daily until 28 DIM. Sensor data from d −7 to 7 relative to clinical diagnosis was compared for cows with DA (DAO = 5) or KET and IND only (K-IO = 67), cows with DA or KET and IND plus another disorder during the 15 d period (DA+ = 40, K-I+ = 86), and cows with no clinical signs of disease (NCD n = 824). Data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements with group, time, and their interaction, and lactation (1, 2, 3+) as fixed effects. Cow within group was a random effect and the subject of repeated measures. Cows in DAO, DA+, K-IO and K-I+ had lesser (P < 0.01) RUM (d −7 to 7 for DA+ and K-I+, d −7 to −6 for DAO and K-IO), lesser (P < 0.01) EAT (d −7 to 7 for DA+, d −6 to 7 for DAO, d −4 to 7 for K-I+ and d −3 to 7 for K-IO), and lesser (P < 0.01) MILK (d −7 to 7 for DAO and DA+, d −7 to 7 for K-I+ and d −6 to 7 for K-IO) than cows in NCD. Compared with cows in NCD, DAO and DA+ had more (P < 0.01) RET from d −7 to 7 and d −4 to −1, respectively but then less (P < 0.01) RET from d 3 to 7. For cows in K-I+ and K-IO RET was less than for cows in NCD from d −4 to 2 and from d −3 to −1, respectively. FAT and FAT:PROT ratio was greater (P < 0.01) for K-IO and KI+ from d −2 to 7. Compared with cows in NCD, FAT and FAT:PROT was greater (P < 0.01) from d −6 to 7 for cows DA+ whereas for cows in DAO it was greater from d −1 to 7 . Cows in DA+ lost more BW than NCD cows from d −3 to −1. TEMP was less (P < 0.01) for cows DAO and DA+ than NCD from d −7 to d 0. We conclude that cows with metabolic and digestive disorders had specific patterns of change in behavioral, physiological and productive parameters monitored by sensors.
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t83049 Watch 71 Antimicrobial resistance in fecal commensal bacteria isolated from dairy cows in California. 4 E. Abdelfattah antimicrobial resistance cattle E. Abdelfattah1, P. Ekong1, E. Okello1,2, T. Chamchoy1, B. Karle3, R. Black4, D. Sheedy1, W. El-Ashmawy1, D. Williams1, D. Califano1, L. Duran1, J. Ongom1, B. Byrne5, T. Lehenbauer1,2, S. Aly1,2 1Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Tulare, CA, 2Department of Population Health & Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 3Cooperative Extension, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Orland, CA, 4Cooperative Extension, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Santa Rosa, CA, 5Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA The objective of study was to describe antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from adult cows, following the implementation of Senate Bill 27. The 10 study dairies were distributed across California’s 3 milk sheds: Northern CA (NCA), Northern San Joaquin Valley (NSJV) and the Greater Southern California (GSCA). Individual cow fecal samples were collected monthly from pre-partum to 120 d in milk from 2 cohorts each of 12 cows enrolled on each study dairy during the winter and summer. Isolated E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 2,171 E. coli and 2,158 Enterococcus isolates. The proportion of AMR was calculated in Stata with a P-value < 0.05 was the threshold of significance. None of the E. coli isolates and 37.3% of Enterococcus isolates were pan susceptible to all drug classes tested. The E. coli AMR to tilmicosin (99.9%), tylosin (99.8%), tiamulin (98.9%), florfenicol (83.3%) gamithromycin (74.0%), and tildipirosin (20.51%) was common, while E. coli AMR to ampicillin (1.1%), ceftiofur (1.9%), danofloxacin (4.0%), enrofloxacin (3.3%), gentamicin (0.3%), and neomycin (1.6%) was rare. Like E. coli, Enterococcus spp. were highly resistant to tildipirosin (50%), tilmicosin (48%), tiamulin (42%), and florfenicol (46%). In addition, enterococci showed a lower rate of resistance to ampicillin (0.23%), and penicillin (0.20%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes) was observed in 38% of E. coli isolates, and 39% of Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered during the winter season showed higher MDR prevalence compared with the summer isolates (P < 0.01). A higher prevalence of MDR was observed in NSJV and GSCA compared with NCA (P < 0.01). Our findings show high rates of AMR to drugs commonly administered to calves. Conversely, very low resistance was observed for drugs used for adult dairy cows such as cephalosporins, and penicillin. Overall, our findings identified important differences in AMR by antimicrobial classes, region and season.
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t83080 Watch 72 Performance of the machine learning method XGBoost for prediction of clinical health disorders in lactating dairy cows. 5 M. M. Pérez machine-learning disease dairy cow M. M. Pérez1, Y. You2, Y. Wang2, K. Q. Weinberger2, D. V. Nydam3, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 3Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to evaluate the ability of the machine learning method XGBoost to predict the occurrence of different clinical health disorders experienced by lactating dairy cows in early lactation using multiple sensor and non-sensor data. The clinical health status of lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,211) was determined based on daily clinical examination from 1 to 30 DIM. Clinical conditions recorded were: metritis, mastitis, ketosis, indigestion, and displaced abomasum. Cows were considered to have a clinical disorder for all days at which any of these conditions were recorded. Sensor data offered to ML models were: physical activity, resting behavior, reticulo-rumen temperature, rumination, eating behavior, and environmental temperature and humidity from −21 to 30 DIM. After calving data was also available for BW and daily milk volume, conductivity, and components (fat, protein, lactose). Non-sensor data used were: previous health and reproductive events, production records, and stocking density. For each individual (metritis, mastitis) or group of disorders (Met-Dig: ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion) of interest, an XGBoost model was developed using 80% of the data for training and 20% for testing. Performance metrics for models for disorders of interest were estimated (Table 1). Some models (mastitis and Met-Dig) tended to overfit the training data and were not able to generalize to the testing data, likely due to the limited training outcomes and unbalanced ratio of positive to negative outcomes. Machine learning models created using XGBoost had a different performance for predicting different health disorders when offered multiple cow behavioral, physiological, and performance sensor parameters, environmental sensor data, and health, reproductive, and performance records. Table 1. Performance metrics (sensitivity, Se; specificity, Sp) for models of disorders of interest
Disorder Train set   Test set
Se Sp   Se Sp
Mastitis 99.2 96.8   68.7 95.8
Metritis 99.5 90.5   90.0 88.4
Met-Dig 100.0 93.4   75.0 92.1
Animal Health (M2) Transition Cow 2   Animal Health 6/22/2020 12:30 t83077 Watch 73 Performance of different machine learning methods for prediction of the health status of lactating dairy cows. 6 M. M. Pérez prediction disease dairy cow M. M. Pérez1, Y. You2, Y. Wang2, K. Q. Weinberger2, D. V. Nydam3, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 3Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to evaluate the performance of different machine learning methods (ML) to predict the health status of dairy cows based on multiple sensor and non-sensor data. The clinical health status (clinical or no clinical disease) of lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,211) was determined based on daily clinical examination from 1 to 30 DIM. Disorders recorded were: metritis, mastitis, ketosis, indigestion, displaced abomasum, and pneumonia. Cows were considered to have a clinical disorder for all days at which any of these conditions were recorded. Sensor data offered to ML models were: physical activity, resting behavior, reticulo-rumen temperature, rumination, eating behavior, and environmental temperature and humidity from −21 to 30 DIM. After calving data was also available for BW and daily milk volume, conductivity, and components (fat, protein, lactose). Non-sensor data used were: previous health and reproductive events, production records, and pen stocking density. Models created and evaluated using Python included: XGBoost, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Data available was split to use 80% for training and 20% for testing. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for predicting the occurrence of clinical health disorders were estimated. For MLP Se and Sp for the training set were 100% and 98% and for testing set were 43% and 96%. For RNN Se and Sp for the training set were 99% and 67% and for testing set were 70% and 67%. For XGBoost Se and Sp for the training set were 95% and 90% and for testing set were 88% and 88%. Models for MLP and RNN tended to overfit the training data and were not able to generalize to the testing data, likely due to the limited training outcomes and unbalanced ratio of positive to negative outcomes. Thus, some predictive models created with ML methods may be effective for predicting the health status of cows when including multiple cow behavioral, physiological, and performance sensor parameters, environmental sensor data, and health, reproductive, and performance records.
Growth and Development (M2)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:30 t82664 Watch 74 Source of cobalt fed during late pregnancy to Holstein cows affects postnatal calf growth and innate immune function. 1 A. S. Alharthi fetal programming vitamin B12 epigenetics A. S. Alharthi1,2, E. Abdel-Hamied3, H. Dai4, Y. Liang1, V. Lopreiato5, A. A. Elolimy1,6, M. T. Socha7, J. J. Loor1 1Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 2Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3Animal medicine department, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, PR China, 5Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy, 6Department of Animal Production, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 7Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN Maternal nutrition has a key role on fetal growth can program the long-term physiology of the offspring. We investigated effects of feeding 72 multiparous Holstein cows during late-pregnancy with an experimental source of Folic acid (FOA; Zinpro Corp.), 2 Co sources [Co glucoheptonate (Copro) or Co pectin (CoPectin), Zinpro Corp.] and rumen-protected Met (RPM) on calf developmental parameters at birth and through 9-wk of age. Cows were fed a basal diet [1.37 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 14.5% crude protein] and randomly assigned (17–21 per treatment) to Copro, FOA+Copro, FOA+CoPectin, or FOA+CoPectin+RPM. In each FOA group cows received 50 g FOA. Co treatments delivered 1 ppm Co/kg DM. The RPM was fed at 0.09% of DMI to achieve a ratio of 2.8:1 Lys:Met in the MP. Calves received 3.8 L of first-milking colostrum from their dam within 6 h, and were housed in individual outdoor hutches bedded with straw, fed twice daily with a milk replacer, and had ad libitum access to a starter grain mix from birth to weaning at 42 d of age. Body weight, hip and wither height, hip width and body length were measured at birth and weekly through weaning (42 d of age) and until 9 wk of age. The statistical model in SAS 9.4 included treatment, age and their interactions as fixed effects. Preplanned contrasts were FOA vs. no FOA, CoPectin vs. Copro, and RPM vs. no RPM. Metabolite concentrations in plasma indicated no differences over time due to maternal diet in energy metabolism, liver function, or oxidant status. However, blood neutrophil phagocytosis capacity was greater (P = 0.03) in calves born to cows supplemented CoPectin. Although maternal diet did not alter developmental parameters at birth, during the first 9 wk of age calves born to cows supplemented CoPectin had greater (P < 0.05) starter intake and weekly average daily gain. Overall, data indicated that CoPectin supplementation during late-gestation had a positive effect on neonatal calf performance. Whether effects arose from greater availability in utero of vitamin B12 synthesized from Co by rumen microbes remains to be determined.
Growth and Development (M2)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:30 t82546 Watch 75 The development of the fecal microbiome in Holstein dairy calves throughout the weaning transition. 2 M. Hennessy acidified milk calf diarrhea calf weaning M. Hennessy1, B. Vecchiarelli1, N. Indugu1, J. Bender1, C. Pappalardo1, M. Leibstein2, J. Toth1, A. Katepalli3, S. Garapati4, D. Pitta1 1University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center Kennett Square, PA, 2Oceanside High School, Oceanside, NY, 3Northwest High School, Germantown, MD, 4Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA Calf diarrhea is the leading cause of death in pre-weaned calves and causes major economic losses to producers. A better understanding of the development of the microbiome throughout the weaning transition could lead to better treatment and prevention strategies. In this study, fecal samples were obtained from 10 cohabiting female Holstein dairy calves at 6 time points between age 2–4 weeks and age 12–14 weeks. Calves were fed on acidified milk until weaning at about 8 weeks of age and had access to starter grain throughout the course of the study. Fecal samples were extracted for genomic DNA, PCR-amplified for the V1-V2 region of the 16S rDNA bacteria gene, sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and analyzed using the ­­­­QIIME2 pipeline. Bacterial richness, estimated by number of observed species, and bacterial diversity, estimated by Shannon diversity index, both differed significantly between time points and both increased over time (P < 0.05), with the largest increases occurring during the weaning transition. Both weighted and unweighted Unifrac analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between bacterial communities across time points. Throughout the course of the study, Firmicutes was the dominant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes. Seven bacterial genera were found to be significantly influenced by time: Fecalibacterium, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotella, Clostridiales, Sutterella, Lachnospiraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae. Ruminococcaceae was the most prevalent genus at TP1, 3, 5, and 6, Bacteroides was the most prevalent genus at TP2, and Prevotella was the most prevalent genus at TP4. Considerable variation was seen in the proportions of abundant genera between calves as well as between time points; however variations in phylogenetic makeup between individual calves decreased as the calves aged, indicating that cohabitation led the microbiota of individual calves to become more similar with time. Our results indicate that there is considerable flux in the calf microbiome throughout the weaning transition and add to our understanding of the progression of the microbiome during calf development.
Growth and Development (M2)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:30 t82198 Watch 76 Early life indicators of future growth in Holstein dairy heifers. 3 T. S. Steckler autofeeder growth milk consumption T. S. Steckler1, N. Lopez-Villalobos2, J. P. Boerman1 1Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN, 2School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects that early life (from 0 to 60 d of age) has on BW of growing heifers up to 400 d of age. Daily milk consumption, serum total protein, pneumonia and scours incidences, genetic body size, birthweights, and incremental BW were collected on a commercial dairy farm from October 1, 2015 to January 1, 2019. Holstein calves (n = 9,099) were fed whole pasteurized milk with a 5% fat and 30% protein enhancer added at 20 g per L of milk through a Förster-Technik automated calf feeding system (feeders = 8) for 60 d (range 48 – 126d). Calves were weighed at birth and several other times before calving. Average birth weight of calves was 40.6 ± 4.9 kg (mean ± SD), serum total protein was 6.7 ± 0.63 mg/dL, and cumulative 60 d milk consumption was 508.1 ± 67.3 L with a range of 179.9 to 785.1 L. Daily BWs were predicted for individual animals using third order orthogonal polynomial to model growth curves. The linear and quadratic effects of cumulative 60 d milk consumption, birthweight, feeder, year born, season born, respiratory incidence, and genetic body size score were significant (P < 0.0001) when predicting heifer BW at 400 d (pBW400) of age (R2 = 0.31). There was up to a 263 kg difference in pBW400 between the heaviest and lightest animal. Birthweight had a significant effect on predicted weights up to 400 d (P < 0.001), and for every 1 kg increase in birthweight, there was a 2.5 kg increase in pBW400. Quadratic effect of cumulative 60 d milk consumption was significant up to 400 d (P < 0.0001). We divided 60 d milk consumption into quartiles. Heifers had the highest pBW400 in the third quartile, when 60 d consumption was between 507.8 and 552.5 L. Genetic body size showed a 21.5 kg difference in pBW400 between the top and bottom 25th percentile of heifers. Heifers were 4.2 kg lighter at 400 d if treated for respiratory disease 3+ times during the first 60 d of life, compared with heifers not treated for respiratory disease. Early life events continue to influence heifer growth up to 400 d of age.
Growth and Development (M2)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:30 t82283 Watch 77 Maternal body condition during late-pregnancy and its influence on calf development and whole-blood mRNA abundance after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge. 4 M. G. Lopes BCS fetal programming neonatal immunity M. G. Lopes1,2, A. S. Alharthi2,3, Y. Liang2, H. Dai4, V. Lopreiato5, M. N. Corrêa1, J. J. Loor2 1NUPEEC (Núcleo de Pesquisa, Ensino e Extensão em Pecuária), Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 2Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 3Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China, 5Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy Body reserves of dairy cows in late-pregnancy are directly related to energy status and play a key role in the partition of nutrients to the rapidly-growing fetus. We investigated effects of maternal body condition score (BCS) during late-pregnancy on calf development and whole blood mRNA abundance after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Forty-nine multiparous Holstein cows from a larger cohort were retrospectively divided by prepartal BCS into normal BCS ≤3.25 (n = 30; NormBCS) and high BCS ≥3.75 (n = 19; HighBCS) groups. Calf development was assessed through BW, wither and hip height, hip width and body length from birth to 9 wk of age. Blood samples were collected at birth (before receiving colostrum, d 0), and at 21 and 42 (at weaning) days of age for whole blood challenge with 3 µg/mL of LPS before RNA isolation. The statistical model used in SAS 9.4 included BCS, Age and their interactions as fixed effects. A One-Way ANOVA was used to determine differences in body measurements at birth with BCS as fixed effect. Birth BW was lower (P = 0.03) in calves born to HighBCS cows and remained lower (P = 0.04) at 9 wk of age. At birth, whole blood from calves born to HighBCS vs. NormBCS cows had greater (P ≤ 0.03) mRNA abundance of IL1B and GSR coupled with lower GPX1 after LPS challenge. The longitudinal analyses of d 0, 21, and 42 data revealed a BCS x Age effect for GPX1 (P = 0.02) due to lower abundance at birth in blood from calves born to HighBCS vs. NormBCS cows. With the exception of IRAK1, MPO, GSS, and CBS, all genes experienced a decrease (P < 0.01) in abundance over time. Overall, results suggest that BCS in late-prepartum not only influences calf development in utero, but also the abundance of key genes related to cytokine production and antioxidant function in whole blood.
Growth and Development (M2)   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 12:30 t82627 Watch 78 Supplementation with cobalt sources, folic acid, and rumen-protected methionine during late pregnancy in Holstein cows alters whole-blood mRNA abundance after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge in newborn calves. 5 M. G. Lopes epigenetics nutritional programming vitamin B12 M. G. Lopes1,2, A. S. Alharthi2,3, H. Dai4, V. Lopreiato5, E. Abdel-Hamied6, M. N. Corrêa1, M. T. Socha7, J. J. Loor2 1NUPEEC (Núcleo de Pesquisa, Ensino e Extensão em Pecuária), Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 2Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 3Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China, 5Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy, 6Animal Medicine Department, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt, 7Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN An adequate supply of nutrients during fetal life is an important determinant of immunocompetence in the neonatal animal. We investigated effects of supplementing multiparous Holstein cows during the last 30-d of pregnancy with an experimental folic acid source (FOA), 2 Cobalt sources [Co glucoheptonate (Copro) or Co pectin (CoPectin), Zinpro Corp.] and rumen-protected Methionine (RPM) on calf whole blood mRNA abundance after ex vivo LPS challenge. Seventy-two cows individually fed a basal diet [1.37 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.5% CP] were randomly assigned (17–19 per diet) to Copro, FOA+Copro, FOA+CoPectin, or FOA+CoPectin+RPM until 30 d postpartum. Cows in each FOA group received 50 g FOA. Co treatments delivered 1 mg Co/kg DM. The RPM was fed at 0.09% of DM to achieve a ratio of 2.8:1 Lys:Met in the MP. Blood samples were collected at birth (before colostrum), 21 and 42 (weaning) d of age and immediately challenged with 3 µg/mL LPS. Target genes evaluated by RT-PCR are associated with immune response, antioxidant function, and 1-carbon metabolism. The statistical model used in SAS 9.4 included treatment, age and their interactions as fixed effects. Preplanned contrasts were FOA vs. no FOA, CoPectin vs. Copro, and RPM vs. no RPM. Abundance of IRAK1 was the sole gene differentially expressed across all contrasts, a response associated with highest abundance in the FOA+CoPectin+RPM group. In addition to IRAK1, calves born from cows supplemented with FOA had greater (P ≤ 0.05) abundance of BPI and GPX1 coupled with lower SELL. Similarly, calves born from cows supplemented with CoPectin had greater (P ≤ 0.01) IRAK1 and lower (P ≤ 0.04) CXCR1, SELL, and MTR. With the exception of IRAK1, MPO, LYZ, and GSS, all genes experienced a decrease (P < 0.001) in abundance over time. Overall, data suggest that greater maternal supply of nutrients associated with 1-carbon metabolism can modulate important pathways associated with immune response to a pathogen challenge in neonatal calves.
Lactation Biology (M2)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:30 t82087 Watch 79 Laser capture microdissection-seq analysis of local and systemic responses of mammary epithelial cells in cows locally treated with lipopolysaccharide. 1 R. K. Choudhary endotoxin mastitis RNA-sequencing R. K. Choudhary1, A. Spitzer1, T. B. McFadden2, E. M. Shangraw2, R. O. Rodrigues2, F.-Q. Zhao1 1Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 2Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO We aimed to analyze transcriptional changes of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) isolated from bovine mammary glands after intramammary challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ten multiparous cows were used in the study. Five treatment (T) and 5 control (C) cows were paired based on days in milk, milk yield and parity. For T cows, both mammary glands on one side of the udder were infused with LPS (50 µg in 10 mL saline); these glands were designated (TL). The contralateral glands received 10 mL saline and were designated (TS). Likewise, for C cows 2 ipsilateral glands received saline (CS) and the contralateral glands remained uninfused (CU). Mammary tissues were biopsied before (0 h) and at 3 and 12 h post-infusion and processed for laser capture microdissection (LCM). MEC were collected using LCM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to low-put RNA sequencing. Among various comparisons, we found 3167 (TL3 vs. TL0), 670 (TL12 vs. TL0), 2555 (TL3 vs. TS3), and 3823 (TL3 vs. CS3) differentially expressed genes [DEGs; FDR < 0.05, Log2 (fold change) ≥ 1]. The major local responses of MEC in TL glands at 3h included upregulation of ribosome biogenesis, innate immunity and KEGG pathways of TNF, NOD-like receptor and NFKB signaling. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed activation of TNFR2, PI3/AKT, iNOS and acute phase protein response. Upstream regulators of these pathways predicted invasion of cell, chemotaxis and cell migration, and showed activated HIF1A network. Downregulated genes included network of carbohydrate metabolism, PPAR fatty acid biosynthesis, and several ionic transporters. Major systemic responses of MEC in TS glands showed weak cell mediated immune response, lymphocyte activation, and cytokine production responses. Ingenuity pathway analysis of systemic response genes at 3 h showed p53 senescence pathway with activated upstream regulators as NFKB and TNFA. These results of comprehensive transcriptome profiling of MEC may explain gene regulation of local and systemic responses of MEC during E. coli mastitis.
Lactation Biology (M2)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:30 t82738 Watch 80 Sialylated oligosaccharide and sialic acid profile of colostrum, transition milk, and whole milk in primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cattle. 2 A. J. Fischer-Tlustos oligosaccharides sialic acid capillary electrophoresis A. J. Fischer-Tlustos1, R. K. H. Yoo2, A. M. Garner3, S. A. Bakker2, S. M. Lyons3, W. F. Zandberg2, M. A. Steele1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada, 3Department of Biology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada The objective of this study was to characterize the sialylated oligosaccharide (OS) and sialic acid (SA) profile during the first week of lactation in primi- (PP) and multi-parous (MP) dairy cattle. The animal experiment consisted of MP (n = 10) and PP (n = 10) Holstein dairy cows assigned to the study at the time of calving. Colostrum (milking 1) and milk (milkings 2–4, 8, and 14) samples were collected twice daily. Oligosaccharides were quantified by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection and HPLC-MS/MS. Median OS levels were deemed statistically significant if 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U values were lower than Ucrit at P < 0.05 or 0.01, while differences in OS levels between parity were assessed using a 2-tailed Student’s t test with P < 0.05 considered significant. Total SA were quantified by HPLC-MS after cleavage from milk OS or glycoproteins by weak acid hydrolysis and evaluated using a Wilcoxon rank test with P < 0.05 considered significant. A total of 9 SA were quantitated, including 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and 7 -acetylated analogs; 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulsonic acid (Kdn). A 4-fold decrease in concentrations of both OS- and glycoprotein-bound SA over the first 14 milkings was observed. Median levels of OS-bound Neu5Ac increased (P < 0.001) from 58 to 79% of total SA to the decrement of Neu5Gc (14 to 7%) and Kdn (28 to 17%) (P < 0.001). Cow parity influenced levels of specific SA species at milking 14 (P < 0.005), but not in colostrum (P > 0.08). The absolute levels of sialylated OS decreased (P < 0.002) from milking 1 to 14. While total OS levels slightly decreased from milking 1 to 14, relative levels of at least 10 sulfated OS increased over 3-fold (10 vs. 35%; P < 0.03) and were inversely correlated with sialic acid-containing milk OS. Future research should characterize how the observed marked changes in OS biosynthetic pathways during the early postpartum period may influence the newborn calf microbiome and immune system.
Lactation Biology (M2)   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 12:30 t82599 Watch 81 Effect of acetate absorption on the daily rhythm of milk synthesis and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows. 3 C. Matamoros short-chain fatty acids nutrient entrainment peripheral clocks C. Matamoros1, I. Salfer2, K. Harvatine1 1Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 2Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Time of feeding and nutrient absorption alters the daily rhythm of milk synthesis, likely by entrainment of the circadian clock of the mammary gland. Acetate supplementation increases milk fat in lactating cows and acetate also entrains circadian clocks in murine and cell models. The objective was to investigate the effect of time of acetate absorption on the daily rhythm of milk synthesis and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows. Ten ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (127 ± 25 DIM; ± SD) were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square. Treatments were ruminal infusion of 10 mol/d of acetate as sodium acetate either over 22 h/d (CON) or over 8 h/d from 0900 to 1700 h (AM) or 2100 to 0500 h (PM). Experimental periods were 14 d with a 7-d washout period in between. Cows were milked every 6 h during the last 7 d of each period to assess the daily pattern of milk synthesis. Blood samples were taken 6 times each period to represent every 4 h over the day and plasma glucose, insulin, BHB, BUN, nonesterified fatty acids, and acetate were measured. Data were analyzed by cosinor-based rhythmometry to test the fit of a cosine function with a period of 24 h and calculate the acrophase (time at peak) and amplitude (peak to mean) of the rhythm. A 12 h harmonic model was also tested for plasma metabolites and hormones. Notably, AM increased the amplitude of milk yield by 70% and advanced the phase by 2 h and PM only advanced the phase by 1 h (P < 0.05 for all) and did not change the amplitude when compared with CON. Milk 16 carbon fatty acids fit a 24 h rhythm for AM and CON only, where AM increased the amplitude by 118% and delayed the phase by 1.6 h when compared with CON (P < 0.05). Plasma acetate fit a 24 h rhythm for all treatments. When compared with CON, AM increased the amplitude of plasma acetate by 129%, PM decreased the amplitude by 28%, and both treatments result in a phase shift (P < 0.05 for all). The rhythm of other variables of secondary interest were also affected by treatment. In conclusion, the results support a role of the timing of acetate absorption in entraining the daily rhythm of milk synthesis.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82357 Watch 82 Cow longevity and culling on China dairy farms from 2013 to 2015. 1 S. Liu mature cow cow longevity culling rate S. Liu1, J. Ma1, Z. Cao1 1China agricultural university, Beijing, China Few data are available on the descriptive characteristics of cow longevity and culling within a national population in China. The objective of this study was to describe cow longevity and the reasons associated with culling on dairy farms with more than 100 cows across China. In 2016, a nationwide survey was conducted, and 100 dairy farms in 12 provinces were involved. Culling records and the related data were obtained from management software and report system. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Culling refers to the exit of cows from farms, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of mature cow exits each year divided by the mean of mature cows stocked in the same year. The results showed that from 2013 to 2015, average culling rate were 24.7%, 22.9% and 30.4%, and average lactation age were 2.5, 2.7 and 2.9, respectively. 72% of culls were from the first 3 lactations, and the highest proportion of culls occurred in second lactation, accounting for 26.2%. Days in milk had effect on culling rate (P < 0.01), and most culling occurred before 60 d in milk, accounting for 27%. The causes of culling were also different (P < 0.05) with reproduction related reasons accounting for 20.9%, followed by digestive related reasons (20.7%), udder related reasons (13.7%), hoof related reasons (8.5%) and unknown reasons (8.4%). Voluntary culling accounted for 11.4%. In addition, the lactation age was affected by causes of culling (P < 0.01). Cows with reproductive diseases and respiratory diseases usually were culled in first 3 lactations, while cows with digestive system disorders, metabolic diseases, hoof diseases and udder diseases were often culled in higher lactation age (4–6 lactation). Culling rate was also related to farm scale(P < 0.01). Dairy farms with 100 to 500 cows had the highest culling rate (32.9%), followed by dairy farms with 500 to 1000 cows (30.7%), dairy farms with 1000 to 2000 cows (27.5%), and dairy farms with more than 2000 cows had the lowest culling rate compared with other sale farms (23.4%, P < 0.05). This study provides an overview on dairy cow longevity and culling in China.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82747 Watch 83 Use of bulk tank milk fatty acid profiles as an on-farm decision-support tool. 2 D. E. Santschi fatty acid Fourier-transform infrared decision-support D. Warner1, R. Lacroix1, R. K. Moore1, D. M. Lefebvre1, D. E. Santschi1 1Lactanet, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada Milk fatty acids (FA) originate from synthesis in the mammary gland (de novo), feed intake or body fat mobilization (preformed) or both origins (mixed). Rapid analysis of milk FA profiles through mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy could provide a valuable tool for feeding and management. Bulk tank samples from 3,395 dairy herds using milk recording in Quebec (CAN) are routinely tested by MIR. Samples (n = 573,000) between April 2019 and Feb 2020 were used to evaluate the use of FA as a monitoring tool. On a milk basis, each 0.1-unit increase in de novo FA was associated with an increase in fat by 0.201 units (R2 0.67) and true protein by 0.117 units (R2 0.65) whereas each 0.1-unit increase in preformed FA increased milk fat by 0.099 units (R2 0.23) but had no association with true protein (R2 0.01). Seasonal cycles showed decreased de novo and increased preformed FA during the summer months (FA basis). JE herds had a lesser drop in de novo FA than HO herds (−0.7 vs −1.3 g/100 g FA, respectively, for August vs April). Across seasons, JE herds had higher de novo (+1.5 g/100 g FA) but lower preformed FA (−2.9 g/100 g FA) and an overall greater milk fat content (+0.8%-units) as compared with HO herds. A snapshot analysis was conducted with herd averages for April 2019 for 2035 HO herds having high de novo (>median; HDN; mean ± SD of 27.9 ± 0.73 g/100 g FA) and low de novo (<median; LDN; 25.9 ± 1.14 g/100 g FA) levels. A mixed model approach was used in R with Gaussian distribution for continuous variables, and with binomial distribution and log-link function for variables with binary outcome, considering herd as a random effect. No differences existed in herd size, days in milk, and conventional vs organic, but HDN herds had higher odds (2.0; P ≤ 0.01) of having a positive Transition Cow Index and lower odds (0.80; P = 0.02) of having a somatic cell count of 200 or more on test day. HDN herds had a 0.89 kg greater (P ≤ 0.01) milk yield per cow on test day. A graphical and interactive tool was developed to visualize milk FA profiles with respective benchmarks and farm-specific historical data, was tested on farm and deployed in production via an IBM Cognos platform.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82856 Watch 84 Impacts of BiOWiSH application on greenhouse gases and air quality from liquid dairy manure. 3 C. B. Peterson sustainability dairy cattle lagoon additive C. B. Peterson1, Y. Zhao1, Y. Pan1, F. M. Mitloehner1 1University of California, Davis, Davis, CA With increasing focus on the environmental impacts of greenhouse gases (GHG) from livestock, decreasing the impacts of dairy production is of utmost importance. Dairy cattle waste can be a source of GHG emissions and criteria pollutants as well as a possible groundwater contaminant. Several manure additives have been studied as an approach to mitigate environmental impacts of liquid dairy manure (lagoon water). However, these additives have shown mixed efficacy. The present research aimed to test the commercial additive “BiOWiSH” on alterations of carbon dioxide, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide as well as ammonia. Lagoon water was collected from a commercial dairy in Solano County, CA and contained 0.34% solids, 99.7% moisture, and 0.026% total nitrogen with a pH of 7.68. Lagoon water was randomly allocated into treatment barrels (190 L each) with 6 replicates per treatment for the 3 treatments (n = 6; control, BiOWiSH Manure, and BiOWiSH Odor). Treatments were rehydrated according to product specifications (stock solution: 1 kg of treatment per 1,000 mL of DiH2O) and aliquots of 14 mL stock solution were applied every 9 d for 27 d (shock dose) followed by aliquots of 7 mL of stock solution applied every 9 d over an additional 27 d (maintenance dose), to the respective treatment barrels. Gaseous emissions were collected using flux chambers covering each barrel at designated intervals and measured in real time over a 54-d period. Chambers were connected to a mobile air quality emissions laboratory equipped with gaseous analyzers. The effects of treatments were compared against control. Results showed that BiOWiSH Manure versus the control increased emissions of CH4 by 35.9%. BiOWiSH odor versus control also increased emissions of CH4 by 85.1%. This additive may be applied as an alternate manure management strategy to increase CH4 from covered dairy waste systems where CH4 may then be trapped for subsequent use as a biogas. Further studies are needed to investigate the large scale repeatability of using this product as well as the mechanism of the BiOWiSH lagoon additives.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82946 Watch 85 Evaluation of the GreenFeed method relative to the United States Pharmacopeia methodology validation guidelines. 4 S. Zimmerman methane measurement emissions B. Garcia1, S. Zimmerman1, K. Schaefer2 1C-Lock Inc, Rapid City, SD, 2DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland The GreenFeed (GF) gas flux (mass flowrate) measurement system is a non-invasive means of measuring enteric methane (CH4) from ruminant animals. GF has been used for several purposes, including evaluating the effectiveness of feed additives [KM1] in reducing enteric CH4 emissions. This study evaluated GF parameters using the United States Pharmacopeia < 1033 > §2.4 guidelines (USP) for instrument methodologies. Per USP guidelines, concentration measurements were evaluated using 5 certified CH4 concentration mixtures (103.7–2104 ppm) in 3 replicates passed through the GF system. In addition, CH4 flux measurements were evaluated by releasing gravimetrically measured ‘pulses’ of CH4 at 5 different fluxes (70.7–509.7 g/d), with at least 3 replicates each, at a range of temperatures (4–29°C) and pressures (912–927 mbar) into the GF intake manifold. The tests were repeated with 2 unique GF machines to measure between unit variability. The USP requires repeatability and precision analysis using ‘Intermediate Precision’ (IP) reported as %Geometric Coefficient of Variation, using mixed linear models (MLM). Significance of random effects was determined by ratio tests between a model with a given random effect and a model without. Singular (zero) variance estimates were removed. The MLM were computed using the ‘lmer’ function of the ‘lme4’ library for the R platform, while ratio tests used the ‘anova’ function. CH4 flux estimates had an IP of 6%, while concentration estimates had an IP of 2%. The GF measurements were found to be highly correlated to certified concentration standards and gravimetric fluxes (0.9993, 0.9972). The GF system estimated CH4 fluxes with 1.92% average relative bias. Concentration estimates had 0.15% average relative bias. Concentration variance estimates were non-singular for the pressure of the environment, while flux variance estimates were non-singular for pressure and replicate. Temperature, and the GF unit performing the measurement were singular effects. In summary, GF produces repeatable and accurate emissions measurements compared with gravimetric measurements or certified concentration standards.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82179 Watch 86 An environmental assessment of dairy farms in the eastern United States. 5 R. Stout life cycle assessment greenhouse gas nitrogen loss C. A. Rotz1, R. Stout1, M. Holly2, P. Kleinman1 1USDA-ARS, University Park, PA, 2University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI There is need for a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts of dairy farms at regional and national scales to better track improvements made by the industry. A methodology using process-level simulation and cradle to farm-gate life cycle assessment has been applied to the eastern United States with plans for completing all regions of the country. Representative dairy farms of various sizes and management practices are simulated with the Integrated Farm System Model using the soil characteristics and climate where farms are located. Farm-gate footprints are determined by totaling values among farms and locations within the region considering the amounts of milk produced by each. Northeastern dairy farms were determined to emit 12,455 ± 1,100 Gg CO2e of greenhouse gas with an intensity of 0.99 ± 0.09 kg CO2e per kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) produced. Fossil energy consumption was 33,542 ± 5,300 TJ or 2.68 ± 0.42 MJ per kg FPCM. Blue (non-precipitation) water consumption was 193 ± 42 Tg with an intensity of 15.4 ± 3.4 kg per kg FPCM. A total of all forms of reactive N loss was 108 ± 13 Gg with an intensity of 8.6 ± 1.0 g per kg FPCM. These metrics were equivalent to 1.5% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 0.32% of fossil energy use and 0.87% of fresh water consumption reported by governmental agencies for recent years covering all states in the region. Thus, greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy use and blue water use associated with dairy farm production in this region are relatively small compared with total estimates. Simulated emissions of volatile organic compounds were also within 2% of governmental estimates for the region. The greatest environmental concern appears to be that of ammonia emission, where dairy farms accounted for 65% of governmental estimates for the region. Environmental footprints were found to vary widely among farms as influenced primarily by soil characteristics and climate and secondarily by farm management. Therefore, prescriptive mitigation strategies for individual farms is more effective than uniform enforcement of specific strategies.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M2)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 12:30 t82669 Watch 87 National consumer survey of dairy food preferences and purchase interest. 6 M. Camire consumers local purchasing M. Camire1, R. Bernier2, R. Labbe2, D. Bouchard2, G. Shaler3, L. Yeitz3 1University of Maine, Orono, ME, 2Atlantic Corporation, Waterville, ME, 3University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME The United States’ dairy industry faces increasing competition from plant-based dairy mimetics, fluctuating export markets, and animal welfare criticism. Small and medium-sized dairy farms are vanishing. Improved understanding of American consumers’ attitudes and desires could enable small dairy processors to expand markets and sustain smaller farms through niche product marketing. We conducted an Internet survey in the summer of 2019. At least 400 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited from each US state by Dynata (n = 20,040). National, regional, and state results were tabulated. Data were analyzed by chi-squared and ANOVA, with a significance level of P = 0.05. Nearly 97% of the respondents consume dairy foods. Fewer than 50% of respondents were aware of local dairy farms, processing, or local products sold in retail stores. Residents of the New England, East North Central, and Mid-Atlantic regions were more knowledgeable of local dairy businesses and products. The respondents who consume dairy foods were aware of the farm locations only 25% of the time spent shopping; the consumers knew where the products were processed 24% of the time, and they read the product labels only 31% of the time to find that information. When asked how label claims would influence their willingness to pay (WTP) for conventional dairy products from larger, regional, and national processors, survey participants said they would pay less for raw products, and more for local products. Cows’ milk was preferred by 92%, and 72% preferred cheese made from cows’ milk. Vermonters and people aged 55 or older rated the visual, taste, and nutritional quality of milk, cream, butter, yogurt, cheese, and frozen desserts higher than the national mean scores on a 7-point scale. The most-preferred package size (61% of respondents) for milk was one gallon, but only 49% of Mid-Atlantic residents chose that option. One-third of respondents chose clear plastic containers as best for milk. The data from this survey guided the development of an online visualization tool for farmers and processors to better understand dairy food preferences among consumers in their marketing area.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t81582 Watch 88 Effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] on dairy cows. 1 H. M. Golder calcidiol calcium prepartum H. M. Golder1, I. J. Lean1 1Scibus, Camden, NSW, Australia Subclinical hypocalcemia prevalence remains high postpartum despite use of negative DCAD diets and vitamin D3. We hypothesized that feeding 25-(OH)D3 (25D) during lactation, and in transition in conjunction with negative DCAD diets, would improve milk production, reproduction, and health. Dairy cows were used in 2 randomized exposure experiments. Experiment 1; cows in Control [CON; n = 645; no 25D] or Treatment [TRT; n = 537; 2 mg/d of 25D prepartum and 1 in lactation] groups assigned and fed from ~21 d prepartum were monitored for milk yield and composition, and health and reproductive measures. Experiment 2; 4 groups of cows (median 147 DIM) were monitored per Experiment 1 to the end of that lactation (L1), subsequent transition and lactation (L2). Groups were (1) CON-CON (no 25D), (2) TRT-TRT (1 mg/d of 25D in L1 and L2 and 2 prepartum), (3) CON-TRT (1 mg/d of 25D in L2 and 2 prepartum), and (4) TRT-CON (1 mg/d of 25D in L1). For L1, 1,032 cows entered control groups 1 or 3 and 1,032 in groups 2 or 4. The n/group that entered L2 was 521, 523, 273, and 248, respectively. Analysis used mixed linear and survival models (STATA V15, Statcorp LP, College Station, TX). Blood Ca, P, and 25D concentrations (n = 17/group) were evaluated at 5 times. Experiment 1, TRT cows had 0.2 lower LN SCC than CON cows (P = 0.002) and multiparous (multi) TRT cows had 41.1 ± 23.4% (95% CI = 2.0–95.3%) higher odds of pregnancy/d than multi CON cows, reducing days open by a median of 22 d. Primiparous TRT cows had 1.67 ± 0.40 times greater odds of mastitis/d than primiparous CON cows. In Experiment 2, TRT-TRT cows had 15.5–28.9% lesser odds to be bred/d than other groups (P = 0.016). Multi CON-CON and TRT-CON cows had 21.4 ± 7.8% and 30.3 ± 16.6% greater odds of pregnancy, respectively, than multi TRT-TRT cows. Serum Ca concentrations were not affected by group (P = 0.988), P (P = 0.003) and 25D concentrations (P < 0.001) were highest in the TRT-TRT cows. Duration on transition diet improved many measures of production, health and reproduction. While treatment lowered SCC and provided other benefits, particularly for multi cows including the time to pregnancy, responses varied across treatment groups.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t81736 Watch 89 Bioefficacy of hydroxy-selenomethionine in dairy cows. 2 N. L. Whitehouse selenium selenomethionine milk N. L. Whitehouse1, J. R. Sexton1, S. M. Hollister1, L. H. P. Silva2, S. M. Fredin3, M. Briens1 1University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 2Adisseo USA Inc, Alpharetta, GA, 3Adisseo France SAS, Commentry, France Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral that if deficient in the soil will therefore be deficient in diets fed to dairy cows. Selenium supplements exists in inorganic and organic forms, with the organic form being seleno-yeasts (SY) or pure forms such as selenomethionine or hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet). The objective was to determine the amount of Se that was transferred to milk and blood of mid to late lactation dairy cows when supplemental Se from a OH-SeMet (Selisseo 2% Se, Adisseo France SAS) was fed compared with an unsupplemented group and a group supplemented with a SY. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows, 12 multiparous and 12 primiparous (178 ± 43 d in milk (DIM)) were used in a randomized complete block design for 91 d (7 d for covariate and 84 d for treatments). Treatments were 1) basal (practical) diet with an expected Se background of 0.2 mg Se per kg as-fed (negative control), 2) basal diet + 0.3 mg Se per kg as-fed from SY (positive control SY-0.3), 3) basal diet + 0.1 mg Se per kg as-fed from OH-SeMet (OH-SeMet-0.1), and 4) basal diet + 0.3 mg Se per kg as-fed from OH-SeMet (OH-SeMet-0.3). Blood (at 1030h) and milk samples (am and pm milking) were obtained from each on the last 3 d of the covariate week and wk 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 of the study. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedures of SAS with REPEATED measures. Significance was declared at P ≤ 0.05. Plasma and milk Se concentrations was highest for OH-SeMet-0.3 (Table 1). However, there was no difference on the plasma glutathione peroxidase activity between groups. Those results are a confirmation that organic Se forms can increase milk and plasma Se concentrations. Moreover, when administered at the same level of supplementation, OH-SeMet showed to be more efficient than SY to improve those Se concentrations. Table 1. Average plasma and milk Se concentration and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity
Item Negative control Positive control SY-0.3 OH-SeMet-0.1 OH-SeMet-0.3 P-value
Plasma Se, ng/mL 120d 134b 122c 142a <0.0001
Milk Se, ng/mL 57d 97b 78c 116a <0.0001
Glutathione peroxidase, nmol/mL 90.58 91.63 91.00 92.85 0.859
a–dMeans within rows differ at P < 0.05.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t81788 Watch 90 Effect of electrochemically activated drinking water on production performance and somatic cell counts in dairy cows. 3 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez milk production electrochemical water somatic cells E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1, S. Cruz-Morales1, R. Dhakal1, H. H. Hansen1 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark Electrochemically activated water (ECW) can be used for the prevention and control of microorganism, however, there is scarce information about its use in dairy farms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of ECW on production performance and somatic cell counts in dairy cows. For 6 mo, 2 groups of lactating Red Danish cows were fed regular drinking water (n = 27) and ECW (n = 27) water dosed with 4 ppm of 29 mg/L of chlorate (Neuthox, Danish Clean Water, Denmark). Monthly records from milk production, milk composition and somatic cell counts were analyzed. Milk production, composition and SCC data were analyzed with linear mixed models using R version (3.5.1). Bacteriological conditions (BC) at the beginning of the study for non-dosed and dosed drinking troughs were >200 MPN/100 mL of coliform bacteria at 37°C, 120 MPN/100 mL of Escherichia coli, >3000 cfu/mL of bacterial count at 22°C and 1100 cfu/mL of bacterial count at 37°C. Then, after 6 mo, BC in dosed drinking troughs were <1 vs. >200 MPN/100 mL of coliform bacteria at 37°C, <1 vs. 200 MPN/100 mL of Escherichia coli, 160 vs. >3000 cfu/mL of bacterial count at 22°C and 150 vs. >3000 cfu/mL of bacterial count at 37°C. Milk yield (32.4 ± 3.2 kg/cow), milk fat (4.55 ± 0.38%) and milk protein (3.78 ± 0.16%) were similar (P > 0.05). Somatic cell counts (× 103/mL) were significantly (P < 0.05) lowered by ECW (162 ± 42) compared with non-dosed animals (411 ± 202). Overall, results showed that ECW could be an alternative to reduce somatic cell counts without detrimental effects on milk production and milk composition.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t82061 Watch 91 Inclusion of calcium-magnesium tetrahydroxide as a dietary source of inorganic Mg alters ruminal pH and fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system. 4 J. A. Arce-Cordero in vitro acidosis buffers J. A. Arce-Cordero1, H. F. Monteiro1, V. L. N. Brandao1, X. Dai1, S. Bennett1, J. Vinyard1, A. P. Faciola1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Ruminal acidosis is a major issue affecting modern cattle industry. Buffers such as sodium sesquicarbonate are normally fed to reduce negative effects of acidosis; however, some mineral sources may play a role as controllers of ruminal pH. We aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion of CaMgCO3 and CaMg(OH)4 on microbial fermentation, hypothesizing that their inclusion as supplemental sources of inorganic Mg (iMg) would allow for similar ruminal fermentation conditions to those observed in a positive control diet formulated with MgO as the sole source of iMg plus a buffer. Four treatments were defined by the main source of iMg in the diet: (1) CO3 [100% iMg from CaMg(CO3)2]; (2) CO3/OH [50% iMg from CaMg(CO3)2, 50% iMg from CaMg(OH)4]; (3) OH [100% iMg from CaMg(OH)4]; (4) MgO/Na (100% iMg from MgO, plus 0.6% sodium sesquicarbonate). Nutrient concentration was the same across treatments (16% CP, 30% NDF, 1.69 MCal NEl/kg, 0.68% Ca, and 0.22% Mg from which 0.05% corresponds to iMg). Four fermenters were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 10 d each. In the last 3 d of each period samples were collected for analyses of nutrient digestibility, soluble Mg, VFA, and NH3-N, while pH was measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h post morning feeding to estimate hours below pH of 6 (pH < 6) and area under the pH curve (pH AUC). Bacteria pellets were harvested for 15N analysis and estimates of N metabolism. Treatment effects were analyzed with PROC MIXED of SAS, while effects of CaMgCO3 and CaMg(OH)4 were evaluated by orthogonal contrasts. Inclusion of CaMg(OH)4 increased pH AUC (P = 0.02); molar proportion of butyrate (P = 0.02), and decreased pH < 6 (P < 0.01), showing a similar effect to that one observed in the positive control treatment formulated with MgO and buffer. No effects of CaMgCO3 and CaMg(OH)4 were found on soluble Mg, nutrient digestibility and N metabolism. Results indicate that feeding CaMg(OH)4 as a mineral source may aid in the control of ruminal pH.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t82277 Watch 92 Effects of reduced dietary cation and anion difference on production, nutrient digestibility, and urine pH in lactating cows. 5 C. Lee dietary cation and anion difference digestibility and urine pH C. Lee1, J. E. Copelin1, L. R. Rebelo1, P. A. Dieter1, W. P. Weiss1, T. Brown2 1Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 2Dairy Nutrition Plus, Ralston, IA Manure acidification is an effective strategy to lower ammonia emissions from manure and increase its value as fertilizer. Lowering dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) can reduce urine pH and this may acidify manure depending on the degree of pH reduction in dairy cows. However, reducing DCAD can negatively affect DMI, production and fiber digestibility. The objective was to examine lactating cows fed a diet with reduced DCAD on production, fiber digestibility, and urine pH. Twenty cows were used in a randomized block design and fed 1 of the following 3 diets: a diet with DCAD of 220, 150, or 75 mEq/kg (n = 6, 7, and 7, respectively; DCAD, Na + K − Cl − S; 16.8% CP, 33% NDF on DM basis). SoyChlor replacing soybean meal and corn grain was used to decrease DCAD. The experiment was conducted for 5 wk to monitor DMI and production and spot fecal samples were collected in wk 5 to estimate fecal output and apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In wk 5, urine samples were also collected (every 4 h in a 24-h cycle) to estimate urine volume (creatinine) and measure urine pH. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (block as random and diet as fixed effect). Reducing DCAD lowered (25.3 to 23.6 kg/d; P = 0.02) DMI in a linear manner. Milk yield, ECM, and ECM/DMI were not different (P > 0.26) among treatments. Milk component contents and yields were not affected by level of DCAD. Total-tract apparent digestibility of DM and NDF did not differ among treatments. Estimated urine volume increased (36 to 44 kg/d; P < 0.01) and urine pH decreased (8.25 to 7.86; P < 0.01) in a linear manner with decreasing DCAD. In conclusion, lowering DCAD of a lactation diet from 220 to 75 mEq/kg decreased DMI and numerically decreased milk yield (38.4 to 36.9 kg/d). However, the decreases in DCAD did not affect DM and NDF total-tract digestibility. Although an increase in urine volume and decrease in urine pH with decreasing DCAD was observed, we do not know whether these changes are effective in lowering ammonia emission from manure.
Ruminant Nutrition General (M2)   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 12:30 t82634 Watch 93 Effects of dietary antioxidants and modulators of immune response on animal performance and metabolism of Holstein cows during heat stress. 6 A. Ruiz Gonzalez heat stress dairy cows nutrition A. Ruiz Gonzalez1,2, W. Suissi2, L. H. Baumgard3, P.-Y. Chouinard1, R. Gervais1, D. E. Rico2 1Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada, 2CRSAD, Deschambault, QC, Canada, 3Iowa State University, Ames, IA Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (42.2 ± 5.6 kg milk/d; 83.4 ± 27.1 DIM) were used in a split-plot design testing the effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation on animal performance and metabolism during heat stress. The main plot was the level of dietary vitamin E and Se (HVE: 200 IU/kg and 1.2 ppm; LVE 20 IU/kg and 0.3 ppm; respectively). Within each plot, cows were randomly assigned to 1) Heat stress (HS), 2) Pair-feeding (PF), or 3) HS with Vitamin D and Ca supplementation (HS+DCa; 1820 IU/kg and 1.5% Ca) in a Latin square design with 14-d periods. Milk components were analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy from samples taken on d 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14. This statistical model included the random effects of cow and period, and the fixed effects of plot, treatment, day and their interactions. No 3-way interactions were detected for any variable. Heat stress progressively decreased dry matter intake (DMI) before stabilizing on d 7 (30% reduction; Time P < 0.001) and was not affected by treatment. Milk yield decreased progressively in all treatments and was higher in PF relative to both HS and HS+DCa cows from d 3 to 14 (−10%; P < 0.05). There was a treatment by day interaction for milk fat and protein concentrations (P < 0.05). Milk fat was 10% lower in HS relative to PF on d 10 and 14, but not different between PF and HS+DCa, whereas milk protein was 7.5% lower in HS and HS+DCa relative to PF from d 3 to 14. Pre-prandial NEFA were 64% lower, whereas pre-prandial insulin was 58% higher in HS and HS+DCa than in the PF on d 7 and 14 (P < 0.05). Mineral and vitamin supplementation seems to have a moderate effect on the performance and metabolic responses of cows to heat stress.
Small Ruminant (M2)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 12:40 t81737 Watch 94 Productive performance, milk composition, and milk fatty acids of goats supplemented with sunflower and linseed whole seeds. 1 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez oilseeds milk dairy goat E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1, C. A. García Montes de Oca2, N. Pescador-Salas2, J. G. Estrada Flores3, J. Romero Bernal2, L. E. Robles Jimenez2, M. González-Ronquillo3 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark, 2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México, 3Instituto en Ciencias Agropecuarias y Rurales, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México The objective of this study was to determine productive performance, milk composition and milk fatty acids (FA) of goats supplemented with sunflower and linseed whole seeds in grass silage-based diets. Nine Alpine goats were grouped in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (n = 3) that included 3 21 d periods. Treatments were based on grass silage offered ad libitum and a concentrate mixture supplemented with either 40 g/d of Megalac (control), 80 g/d of sunflower seed (SF), or 80 g/d of linseed (LS). Data was analyzed using GLM procedure of SAS. Milk yield (776 ± 20 g/d), dry matter intake (64 ± 3 g/kg LW0.75) and digestibilities (g/kg) of dry matter (612 ± 27), organic matter (664 ± 12), neutral detergent fiber (567 ± 24) and acid detergent fiber (522 ± 28) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05). Treatment did not affect milk fat yield (40 ± 1.1 g/d), protein content (4.5 ± 0.04%) and protein yield (35 ± 1.2 g/d). Milk fat content was higher (P < 0.05) in control (5.4 ± 0.1%), intermediate in SF (5.1 ± 0.1%) and lower (4.9 ± 0.1%) in LS. Compared with control, SF and LS, decreased C16:0 (28.2 ± 0.8 vs. 23.1 ± 0.8 and 22.4 ± 0.8 g/100g) and increased total C18:1 (24.1 ± 1.1 vs. 27.6 ± 1.1 and 28.4 ± 1.1 g/100g) respectively. The ratio of monounsaturated to polyunsaturated FA was higher (P < 0.05) in LS (8.9 ± 0.32), intermediate in SF (7.7 ± 0.32) and lower in control (6.2 ± 0.32). Overall, SF and LS represent an effective strategy for altering the FA composition of goat’s milk toward a healthier profile for humans without deleterious effects on animal performance.
Small Ruminant (M2)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 12:40 t82616 Watch 95 Physiological, lactational, and blood metabolite profile of dairy goats exposed to low ambient temperatures. 2 A. A. K. Salama cold temperature milk production metabolism W. Coloma-Garcia1,2, N. Mehaba1, X. Such1, G. Caja1, A. A. K. Salama1 1Research Group in Ruminants (G2R), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador Low winter temperatures in some regions combined with increasingly frequent extreme cold waves have a negative impact on animal performance, behavior, and welfare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological, metabolic, and lactational responses of dairy goats to low ambient temperatures during 3 weeks. Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation were divided into 2 balanced groups and randomly assigned to 2 treatments: thermoneutral (TN; 15 to 20°C) and low temperature (LT; −3 to 6°C). The experimental design was a crossover with 2 treatments in 2 periods (21 d each). Goats received a total mixed ration (70% forage and 30% concentrate) and water ad libitum and were machine-milked twice daily (8 and 17 h). Feed intake, water consumption, rectal temperature, and respiration rate were recorded daily. Milk samples for composition were collected weekly. Insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in blood. Body weight was recorded at the start and end of each period. Compared with TN goats, LT goats had similar feed intake and milk yield, but lower (P < 0.05) water consumption (−23%), respiratory rate (−6 breaths/min) and rectal temperature (−0.32°C). Furthermore, milk of LT goats had greater (P < 0.05) contents of fat (+12%), protein (+11%), and lactose (+4%). The LT goats lost −0.45 kg BW, whereas TN goats gained 2.2 kg (SE of the difference = 0.77; P < 0.05). Insulin and cholesterol blood levels were not affected by LT. However, values of blood glucose, NEFA, hematocrit and hemoglobin were increased (P < 0.05) by LT, whereas BHBA and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Murciano-Granadina dairy goats during lactation were sensitive to cold temperatures. The LT goats maintained feed intake and milk production, but produced milk with greater fat and protein contents. The LT goats mobilized body fat reserves to cover the extra energy needed for heat production under cold conditions.
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t82255 Watch 118 Association between lifetime selection index predictions and lifetime performance. 1 B. Fessenden selection indexes genomics lifetime profit B. Fessenden1, D. Weigel2, J. Osterstock1, D. Galligan3, F. Di Croce1 1Zoetis Genetics, Kalamazoo, MI, 2Zoetis Outcomes Research, Kalamazoo, MI, 3University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, PA Selection indexes are critical to genetic improvement as they combine values for many traits into a single value that can be used to rank animals and inform breeding decisions. In 2016, Zoetis Genetics developed the Dairy Wellness Profit Index (DWP$) to estimate the genetic potential for lifetime profit in US Holsteins. This study’s goal was to evaluate if selection index genomically enhanced predicted transmitting abilities had the capability to predict observed lifetime profit in US Holstein animals. Five large herds (n = 2,175 enrolled cows) in the United States were chosen for this study because they had: 1) genomic predictions from females born in 2011, 2) recorded production, reproduction and health events to accurately estimate profit per cow, and 3) at least 200 animals born in 2011. Selection index predictions from 2012 were used to rank the 2,175 animals within herd and assign cows to percentile-based DWP$ groups (genetic groups: Worst 25%, 26–50%, 51–75%, and Best 25%). Herd records were used to calculate lifetime energy-corrected milk, income over feed cost, and lifetime days in milk based on the actual performance from first freshening through when they left the herd; for cows that were still in the herd, current totals were used. Analysis results indicated that DWP$ predictions were associated with differences in phenotypic lifetime energy-corrected milk, income over feed cost, and lifetime days in milk between the worst and best genetic groups. The difference between the worst and best genetic groups was 9004 kg lifetime energy-corrected milk (P < 0.01), $1,607 income over feed cost (P < 0.01), and 202 d in milk (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that a lifetime selection index can in fact predict differences in actual lifetime profit potential of individuals. These results indicate that DWP$ predictions of young calves and heifers can be used to make informed predictions of future lifetime performance.
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t82612 Watch 119 Conformation traits of Holstein cows and their association with the Pro$ selection index. 2 L. Alcantara conformation traits Pro$ Holstein L. Alcantara1, C. Baes1,2, G. Oliveira Junior1, F. Schenkel1 1Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Breeding programs across the globe are shifting their selection goals from production-driven to more balanced indexes that include traits of direct and indirect economic significance, such as conformation, fertility and health. In Canada, for instance, changes were made to better reflect producers and market needs in the wake of improved accuracy of genetic and genomic evaluations and national efforts regarding data recordings. In 2015 a new national profit index, Pro$, was introduced to maximize production yields, while maintaining functional and conformation traits, taking into consideration the accumulated profit to 6 years of age of proven sire’s daughters. The Canadian classification system comprises several linear and nonlinear descriptive traits and defective characteristics that are taken into account to calculate points, which are distributed in 4 different scorecard sections: Mammary System (MS), Feet & Legs, Dairy Strength (DS) and Rump. Understanding the contribution of each of these traits to a monetary index, such as Pro$, would help producers make culling and mating decisions ultimately resulting in more profitable herds. Therefore, the present study used statistical regression and principal component analysis to look at the overall and individual contribution of 23 classification traits to the Pro$ index using deregressed Estimated Breeding Values from 9,292 proven bulls (Lactanet). The total variance explained by the full model was 0.66, and out of the traits included in the model, Dairy Capacity contributed the most to the increase in Pro$. Stepwise backward regression analysis indicated that all traits should remain in the full model. Principal component analysis showed that the vast majority of traits contributed positively to Pro$ values. Traits from the MS contributed the most to the increase in Pro$ values, whereas Thurl Placement and Rump Angle did not seem to have a sizeable impact on Pro$.
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t83113 Watch 120 Opportunity costs in beef-on-dairy breeding strategies. 3 A. De Vries beef-on-dairy opportunity cost genetic lag A. De Vries1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The use of beef-on-dairy is growing, but the most profitable breeding strategy is often not clear. The objectives were to (1) quantify the value of breeding strategies, (2) discover most profitable, but sometimes complex breeding strategies, and (3) determine the opportunity costs from more constrained or simpler breeding strategies. A daily Markov Chain model including heifers and at least 5 parities of cows was developed. The distribution of predicted transmitting abilities for an economic selection index within the herd depended on genetic reliabilities, genetic trend and genetic variances. Unrestricted breeding opportunities allowed for any combination of sexed, conventional and beef semen. Inputs regarding reproduction, milk production, forced culling, and prices mimicked an average herd and allowed for a calculation of profit/milking cow per yr. A nonlinear solver optimized breeding strategies subject to constraints such as the number of dairy heifer calves to be at least equal to the number needed to replace culled cows. Surplus dairy heifer calves with the lowest predicted transmitting abilities were sold. Using genomic reliabilities and typical market prices of calves, the optimal breeding strategy used a combination of sexed, conventional, and beef semen throughout the herd. Older cows received less sexed semen and more beef semen. Crossbred calves were 34% of all calves born. This strategy made 16% surplus dairy heifer calves. Limiting surplus to 0% reduced profit by $13/milking cow per yr. Limiting surplus to 0% and not using conventional semen reduced profit by $24/milking cow per yr. Use of only conventional semen reduced profit by $63/milking cow per yr. This value is partitioned as $64 greater operational net revenues, $15 lower semen costs, $61 greater genetic lag costs, $50 lower calf sales, and $1 lower genomic testing costs. Opportunity costs for simple strategies ranged from $36 to $72/milking cow per yr. Use of traditional reliabilities resulted in lower opportunity costs for non-optimal strategies. In conclusion, optimal beef-on-dairy breeding strategies can be complex and opportunity costs from simpler strategies may be substantial.
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t82545 Watch 121 The effect of synchronized breeding on genetic evaluations of fertility traits in dairy cattle: Preliminary analysis. 4 C. Lynch fertility traits hormonal synchronization genetic evaluations C. Lynch1, G. A. Oliveira Junior1, F. S. Schenkel1, C. F. Baes1,2 1Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Hormonal synchronization alleviates the pressure of estrus detection by affecting the estrous cycle, allowing for higher rates of conception even for naturally low fertile animals. This leads to genetically inferior cows’ performance becoming masked and potentially resulting in similar performance to that of naturally fertile animals. As genetic programs rely on the collection of accurate phenotypic data, phenotypes recorded on treated animals likely affect the genetic evaluations. This study analyzed the traits calving to first service (CTFS), first service to conception and days open in 419,102 cows from 1122 herds with 1,811,394 breeding and fertility records across 3 scenarios. Scenario 1 compared records that included any type of hormone treatment (HORM) against all other records. Scenario 2 compared HORM vs heat detection protocol (HD) records. Scenario 3 compared hormonal synchronization protocol (FTAI) records vs HD. Available data for each trait was characterized based on the use of hormone treatment, for example CTFS was split whereby one subset included only FTAI records while the second data set included only HD records. Preliminary statistics are presented in Table 1. By conducting a bivariate analysis the results of this study will identify potential genetic and non genetic differences between the fertility phenotypes recorded under the different scenarios. In addition, this will provide a novel basis in assessing the impact of hormonal synchronization protocols on the accuracy of genetic evaluations for fertility traits in dairy cattle. Table 1. Preliminary statistics of data
Trait   Stats Scenario Groups
OTHER (n=1,404,752) HORM (n=406,642) HD(n=763,567) FTAI(n=273,733)
Calving to first service, d   Mean 80.46 79.05 77.09 78.82
  Range 230 230 230 230
  SD 28.24 22.32 25.36 20.99
First service to conception, d   Mean 54.77 60.24 55.9 62.49
  Range 205 205 205 205
  SD 52.99 55.2 52.68 55.94
Days open   Mean 161.48 160.84 158.12 160.23
  Range 388 388 386 383
  SD 75.35 73.93 73.7 73.12
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t82543 Watch 122 Implementation of national health trait evaluations in Jersey. 5 K. L. Parker Gaddis health Jersey national evaluation K. L. Parker Gaddis1, L. M. Jensen2, P. M. VanRaden3, J. H. Megonigal Jr.1, E. L. Nicolazzi1, H. D. Norman1, C. W. Wolfe4 1Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, Bowie, MD, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD, 4American Jersey Cattle Association, Reynoldsburg, OH Health evaluations for 6 traits (resistance to milk fever, displaced abomasum, ketosis, mastitis, metritis, retained placenta) have been available for Holstein animals from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB; Bowie, MD) since April 2018. Recent research indicated that expanding these evaluations to include Jersey animals was feasible. Concurrently, there was a 112% increase in the total number of usable Jersey health records submitted to CDCB in the span of one year beginning in January 2019. Total number of available phenotypic records by trait as of January 2020 ranged from 85,417 for ketosis to 168,342 for mastitis. Overall incidence ranged from 1.2% for milk fever up to 10.4% for mastitis, similar to those found in Holstein. Heritabilities were assumed to be equivalent to those in Holstein, ranging from 0.6 to 3.1%. The same pipelines as those currently used for CDCB Holstein health evaluations were expanded to include Jersey data. Phenotypes are pre-adjusted for unequal variance before evaluation. Traditional PTA are estimated using a univariate BLUP repeatability animal model accounting for year-season, age-parity, herd-year, and permanent environmental effects, as well as a regression on inbreeding and heterosis. Genomic PTA are calculated with 79,294 markers used in CDCB routine genomic evaluations. Resulting PTA are presented as percentage points above or below the breed’s average resistance with more positive values being favorable. Average traditional reliabilities for bulls born since 1990 with ≥90% net merit (NM$) reliability ranged from 17 to 32%, depending on trait. Average genomic reliabilities for those bulls ranged from 29 to 49%, gaining 12 to 17 percentage points from the inclusion of genomic data. Maximum PTA reliability was 98% for mastitis. Correlations between health PTA and PTA of other routinely evaluated traits were calculated. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations ranged from −0.52 between mastitis and milk up to 0.33 between displaced abomasum and livability. Beginning with the April 2020 CDCB evaluations, Jersey animals will receive evaluations for all 6 health traits. The 6 health traits in NM$ will receive 2% emphasis.
Breeding and Genetics (M3)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:00 t83206 Watch 123 Breeding dairy cattle for the future: Where is the Canadian industry headed? 6 S. Larmer   S. Larmer1 1Semex Alliance, Arthur, ON, Canada Recent uptake of both genomic technology, improved herd fertility, and advanced reproductive technologies including IVF and sexed semen have drastically shifted the focus of dairy cattle breeders globally. This session will explore how these technologies can be used in tandem both in Canadian dairy herds and globally to maximize the potential productivity and efficiency of dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms. Specifically, we will explore the future of breeding cattle with a focus on the productivity of those animals, rather than a focus specifically on the additive genetic potential of the next generation. This includes the estimation and use of higher order genetic terms and better methods of genomic inbreeding to maximize expected production in the next generation. In the Canadian industry, as is seen globally, we see a clear shift away from the traditional model of data sharing between producer and the public evaluation provider, often stemming from a perception that milk recording systems do not provide enough proportional value to the farm. This is especially driven by the rapid growth in robotic milking systems, where production and other performance metrics are available to the farm on a 24x7 basis. This provides an exceptional challenge for the overall industry to maintain and enhance genetic and genomic predictions for economically important traits. The future will need to adapt to this growing reality, including a shift towards accessing, standardizing and utilizing data from these robotic systems, as well as designing new traits where reference populations can be established to effectively and accurately measure data on a smaller, representative group of animals (“closer to biology” traits). Finally, we will look at the future of indexes that drive profitability on farm, and the impact that creating the right index for a specific production system can have for the productivity and profitability of a dairy producer, using examples from Canada and globally.
Dairy Foods Processing M3   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:00 t82314 Watch 96 Effect of heat treatment conditions and pH on physicochemical properties and protein denaturation of liquid milk protein concentrate. 1 N. Rafiee Tari liquid MPC heat treatment conditions pH N. Rafiee Tari1, A. Guri2, Z. Gaygadzhiev3, A. Wright1 1Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Gay Lea Co-operative Foods Ltd, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3Reckitt Benckiser, Evansville, IN Milk protein concentrates (MPC) are high-protein ingredients with unique functional and nutritional properties that can be tailored through modifying processing conditions, including temperature, pH, filtration conditions, and drying. MPC is typically dried to produce powdered ingredients. However, the effect of the processing conditions on structural and functional properties of liquid MPC remains to be thoroughly understood. In this study, the pH of liquid MPC (13% protein and 18.5% total solids) was adjusted to either 6.5, 6,7 or 6.9, followed by heat treatment at 85°C/5min or 125°C/15s. The extent of whey protein denaturation was analyzed by HPLC. Heat treatment at all studied pHs resulted in substantial denaturation of whey proteins, with β-lactoglobulin denatured more extensively than α-lactalbumin. More extensive whey protein denaturation was also observed for MPC heated at 125°C/15s compared with 85°C/5 min, irrespective of pH. Changes in liquid MPC structural properties were monitored over time; 1, 4 and 8 d after the process. Viscosity increased over time, regardless of temperature/time and pH, suggesting the role of whey proteins denaturation and aggregation, and their interaction with casein micelles. MPC at pH 6.9 had a significantly higher viscosity than MPC at pH 6.5 or 6.7, at both temperature/time conditions. Mean particle size of the MPC samples did not change significantly over time. However, the particle size distribution showed the formation of larger particles after 4 and 8 d of cold storage in samples heat treated at pH 6.9. This study showed that the degree of whey protein denaturation and inter- and intramolecular interactions of milk proteins are affected by pH and heat treatment conditions of liquid MPC. The findings provide a better understanding of the processing factors contributing to physicochemical properties of liquid MPC, which can be employed to develop milk protein ingredients with tailored structural and functional properties.
Dairy Foods Processing M3   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:00 t82428 Watch 97 Reconstitution properties of micellar casein powders with different calcium contents and their production. 2 Z. Atamer solubility calcium depletion casein concentrate J. Schäfer1, R. Kohlus2, J. Hinrichs1, Z. Atamer1 1Department of Soft Matter Science and Dairy Technology, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany, 2Department of Process Engineering and Food Powders, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany Micellar casein (mCN) powders have poor reconstitution properties, in particular at low temperatures. The solubility of milk protein powders can be improved by reducing calcium content. Therefore, the study aimed (1) to manufacture calcium reduced mCN powder on a technical scale, and (2) to investigate the reconstitution properties of mCN powders with different calcium contents. For the production of a high-calcium depleted mCN concentrates, the skim milk was first acidified to pH 6.2 (1), and microfiltered (0.1 μm) (2). The retentate was acidified to pH 5.6 (3), and microfiltered in diafiltration modus using demineralized water in 6 steps (4). Finally, the obtained retentate was spray dried (5). For comparison purposes, a slightly-calcium reduced mCN powder was also manufactured. As a reference, non-calcium-depleted mCN was manufactured via concentrating the skim milk using microfiltration and spray drying the resulting retentate. The influence of the calcium content on the solubility and the effect of drying on particle size, apparent viscosity, sol-gel transition, were investigated. A technical-scale production of mCN powder containing different levels of calcium was shown to be possible. The solubility experiments showed that the non-calcium reduced spray-dried powder (calcium content: 19820 ± 330 mg kg−1) had 0.5 ± 0.1 mL sediment, whereas the calcium-reduced micellar casein powders (slightly depleted: calcium content: 27170 ± 10 mg kg−1 and highly depleted: calcium content: 15250 ± 210 mg kg−1) contained 3.8 ± 1.1 mL and 3.4 ± 0.1 mL, respectively, indicating a significantly decreased solubility due to calcium depletion (P < 0.05). The particle size of the reconstituted high-calcium depleted mCN concentrate was significantly bigger (206.3 ± 8.8 nm) (P < 0.05) compared with non- and slightly-calcium depleted mCN concentrates (172.0 ± 2.1 and 174.8 ± 8.1 nm), which were not significantly different in their sizes.
Dairy Foods Processing M3   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:00 t82069 Watch 98 Effect of temperature on the performance of plate-and-frame filtration during milk protein concentrate manufacture. 3 A. Mishra milk protein concentrate plate-and-frame filtration quality A. Mishra1, L. E. Metzger1 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD In the typical milk protein concentrate (MPC) manufacturing process skim milk is ultrafiltered using spiral wound membrane to produce MPC with 20% total solids (TS) and more than 80% total protein (TP) based on solids. This MPC is then further concentrated before spray drying using reverse osmosis or nanofiltration. In this study we had attempted to concentrate MPC using a plate-and-frame filtration (PF) system instead of spiral wound system. Three replicates of MPC80 having TS 20.01, 19.70 and 20.65% from the ultrafiltration of skim milk were concentrated in a PF system fitted with flat sheet membranes (Alfa Laval M37; surface area 3.3 m2 with a 10 kDa molecular weight cut-off). Three different PF settings were utilized including: PF at 22°C (PF22); PF at 50°C for medium solids (PF50MS); PF at 50°C for high solids (PF50HS). Filtration was continued until the transmembrane pressure difference was 9 bar for PF22 and PF50HS. For the PF50MS, filtration was stopped when the TS achieved was 30%. The average flux, final TS and TP/TS ratio were 8.76, 10.50 and 11.18 L/m2hr, 26.83, 29.92 and 34.24% and 0.83, 0.88 and 0.87 respectively for the PF22, PF50MS and PF50HS treatments. The average flux, final TS and TP/TS ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the treatments conducted at 50°C as compared with 22°C. The viscosity of the retentates corresponded to the final TS and was 577, 1513 and 12805 cP for the PF22, PF50MS and PF50HS treatments, respectively. The permeate from the PF50HS treatment had significantly (P < 0.05) higher solids and TP as compared with the other treatments. The standard plate count (SPC) of the retentate before drying was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the treatments at 50°C and was 3.54 to 4.41, 5.17 and 5.28 log10cfu/g for the PF22, PF50MS and PF50HS treatments, respectively. The loose and tapped density of MPC powders after spray drying were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for the PF50MS and PF50HS treatments. This study determined that, increasing the PF temperature improves filtration performance and the level of TS achieved but also increase the SPC count of the final retentate.
Dairy Foods Processing M3   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:00 t82098   99 Processing of high-protein yogurt from milk concentrates: Power ultrasound as an innovative tool to generate specific texture properties. 4 A. Körzendörfer Greek yogurt ultrasound fermented milk product A. Körzendörfer1, J. Hinrichs1 1University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany The fermentation of preconcentrated milk is a challenging method to avoid acid whey during the manufacture of high-protein fermented milks like Greek yogurt and skyr. Since acid whey is undesired as a by-product due to environmental concerns, alternative processes that involve a concentration step before the fermentation, e.g., by microfiltration, are of economic and ecological interest. However, acid milk gels from concentrated milk (>8% protein) exhibit a high interconnectivity and an excessive firmness, resulting in technical and sensory problems. As the reduction of the microgel particle size is impaired, products are often not smooth and perceived as too viscous. The aim of our research was to improve the processing of high-protein yogurt from concentrates. For this purpose, power ultrasound (US) was applied as an innovative post-processing technology. Skim milk was fortified with milk protein powder to 10% protein, heated, and fermented at 43°C. Fermentations were stopped at pH 5.0, 4.8, and 4.6, respectively, by breaking up the gel with a perforated disc and immersing the containers in iced water. Yogurts were processed into stirred yogurt by shearing. Half of the samples were additionally treated with an US sonotrode for 5 s at a frequency of 20 kHz. Several physical properties were then analyzed. The short-term sonication considerably decreased the apparent viscosity of the yogurts by 30–40%, whereas the particle size and water-holding capacity were only slightly affected. Further experiments were performed by studying the effects of sonication time. Strong negative exponential correlations (R2 > 0.99) were found between the sonication time and various rheological properties (storage modulus, apparent viscosity, yield stress). Moreover, the visual smoothness of the yogurts increased with the sonication time. The application of power US is a highly effective tool to control the rheological properties of high-protein fermented milks from concentrates. This offers the potential to develop innovative products and will help to establish sustainable processes.
Dairy Foods Processing M3   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:00 t82216 Watch 100 Freezing high-pressure-jet–treated ice cream mix: A study of the kinetics and microstructure. 5 G. L. Voronin high-pressure jet ice cream transmission electron microscopy G. L. Voronin1, G. Ning1, J. N. Coupland1, R. Roberts1, F. M. Harte1 1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA High-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing, a recent development in high pressure technology, has been shown to enhance foaming, emulsifying, and rheological properties in a variety of dairy systems including skim and whole milk. Recently, we showed a 400 MPa HPJ treatment of low fat ice cream mix resulted in an ice cream mix with an increased consistency coefficient and reduced apparent ice crystal growth compared with a non-HPJ-treated control due to the formation of fat-protein complexes at 400 MPa, which were visualized using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). These results suggest potential for eliminating the need for hydrocolloids and emulsifiers in an ice cream formulation, however these benefits have not been demonstrated in a dynamically frozen ice cream. The objectives of the current work were to characterize the physical properties (overrun, apparent viscosity, particle size) of HPJ-treated (100–500 MPa) low fat ice cream (6% fat) throughout dynamic freezing and to determine the melting rate, hardness, and microstructure of the final ice cream after hardening. At each pressure, triplicate low-fat ice cream batches were produced. All results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA to identify significance at a 0.05 level (P < 0.05) with Tukey's test applied for mean comparisons. A combination of CSLM and transmission electron microscopy revealed unique microstructural components in ice creams treated at HPJ pressures ≥400 MPa including coalesced milkfat coated with disrupted casein micelles. The ice creams treated at these pressures (≥400 MPa) also had an increased apparent viscosity (when melted, 26.2 mPa.s at 500 MPa), hardness (3,824 g at 500 MPa), and melting rate (2.6 g.min−1at 500 MPa) compared with a non-HPJ-treated control (viscosity = 12.9 mPa.s, hardness = 2,506 g, and melting rate = 2.2 g.min−1). These differences were attributed to the unique microstructure developed during HPJ treatment. By altering the microstructure, apparent viscosity, and hardness of a low fat ice cream, HPJ technology shows some promise for alleviating some common ice cream defects including ice cream shrinkage and iciness.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M3)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:00 t83047 Watch 101 Management strategies impact milk fatty acid production and its relationship with milk composition. 1 S. C. Allen de novo milk fat S. C. Allen1, D. M. Barbano2, D. H. Poole1, J. Odle1, M. A. Drake1, S. H. Ward1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Ten herds (n = 6 Jersey, JE, n = 3 Holstein, HO, n = 1 mixed) were enrolled to determine the impact of management practices and breed on milk FA composition. Bulk tank samples were collected monthly (7 samples/mo) and analyzed for milk and FA composition (de novo, DNFA; mixed origin, MOFA; and preformed, PRFA). Data were analyzed using PROC CORR and REG of SAS. A positive relationship was observed between milk fat %, protein % and DNFA in JE herds (r = 0.7473 and 0.6474, R2 = 0.5571 and 0.6474, P < 0.0001). HO herds showed similar results for fat and protein % (r = 0.7476 and 0.7433, R2 = 0.8653, respectively, P < 0.0001). DNFA and milk protein (kg) were positively correlated in JE and HO herds (r = 0.8053; R2 = 0.6474, JE; r = 0.8628, R2 = 0.7433, HO; P < 0.001). A stronger relationship was observed between MOFA and milk protein % with HO herds than JE herds (r = 0.8341 and 0.4849, R2 = 0.2329 and 0.6944 and 0.2329, respectively, P < 0.001). Herd visits were conducted quarterly to collect body condition and locomotion scores, stocking rates, and ration composition and particle size. Herds were classified as high and low de novo (HDN, LDN), mixed origin (HMO, LMO), and preformed (HPF, LPF) at each visit. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS; herd classification was the fixed effect. Means were separated using Fisher’s LSD, and significance was declared when P ≤ 0.05. Compared with LMO herds, HMO herds fed more NDF (20.87% and 42.10%, respectively) and ADF (17.82% and 38.32%, respectively, P < 0.05). HO herds classified as HMO produced more milk fat than LMO herds (3.90 v. 3.56%, respectively, P < 0.05). FA content was not affected by body condition, stocking rate, or lameness (P > 0.05). The relationship between FA content and milk fat varies with breed and nutrition. Milk FA, particularly DNFA and MOFA, could be used as predictors of disorders or stressors to the cow.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M3)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:00 t82396 Watch 102 Milk fat and protein yield in Holstein California herds with different milk production levels. 2 M. B. Abreu milk production level milk components California dairies M. B. Abreu1,2, M. I. Marcondes1, F. C. Ferreira2, B. Verboort3, N. Silva-Del-Río2 1Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil, 2Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, University of California-Davis, Tulare, CA, 3Agritech Analytics, Visalia, CA The objective of the present study was to benchmark milk components (fat and protein) across Holstein California dairy herds with different milk production levels (MPL). Dairy Herd Improvement Association records from 2017 were obtained from Agritech Analytics (Visalia, CA). The initial data set included information from 343 herds, 572,893 cows, and 3,182,862 milk tests. Data was screened using proc Means of SAS. The effect of MPL on milk components was evaluated using the GLIMMIX of SAS. Least squares means were considered different when P ≤ 0.05. The final data set included herds with ≥200 cows and >5 mo test, and cows with until 200 d in milk (DIM). Cow observations with <2% or >6% of fat and protein content, and milk yield ≥ 10 kg were considered outliers. After data screening, the final data set include 238 herds, 462,550 cows, and 1,830,884 milk tests. Herds were classified according to MPL as low (LP; 1: < 32 kg; n = 59), medium (MP; Q1 ≤ to ≤ Q3: 32 ≤ to ≤38 kg; n = 118), and high (HP; > Q3: > 38 kg; n = 61) production level. On average, the final enrolled herds had 2,763, 2,365, and 2,882 cows and produced 31, 39, 43 kg/d respectively for LP, MP, and HP. Milk fat (%) [4.39% (LP); 3.64% (MP); 3.63%(HP)] and milk protein (%) [3.47%(LP) 3.07%(MP); 3.02%(HP)] significantly decreased as MPL increased. However, average milk fat yield (kg/cow/d) [1.31 (LP); 1.40 (MP); 1.58 (HP)] and protein yield (kg/cow/d) [1.03 (LP); 1.19 (MP); 1.31 (HP)] significantly increased as MPL increased. There was a significant effect of the month and a month by MPL interaction for milk fat and protein (%). For the top 10 fat and protein producing herds (9 HP, 1 MP), fat per cow ranged from 1.66 to 1.84 kg/d (3.46 to 3.86%) and protein per cow 1.37 to 1.59 kg/d (2.93 to 3.24%) respectively. In conclusion, although LP herds had the greatest association with milk fat and protein content, HP herds showed greatest association with milk fat and protein yield.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M3)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:00 t81967 Watch 103 Do biological and management causes of a short or long dry period induce the same effects on dairy cattle productivity? 3 K. E. Olagaray gestation length lactation survival K. E. Olagaray1, M. W. Overton2, B. J. Bradford1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN A retrospective observational study utilized 32,182 lactations from 16 farms to determine if management versus biological reasons for a short or long dry period have the same associations with subsequent lactation performance. Herd inclusion criteria were Holstein cows, herd size ≥900 cows, breeding by artificial insemination, and bimonthly milk testing. Dry period (DP) length and gestation length (GL) were each categorized as short (>1 SD below mean) or long (>1 SD above mean) and combined to generate the following 7 study groups: short DP, short GL (SDSG); short DP, average GL (SDAG); average DP, short GL (ADSG); average DP, average GL (ADAG); average DP, long GL (ADLG); long DP, average GL (LDAG); and long DP, long GL (LDLG). Continuous data were analyzed by mixed models and time to event data by Cox proportional hazard models, both accounting for clustering at the herd level. First test and whole lactation milk and component yields were least for SDSG. Within cows that experienced calving difficulty, time to first service was delayed 13 and 20% for SDSG and ADSG compared with ADAG. Hazard of leaving the herd by 60 DIM was 34% greater for ADSG than ADAG. Similar outcomes between SDSG and ADSG but not SDAG indicated short GL was a greater contributor to poor performance than DP length itself. Overall production was similar between ADAG and SDAG; however, first test somatic cell linear score was greater and milk yield was lesser for SDAG cows with greater milk at last test before dry-off. Long DP or GL did not impact early lactation or whole lactation milk yield. Cows with a long DP due to management factors (LDAG) likely experienced issues related to excessive lipid mobilization as milk fat concentration and fat:protein ratio at first test were greater and hazard of leaving the herd was 30 and 24% greater compared with ADAG by 60 and 365 DIM, respectively. In conclusion, deviations in DP length caused by biology (short GL) were associated with greater impacts than management causes of short DP, whereas management reasons for long DP were associated with more negative outcomes than long GL.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M3)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:00 t81629 Watch 104 Economics of capture of phosphorus from liquid dairy manure. 4 J. Harrison manure phosphorus nutrient balance J. Harrison1, K. Fullerton1, E. Whitefield1, K. Bowers2, S. Norberg3 1Washington State University, Puyallup, WA, 2Multiform Harvest, Seattle, WA, 3Washington State University, Pasco, WA A project was conducted with the goal of developing a nutrient recycling relationship between the dairy producers and alfalfa forage growers in Washington State. A mobile fluidized-bed cone (32,000 L) was used to evaluate the capture of P in the form of struvite (magnesium-ammonium phosphate) from undigested and anaerobically digested liquid dairy manure. Manure from ~30 dairies was evaluated and In 27 runs when reduction in ortho-P was positive, the average reduction in ortho- P was 32% with a range of 1 to 76%. The greatest capture rates were achieved with anaerobically digested manure since more of the P is in an inorganic form and captured in struvite. The factors that affected performance were: % suspended solids, Calcium, Fe, ratio of ortho-phosphate-P:total P, and ammonia concentration. When using data from the highest recoveries of P, the cost as calculated on a per cow per d basis when considering chemical costs were: $0.22 (anaerobically digested manure) to $0.39 (undigested manure). The use of a cost per cow per d metric for cost is not the most appropriate way to evaluate the cost to a given farm since the goal is to achieve a net zero balance of P imports and exports from any given farm. The net zero balance will be affected by factors such as: number of cows, number of acres utilized for manure application, phosphorus utilization by crops grown, double or triple cropping strategies, diet manipulation, and manure export off-farm. The factor having the greatest impact on achieving P balance is the land base for growing crops that utilize manure. When using the scenario of 1000 cows, 67 g per d per cow excreted P, and 27 kg P uptake by crops per year, the annual cost to achieve balance for respective hectares were: anaerobically digested manure 242 ha, $275,074; 283 ha, $182,693; 324 ha, $90,312; 344 ha, $44,122, and 362 ha, $2550. The annual cost to achieve balance for respective acres were: undigested manure 242 ha, $523,208; 283 ha, $347,494; 324 ha, $171,779; 344 ha, $83,922, and 362 ha, $4,851.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M3)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:00 t82025 Watch 106 Economic impacts of feeding an immune modulator to multiparous dry Holstein dairy cows. 5 L. T. Casarotto dairy economics milk reproduction L. T. Casarotto1, V. Ouellet1, J. Laporta1, J. D. Chapman2, A. De Vries1, G. E. Dahl1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ Feeding OmniGen-AF (OMN, Phibro Animal Health) to lactating and dry cows exposed to heat stress lowers respiration rates and rectal temperatures and improves lactational performance and health. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding OMN beginning at dry off until mid-lactation and quantify the economic impact of this supplementation strategy. Cows in a commercial Holstein dairy herd were randomly assigned to OMN (56 g/d, n = 706) or control (CON; 56 g/d of placebo, n = 686) supplementation from dry off (~60 d before calving) to 150 DIM (~210 d total feeding length). Milk yield, reproductive performance, and health events were analyzed using MIXED and LIFETEST procedures of SAS. Milk yield of OMN cows was 0.7 kg/d greater than CON (40.8 kg/d vs. 40.1 kg/d respectively; P < 0.01). Using a milk price of $0.44/kg and a lactation length of 150 DIM, income from milk would be increased $46/cow when OMN is fed. During lactation, OMN feeding tended (P < 0.11) to reduce the incidence of mastitis (257 vs. 284 cases), retained placenta (38 vs. 52 cases), displaced abomasum (18 vs. 22 cases) and days in hospital relative to CON. Considering the costs of treatment (i.e., labor, medications, veterinarian fees, and replacement costs) and the number of cases of each disorder, feeding OMN reduced health-associated costs by $14/cow relative to CON. Feeding OMN also improved reproductive performance as reflected in a 10-d reduction in days open (P < 0.05) compared with CON. Assuming an extra day open cost of $3/d, the enhanced reproductive performance associated with feeding OMN would lead to a savings of $30/cow compared with CON. Ultimately, total economic gain associated with OMN supplementation for 210d was of $90/cow. The cost of supplementation was $32/cow, for a net benefit of $58/cow. In conclusion, our results indicate that OmniGen-AF supplementation from dry-off through 150 DIM benefits cow health and performance and improves herd profitability.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t82611 Watch 107 The effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol on ruminal microbial gene expression in dairy cows. 1 D. Pitta enteric methane rumen microbe dairy cow D. Pitta1, A. Melgar2, N. Indugu1, V. Shabtai1, M. Hennessy1, B. Vecchiarelli1, M. Kindermann3, N. Walker3, R. Thauer4, A. Hristov3 1University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, 2The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 3DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland, 4Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany Research indicates that 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), a methane inhibitor under investigation, reduces enteric methane emissions by an average of about 24% in dairy cows. However, studies on the contribution of different methanogens to methanogenesis in the rumen and the effect on these pathways by 3-NOP are lacking. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of 3-NOP on inhibition of different methanogenesis pathways in dairy cows fed silage-based diets over a 12-week period using metatranscriptomics. Rumen contents of 8 ruminally-cannulated early-lactation dairy cows were sampled 2 h after feeding during wk 4, 8, and 12 of a randomized complete block design experiment in which 3-NOP was fed at 60 mg/kg feed dry matter intake. Cows (4 control and 4 3-NOP) were blocked based on their previous lactation milk yield or predicted milk yield. Rumen samples were extracted for RNA and reverse transcribed to cDNA. Libraries were then constructed, sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform, and sequences were annotated against the KEGG database. Three methanogenesis pathways were identified: the hydrogenotrophic (CO2 + H2) pathway was the predominant pathway (contributing to about 70% of methanogenesis in the rumen in this experiment), followed by the methanol-utilizing (15%) and methylamine-utilizing pathways (10%). Six species of Methanobrevibacter, 2 species of Methanosphaera, and Methanomassiliicoccales representatives were involved in the hydrogenotrophic pathway, methanol-reducing, and methylamine-reducing methanogenesis pathways, respectively. The most abundant archaeal transcripts were those of genes encoding the α, β, and gamma chains of methyl co-enzyme reductase (MCR), an enzyme that facilitates the formation of methane and is present in all methanogens. This study showed that 3-NOP numerically reduced MCR transcripts by 4, 30, and 12% at wk 4, 8, and 12, respectively, accompanied by a 25% reduction in enteric methane (g/kg ECM, P < 0.0001). It can be concluded that inhibition of the MCR enzyme in ruminal methanogens is responsible for the reported reduction in enteric methane emission by 3-NOP.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t82592 Watch 108 Temporal changes in total and metabolically active ruminal methanogens induced by 3-nitrooxypropanol in dairy cows. 2 C. Pappalardo enteric methane methanogen diversity dairy cow D. Pitta1, A. Melgar2, N. Indugu1, C. Pappalardo1, M. Hennessy2, B. Vecchiarelli1, V. Shabtai1, M. Kindermann3, N. Walker3, A. Hristov2 1University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, 2The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 3DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland It has been shown that enteric methane production in dairy cows peaks within 6 h post-feeding and that the mitigating effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), a methane inhibitor under investigation, is highest immediately post-feeding and lowest before feeding. The effect of 3-NOP on methanogen populations in the rumen over the course of the day has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-NOP on total and metabolically active methanogens in the rumen of dairy cows over the course of the day and over a 12-week period. Rumen contents of 8 ruminally-cannulated early-lactation dairy cows were sampled at 2, 6, and 10 h after feeding during wk 4, 8, and 12 of a randomized complete block design experiment in which 3-NOP was fed at 60 mg/kg feed dry matter intake. Cows (4 control and 4 3-NOP) were blocked based on their previous lactation milk yield or predicted milk yield. Rumen samples were extracted for microbial DNA (total) and microbial RNA (metabolically active), PCR-amplified for the 16S rDNA gene of archaea, sequenced on an Illumina platform, and analyzed for archaea diversity. There was a difference (P < 0.05) between DNA and cDNA-based archaea communities revealing that methanogens have different metabolic capacities. At the community level, weighted UniFrac analysis (commonly present populations) revealed differences (P < 0.05) by treatment, week, and their interaction. In the unweighted UniFrac analysis (presence-absence information), methanogen communities differed by treatment, week, sampling hour, and their interaction in both DNA and cDNA-based analysis. Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus followed by Methanosphaera, with the latter genus having greater abundance in the metabolically active component compared with total populations. The relative abundance of Methanosphaera was higher at 2 h compared with 6 and 10 h after feeding, and the reverse was true for Methanobrevibacter. These findings show that Methanosphaera may increase following feed intake and may have a greater share in total methane formation than previously thought.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t82493 Watch 109 Early life modulation of the gut microbiota and antibiotic resistance in calves fed oregano essential oil. 3 P. P. Ray calves antibiotic resistance essential oil P. P. Ray1, C. Rymer1, D. Wilde2, E. F. Lund2, A. C. Singer3 1Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom, 2Anpario plc, Worksop, United Kingdom, 3NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom This study aimed to investigate the modulation in the gut microbiota and associated changes in antibiotic resistance in calves fed Oregano essential oil (EO). Ten Holstein bull calves were divided into 2 groups (5 calves/group) and assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (fed waste milk) and EO (Orego-Stim Liquid, Anpario plc, UK; fed waste milk with EO for the first 10 d of the study) within 48 h after birth. Fecal grab samples were collected on d 0, 3, 10, 21 and at weaning. Replica plating technique was used to determine the proportion of E. coli colonies resistant to a 4th generation cephalosporin (cefquinome). Genomic DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA (V3-V4) was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were processed in R using DADA2 Pipeline and analyzed using Minitab. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were 2 most predominant phyla across all samples. While fecal abundance of Firmicutes was higher in control calves compared with EO-fed calves (66 vs 44%; P = 0.01), Actinobacteria was more abundant in EO-fed calves than in control calves (39 vs 15%; P = 0.05). Relative abundance of genus Butyricicoccus in the feces was higher in control calves compared with EO-fed calves (19 vs 9%; P = 0.04). Arthrobacter and Escherichia tended to be less abundant (3.8 vs 3.9%; P = 0.10; 0.4 vs 0.6%; P = 0.05) and Ruminococcus tended to be more abundant in EO-fed calves compared with control calves (2.1 vs 1.5%; P = 0.05). Feeding EO did not influence overall species richness and evenness. However, both richness and evenness were greater in control calves compared with EO-fed calves on d 3 and 10, but not after d 10. Relative abundance of Arthrobacter was positively correlated to the fecal abundance of cefquinome resistant E. coli (ρ = 0.56; P < 0.01). Fecal count of Cryptosporidium eggs tended to increase with increasing abundance of Arthrobacter (ρ = 0.40; P = 0.09) and decreasing abundance of Ruminococcus (ρ = 0.40; P = 0.10). Feeding EO to young calves could modulate the gut microbiota such that growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria and parasite colonization is reduced.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t81826 Watch 110 Improving rumen microbial fermentation profile with natural active ingredients. 4 M. E. Rodriguez-Prado essential oils rumen microbial fermentation R. Temmar1, M. E. Rodriguez-Prado1, G. Forgeard2, C. Rougier2, S. Calsamiglia1 1Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service, Univeristat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, 2Techna France Nutrition, Coueron, France Different doses of essential oils were screened to select those able to increase propionic and/or butyric and decrease acetic acids using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Treatments were control (CTR), monensin (MON, at 1.25 and 12.5 mg/L) and 13 essential oils from: cassia, anise star, geraniol, lemongrass, limonene D-natural and thyme (at 80, 300 and 750 mg/L); tea tree and coriander seed (at 40, 150 and 375 mg/L); capsicum oleoresin and black pepper (at 0.4, 3 and 7.5 mg/L); garlic (at 30, 120 and 300 mg/L); and turmeric and ginger (at 10, 40 and 150 mg/L). Treatments were added to 50 mL of a 1:1 buffer: rumen fluid medium with 0.5g of a 50:50 forage to concentrate diet under anaerobic conditions and starting pH of 6.6. The experiment was done in triplicate in 2 independent periods. After 24 h, samples were taken for pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia-N concentration determinations. Effects were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The majority of essential oils had no effect at low doses except for garlic and lemongrass. Garlic at 30, 120 and 300 mg/L tended to increase (P < 0.10) propionate and decreased (P < 0.05) the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Lemongrass at 80 mg/L tended to increase propionate (P < 0.10) and decreased (P < 0.05) the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Anise star and thyme (P < 0.05) at 300 mg/L and coriander seed at 150 mg/L (P < 0.10) increased the proportion of butyrate. Capsicum at 3 mg/L, coriander seed at 150 mg/L and thyme at 750 mg/L decreased (P < 0.05) ammonia-N concentration, but the rest of essential oils did not change the ammonia-N concentration. Results confirm the ability of some essential oils to modulate microbial fermentation in a direction consistent with higher propionate molar proportion, and lower acetate molar proportion, the acetate-to-propionate ratio and ammonia-N concentration without changing total VFA in effective doses between 30 and 750 mg/L depending on essential oils.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t81828 Watch 111 Exploring synergistic interaction between essential oils in in vitro rumen microbial fermentation. 5 M. E. Rodriguez-Prado essential oils mixtures rumen microbial fermentation synergies R. Temmar1, M. E. Rodriguez-Prado1, G. Forgeard2, C. Rougier2, S. Calsamiglia1 1Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service, Universität Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, 2TECHNA France Nutrition, Coueron, France Mixtures of lemongrass (LEM), coriander seed (COR) and ginger oils (GIN) were screened to explore synergistic effects using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Incubations were conducted in a 1:1 rumen fluid: buffer media with 0.5 g of a 50:50 forage to concentrate diet at a starting pH of 6.6, 38°C and anaerobic conditions. Incubations were done in triplicate and in 2 periods. After 24 h, samples were taken for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N concentration determinations. Doses were: LEM (50, 100 mg/L), COR (50, 100 mg/L) and GIN (75, 150 mg/L) mixed at different proportions. Treatments were: T1 (100% LEM), T2 (100% COR), T3 (100% GIN), T4 (50% LEM, 50% COR), T5 (50% LEM and 50% GIN), T6 (50% COR, 50% GIN), T7 (33% LEM, 33% COR, 33% GIN), T8 (50% LEM, 25% COR, 25% GIN), T9 (25% LEM, 50% COR, 25% GIN), T10 (25% LEM, 25% COR, 50% GIN), T11 (100% LEM, 100% COR, 100% GIN), control (CTR), monensin at 10 mg/L (MON) and a blank. All treatments were diluted in ethanol, and the control and blank were also dosed with the equivalent amount of ethanol (0.2 mL). Using LEM, COR and GIN individually did not modify microbial fermentation. However, mixing together LEM and GIN at 62.5 and 125 mg/L increased (P < 0.05) propionate molar proportion and tended (P < 0.10) to decrease acetate molar proportion and the acetate-to-propionate ratio without changing total VFA and ammonia-N concentration, resulting in a synergistic effect. Mixing together COR and GIN at 62.5 and 125 mg/L increased (P < 0.05) butyrate molar proportion, decreased (P < 0.05) acetate and tended to decrease (P < 0.1) the acetate-to-propionate ratio without changing total VFA and ammonia-N concentration, also resulting in synergistic effect. Careful selection and combination of these EO may result in useful mixtures with synergistic interactions to modulate rumen microbial fermentation.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M3)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:00 t82797   418 The effects of neomycin inclusion in milk replacers on the health, growth, and performance of male Holstein calves. 6 L. N. Buss antimicrobial gut development histology L. N. Buss1, T. T. Yohe1, L. R. Cangiano1, A. J. Keunen2, D. L. Renaud1, L. L. Guan3, M. A. Steele1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Mapleview Agri. Ltd, Mapleton, ON, Canada, 3University of Alberta, Edmonton, ON, Canada The prophylactic use of oral antimicrobials is common practice in calf rearing, however, the impacts on gut health are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral antibiotic (neomycin) on calf health, performance, and gastrointestinal development. One hundred fifty calves, less than a week old, were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 50 per treatment): control (CON: non-medicated milk replacer; MR), short-term antibiotic (ST: neomycin mixed in MR at 20mg/kg BW from d1–14), or long-term antibiotic (LT: neomycin in MR at 20mg/kg BW from d1–28). Fecal dry matter and BW were measured weekly, whereas daily fecal scores (FS) were assigned for the first 28 d. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects included treatment, period, day, and their interactions, and the random effect of calf within treatment. Statistical significance was considered at P ≤ 0.05. A treatment effect (P = 0.01) was observed for FS, where CON calves experienced higher average FS (0.640 ± 0.031) compared with ST (0.530 ± 0.034) and LT calves (0.409 ± 0.034). CON calves also experienced longer bouts (P < 0.01) of diarrhea (5.44 ± 0.35 d) compared with ST (3.78 ± 0.39 d) and LT calves (3.82 ± 0.38 d). At d7, significant differences were observed in fecal dry matter (P < 0.01), where CON calves experienced lower fecal dry matter (0.130 ± 0.012%) than ST (0.200 ± 0.013%) or LT (0.170 ± 0.013%) calves. No significant differences in average daily gain (P = 0.475; SEM = 0.0546) were observed. On d28, a subset of 36 calves (n = 12 per treatment) were euthanized and dissected to assess gastrointestinal development. Histomorphometric measurements were characterized in the distal jejunum, ileum, and colon. Calves in the LT group had heavier (27.50 ± 2.58g) duodenums (P = 0.04) and deeper (515.58 ± 6.31μm) distal jejunum crypt depths (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that while neomycin may affect intestinal morphology and decrease the incidence and severity of diarrhea, it has no effect on growth performance, which questions the efficacy of neomycin inclusion in milk replacer.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t81671 Watch 112 Effect of protected dietary oils on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production in dairy goats. 1 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez goat oils milk E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1, R. Ayala-Hernández2, N. Pescador-Salas2, O. Castelán-Ortega2, M. González-Ronquillo2 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark, 2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Instituto Literario 100, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México This study evaluated the effect of protected dietary oils on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility and milk production in dairy goats. Nine Saanen goats with 150 d in milk were blocked by live weight (LW; 59 ± 4 kg) and used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design (n = 3) with 25-d periods and were kept in individual pens. Periods consisted of 17 of diet adaptation and 8 d of data collection. A basal diet based on barley hay and corn silage was supplemented with 2.7% DM of calcium soaps of either palm (PO), canola (CO) or safflower (SO) oils. Goats were milked daily at 0700h, and milk yield was recorded daily in all experimental periods. Data for LW, dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility and milk production was analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Sums of squares from the data were separated into overall mean, goat (within square), square, period, diet, and overall error. All variables were considered fixed, except for goat (within square) and overall error, which were considered random. DMI was higher (P < 0.001) in PO and CO than in SO (113 and 112 vs. 87 g/kg LW0.75). Compared with CO, in vivo digestibilities of dry matter (65.3 ± 2.25 vs. 55.2 ± 2.39 and 58.8 ± 2.32%), organic matter (66.3 ± 2.23 vs. 55.9 ± 2.39 and 60.6 ± 1.90%), and neutral detergent fiber (61.6 ± 2.73 vs. 46.0 ± 6.14 and 51.0 ± 4.27%) were lowered (P < 0.001) by SO and PO. Compared with PO and CO, milk production increased (P < 0.001) by SO (0.88 ± 0.19 and 0.95 ± 0.11 vs. 1.10 ± 0.17 kg/d). Overall, compared with PO and SO, CO promoted a more efficient use of nutrients in dairy goat diets.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t82498 Watch 113 Effect of dietary inclusion of sunflower seed silage (Helianthus annuus) on physical and sensory characteristics of sheep cheese. 2 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez sheep cheese sunflower A. C. Narvaes-López1, L. E. Robles-Jiménez1, E. Cardoso-Gutiérrez1, M. d. l. Á. Colín-Cruz1, M. González-Ronquillo1, E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez2 1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Instituto Literario 100, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México, 2Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and sensory characteristics of cheeses from sheep supplemented with sunflower seed silage (SFS). Six East Friesian ewes were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design during 3 periods of 20 d. At the beginning of the study animals were 70 ± 5 d in milk. Animals were kept in individual pens. Experimental periods consisted of 15 d for diet adaptation and the last 5 d for milk collection. Animals received a control diet (25%DM corn silage, 25%DM alfalfa hay, 50%DM concentrate), and supplemented diets with whole sunflower seed (SF; 5%DM) or SFS (5% DM). Two cheeses per period per treatment (1 kg/each) were manufactured and allowed to ripen for 180 d. After ripening times, an acceptance test was performed with a panel composed of 50 untrained judges. Evaluations on odor, color, texture, taste and overall acceptability used a 5-point hedonic scale (1 = lowest and 5 = highest; intensities). Likewise, pH, colorimetric and quantification of mesophiles, coliforms, fungi and yeasts were determined. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design using GLM procedure form SAS. No differences were observed in odor (3.08 ± 0.20), color (3.46 ± 0.38) and texture (3.31 ± 0.58). Scores for taste were higher (P < 0.001) in SF and overall acceptability was lower (P < 0.001) in SFS. Compared with control, pH was lower (P < 0.05) in SFS (5.31 ± 0.03 vs. 4.87 ± 0.06). Lightness (L*; 71.0 ± 2.27), redness (a*; −0.79 ± 0.78), yellowness (b*; 20.9 ± 1.04), chroma (C*; 20.96 ± 0.75) and hue (H*; 92.3 ± 2.15) were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). Counts for mesophiles, coliforms, fungi and yeasts were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). Results showed that SFS decreases overall acceptability of ripened cheeses without detrimental effects on color and microorganism presence.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t82169 Watch 114 Effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber on mid-infrared predicted milk constituents of non-traditional dairy sheep breeds milked on an accelerated lambing system. 3 N. Kochendoerfer sheep sheep milk NDF N. Kochendoerfer1, M. L. Thonney1, D. M. Barbano1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The effect of replacing dietary NFC with highly digestible NDF from soy hulls (SH) on milk constituents of Finnsheep × Dorset ewes (n = 53) was tested in short and frequent 73-d lactations. The experiment was a triply replicated Latin square (3 ewe groups each with 3 pens of 4–6 animals per pen, 3 lactations, 3 diets). The diets (L-SH, M-SH, H-SH) contained 31.7, 36.3, 40.0% aNDFom and 41.3, 37.2, 31.9% NFC, respectively. Milk was weighed at each 2X milking and ~9 weekly samples across each of the 127 lactations were collected and refrigerated until analyzed. The 1170 samples were analyzed with a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrophotometer and validated with Mojonnier ether extract, Kjeldahl, and MUN reference chemistry. Milk yield and component concentrations were regressed on DIM to obtain average concentrations for each individual lactation. The resulting data were analyzed using a model that included Square Number, Pen and Lactation within Square Number, and Diet. True protein, fat, and lactose concentrations, with means of 5.28 ± 0.05, 5.91 ± 0.09, and 4.81 ± 0.08, respectively, were not significantly affected by level of dietary NDF. True protein, fat, and lactose yields were highest for ewes fed the M-SH diet (P < 0.05), reflecting their overall higher milk yields. Ewes fed the M-SH diet generated the highest concentrations of de novo, mixed, and preformed fatty acids per 100 g milk (P < 0.05). Lactose predicted milk yield (r2 = 0.99) and the relationship between protein and milk yield was stronger (r2 = 0.93) than the relationship between fat and milk yield (r2 = 0.75). Mixed origin fatty acids had the strongest relationship with total fat concentration (r2 = 0.71). Percentages of fatty acids that were de novo and mixed origin had means of 38.5 ± 0.27, and 26.7 ± 0.19, respectively, and were not affected by diet. Preformed fatty acid concentrations were highest (P < 0.05) for the M-SH diet (35.5 ± 0.16). The diet with medium soyhull inclusion supported significantly higher milk and milk component yields, as well as numerically higher milk fat concentrations.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t82361 Watch 115 A high rumen degradable starch diet modulates jejunum microbiota and alters enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in dairy goats. 4 Y. Cao bile acids enterohepatic circulation lipid metabolism J. Shen1, X. Chen2, L. Wang1,2, J. Yao1, Y. Cao1,2 1Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of milk fat depression in the liver and small intestine of dairy goats fed different rumen degradable starch (RDS) diets. Eighteen Guanzhong lactating goats (2nd lactation, 45.8 ± 1.54 kg) in experiment 1 and 6 ruminally cannulated dairy goats (aged 2–3 y, 54 ± 2.4 kg) in experiment 2 were used to investigate the effect of dietary RDS content (LRDS = 20.52%, MRDS = 22.15%, HRDS = 24.88%) on liver metabolism and free-LPS concentrations, respectively. The treatments lasted for 28 d with 21 d for adaption and 7 d for sampling. In experiment 1, blood samples were collected for analyses of biochemical parameters; liver, ileal mucosa, and jejunal contents samples were collected for analysis of metabolites, mRNA expression and microbiota, respectively. In experiment 2, rumen fluid and blood samples were collected for determination of free-LPS. Comparisons were made between the treatments using Student’s t-test. Free-LPS concentrations were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Compared with LRDS, the HRDS significantly decreased the milk fat composition (3.74% to 3.01%), enhanced the activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase in plasma, increased free-LPS concentrations in both rumen liquid (7570 EU/mL to13600 EU/mL) and plasma (0.037 EU/mL to 0.179 EU/mL) (P < 0.05), indicating hepatic injury were induced by HRDS. HRDS significantly decreased the concentrations of certain fatty acids (included linolenic acid, etc.), and phospholipids (including PC (18:0/18:1), etc.), and increased the concentrations of L-carnitine and L-palmitoylcarnitine (VIP > 1, P < 0.10), and the protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (P < 0.05) in liver compared with the LRDS, indicating HRDS promoted lipid β-oxidation. Compared with LRDS, HRDS significantly increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Ruminococcus_2 in jejunal content (P < 0.05, LDA > 2), increased the concentrations of taurochenodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholic acid (VIP > 1, P < 0.10) and mRNA expression of CYP7A1 (P < 0.05) in liver, decreased the expression of bile acid receptor FXR (P < 0.05) in ileum mucosa, indicating the negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis was inhibited. This study demonstrated that HRDS feeding modulates jejunum microbiota and alters enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and promotes lipid β-oxidation in dairy goats.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t82736 Watch 116 The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based products on the ruminal environment and performance of sheep submitted to dietary changes. 5 C. Brauner yeast culture ruminal modulation starch L. Tavares1, M. Araújo1, J. Noschang1, J. Halfen1, A. Schmidt1, A. Matos1, M. Ollé1, A. Barbosa1, J. Feijó1, C. Brauner1, M. Corrêa1, E. Schmitt1, F. Del Pino1, V. Rabassa1 1Núcleo de Pesquisa, Ensino e Extensão em Pecuária (NUPEEC), Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil The increase in the use of energy foods in ruminant can trigger important metabolic disturbances, making the use of additives an effective strategy in modulating the ruminal environment with performance optimization. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in maintaining ruminal pH, performance and metabolism in sheep submitted to changes in the diet starch concentration. For this purpose, 20 adult female sheep were used in a confined system and randomized assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: no yeast (Control; n = 6), yeast culture (YC; n = 7) and hydrolyzed yeast (HY; n = 7) supplemented with 5g/sheep/day. The groups were submitted to 4 experimental periods of 5 d, varying the composition of the diet in 40 and 60% wheat bran and the remainder composed of roughage based on corn silage. The diet in periods 1 and 3 was composed by 40% of wheat bran and periods 2 and 4 by 60% of wheat bran on DM basis. Feed offered was adjusted to achieve 3% of BW. Blood, ruminal fluid and BW were evaluated at the end of each period and the DMI was recorded daily. Ruminal fluid was analyzed to determine the physical parameters, ruminal pH, bacterial activity through the methylene blue test and evaluation of the motility of the protozoa under an optical microscope immediately after collection. Data were analyzed using NCSS software and the averages were analyzed using the mixed models method. Although rumen pH was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment, protozoan motility was more efficient in supplemented animals (P < 0.05). The DMI was not affected, however, there was a trend to increase the daily gain (kg/d) in YC group in comparison with control in the third period (0.47 vs. 0.11 ± 0.26 kg) (P = 0.10). The HY showed an increase in total proteins (P < 0.01) in the last 2 periods in comparison with others, indicating a greater supply of available protein and a better adaptation to dietary changes, even with higher concentration of starch. The aspartate aminotransferase enzyme, an important indicator of liver damage, was greater (P < 0.01) in HY fed animals in the second period in comparison with control, which was maintained in the following period (97.7 vs. 80.1 ± 6.6 U/L). Yeast supplementation seems to be a potential tool when diet changes are necessary, partially by improving the performance of confined sheep.
Small Ruminant (M3)   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 13:00 t82802 Watch 117 Metabolic and productive characteristics of sensitive and heat-tolerant phenotypes of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. 6 S. González-Luna heat tolerance challenge dairy goat S. Serhan1, S. González-Luna1,2, B. Chaalia1, X. Such1, A. A. K. Salama1, G. Caja1 1Group of Research in Ruminants (G2R), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, 2F.E.S. Cuautitlan, Universidad nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlan, Mexico Thirty-three Murciano-Granadina does in mid-lactation (2.45 ± 0.14 kg/d milk; 40.9 ± 1 kg BW) were submitted to a short-term challenge (2 h) passing from thermo neutral (TN, THI = 65) to heat stress (HS, THI = 86) conditions. Variation of thermophysiological traits (RT, rectal temperature; RR, respiratory rate) were used to calculate the change ratio (CR = Σ after/before) and to select does differing in tolerance (TO, tolerant, 4.20 ± 0.21, n = 9; SE, sensitive, 6.25 ± 0.24, n = 10; P < 0.01). The does were allocated to a crossover of 2 periods (12-d each) with 2 climatic conditions: TN (15 to 20°C; THI = 63–65), and 2) HS (30 to 37°C; THI = 88–79). RT, RR and lactational traits were recorded daily, whereas milk and blood samples were collected weekly. At the end of each period a glucose tolerance test (GTT; glucose, 0.15 g/kg BW; samples, min –15 to 120) was done. The HS does, increased RT 0.82°C (0.58 and 1.05°C a.m. and p.m. respectively; P < 0.001), RR 224% (164 and 285%, a.m. and p.m. respectively; P < 0.001) and water consumption (74%; P < 0.001), whereas decreased feed intake (–10%; P < 0.001), in comparison to TN. Milk yield increased by 5% (P < 0.005) but energy-corrected milk (2.0 ± 0.1 kg/d) did not vary by HS. Milk fat (–16%), protein (–14%) and lactose (–4%) contents decreased (P < 0.01) by HS. Blood glucose, insulin, and urea did not change, but HS goats had huge PRL and greater creatinine (819 and 14%, respectively; P < 0.01) than TN. Blood insulin did not vary between TN and HS does, but glucose disposal was greater in HS. Comparing TO and SE phenotypes, no differences were detected in RR, but p.m. RT was lower in the SE goats. No differences were detected in feed and water intakes, milk yield and composition, as well as in basal blood metabolites. AUC glucose at 60 min tended to be lower (P < 0.07) in SE than in TO goats. In conclusion, Murciano-Granadina goats, in terms of thermophysiological and lactational traits and blood metabolites, were moderately affected by HS. Responses to GTT indicated that HS increased insulin resistance and that TO and SE goats employed different mechanisms to keep blood glucose levels under HS conditions.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81714 Watch 124 Genomic prediction of dairy bull fertility using X chromosome markers. 1 H. A. Pacheco kernel-based prediction models sex chromosomes sire conception rate H. A. Pacheco1, F. M. Rezende1,2, F. Peñagaricano1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil Service sire has been recognized as an important factor affecting dairy herd fertility. Our group has reported promising results on genomic prediction of dairy bull fertility using autosomal SNP markers. Little is known, however, about the genetic contribution of sex chromosomes, which are enriched in genes related to sexual development and reproduction. As such, our goal was to evaluate the genomic prediction of service sire fertility including SNP markers on the X chromosome (BTAX). Data set consisted of 5,014 Holstein bulls with sire conception rate records and genotypes for roughly 291k SNP located on the autosomes, 1.5k SNP located on the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), and 13.7k X-specific SNP. The analyses included linear and Gaussian kernel-based models fitting either only SNP markers on autosomes (291k SNPs) or combining autosomal with PAR and X-specific SNP markers (291k SNPs + 15.2k SNPs). Predictive performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation repeated 10 times. Interestingly, the linear kernel model that included the BTAX markers exhibited a higher average predictive correlation than the linear kernel model that fitted only autosomal SNPs (0.338 vs 0.319). The prediction of bull fertility was further improved by using a Gaussian kernel-based model combining autosomal and BTAX SNPs. Indeed, this model fitting markers on 'autosomes + BTAX' delivered an average predictive correlation equal to 0.343, representing an increase in predictive ability of about 7.5% compared with the standard whole autosomal genome model. Overall, our findings indicate that including markers on the X chromosome would benefit the genomic prediction of bull fertility. These results may help to improve conception rates in dairy herds through accurate genome-guided decisions on bull fertility.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81719 Watch 125 Variation in the timing of puberty in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers. 2 N. Steele pubertal age body weight N. Steele1, M. Stephen1, A. Young1, B. Kuhn-Sherlock1, P. Amer2, S. Meier1, C. Phyn1, C. Burke1 1DairyNZ Limited, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2AbacusBio Limited, Dunedin, New Zealand Age at puberty varies widely across and within herds, with research indicating that timing of puberty could be an early predictor of cow reproduction. Commercial dairy herds (n = 54) from 3 regions in New Zealand were studied to investigate the phenotypic and genetic (co)variances of age at puberty and measures of fertility in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Herein, we report preliminary phenotypic findings of the timing of puberty and associated BW in 5,010 heifers born in spring 2018. Herds were visited on 3 occasions to collect blood samples when average (±SD) heifer ages for each herd were 299 ± 15 d (visit 1; V1), 327 ± 15 d (V2) and 355 ± 15 d (V3). Body weights were measured at V2. Blood plasma was assayed to determine progesterone (P4) concentration, and the timing of puberty was assigned to each animal as either V1, V2, or V3 when their P4 reached a threshold of ≥1 ng/mL for the first time. A heifer was considered still pre-pubertal after V3, if P4 concentration did not exceed this threshold in any collected samples. We identified that 19.4% (n = 973) of heifers had reached puberty by V1 (average age and BW ± SD; 302 ± 14 d and 245 ± 33 kg), 18.8% (n = 941) by V2 (331 ± 16 d and 239 ± 32 kg), 16.8% (n = 842) by V3 (355 ± 14 d and 229 ± 31 kg), and 43.3% (n = 2,170) had not reached puberty by V3 (352 ± 14 d and 211 ± 30 kg). A further 84 heifers (1.7%) were not assigned an age at puberty due to missing blood samples. A large variation was observed between herds in the percentage of heifers reaching puberty (mean = 61% ± 25% of heifers by V3, range 2% to 100%). Research into management factors contributing to between-herd variation is underway. Next, we will examine the phenotypic variation in puberty onset between animals that can be explained by genetics. Relationships between puberty and subsequent fertility measures during lactation will then be investigated to identify earlier, novel traits to estimate genetic merit for fertility.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81829 Watch 126 Alternative models for genetic analysis of pregnancy loss in dairy cattle. 3 A. Sigdel heritability non-linear models reproductive performance A. Sigdel1, R. S. Bisinotto1, F. Peñagaricano1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Pregnancy loss directly impairs reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Early pregnancy losses (before 30 d after AI) cannot be detected and are indistinguishable from conception failure. Here, we evaluated the loss of pregnancy following accurate detection of a viable embryo. As such, our objectives were to assess alternative models for genetic analysis of presence (BIN) or number (NUM) of pregnancy losses in US Holstein cows. Linear and Probit models were fitted for BIN, whereas linear and Poisson models were used for NUM. Data consisted of 14k confirmed pregnancy/abortion records on 8k Holstein cows distributed over the first 2 lactations. All models included days in milk, year-season, and types of service (insemination or embryo transfer) as fixed effects, and animal and service sire as random effects. The alternative models were compared with respect to goodness-of-fit, ranking of sires, and predictive ability in 5-fold cross-validation. Estimates of heritability ranged from 1% to 8% for BIN and 1% to 9% for NUM. Nonlinear models (Probit and Poisson) showed better goodness-of-fit than their counterpart linear models. From a breeder’s perspective, an important question is whether these models yield different breeding decisions. The Spearman rank correlations between bulls’ breeding values were high, from 0.84 to 0.97, suggesting a minor re-ranking. All the models exhibited similar predictive ability. Indeed, for BIN models, the mean-squared error of prediction (MSEP) ranged from 0.16 to 0.18, whereas for NUM models, MSEP values ranged from 0.14 to 0.16. Overall, our results suggest that pregnancy loss is a heritable trait, and hence, genetic selection for reduced risk of abortion is feasible. In addition, the use of nonlinear models seems a reasonable choice for analyzing pregnancy losses.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81727 Watch 127 Targeted sequencing reveals deleterious mutations affecting dairy bull fertility. 4 R. Abdollahi-Arpanahi causal variants DNA sequencing sire conception rate R. Abdollahi-Arpanahi1, H. A. Pacheco1, F. Peñagaricano1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Bull fertility is often overlooked as a potential cause of reproductive inefficiency in dairy cattle. However, semen from one bull is used to inseminate hundreds of cows, and hence, one subfertile bull could have a major impact on herd reproductive performance. We previously identified 5 genomic regions, located on BTA8 (72.2 Mb), BTA9 (43.7 Mb), BTA13 (60.2 Mb), BTA17 (63.3 Mb), and BTA27 (34.7 Mb), that show very significant dominance effects on dairy bull fertility. Each of these regions explains about 5–8% of the observed differences in sire conception rate between bulls. Here, we aimed to identify the causal variants responsible for this variation using targeted sequencing (10Mb per region). For each genomic region, 2 DNA pools were constructed from high-fertility and low-fertility Holstein bulls. The DNA Sequencing analysis included reads quality control (using FastQC), genome alignment (using BWA and ARS-UCD1.2), variant calling (using GATK) and variant annotation (using Ensembl). The sequencing depth per pool varied from 39X to 51X. We identified 7,144 SNPs with opposing homozygous genotypes between low- and high-fertility pools. Notably, 74 of these SNPs were annotated as missense mutations, and at least 5 of them were classified as strong candidate causal variants, i.e., missense mutations with deleterious effects located on genes exclusively/highly expressed in testis or actively involved in the fertilization process. These candidate causal mutations are located in genes ADAM28, TTLL9, TCHP, FOXN4 and ADAM2. This work is the foundation for the development of novel genomic tools for improving dairy bull fertility, these causal mutations will allow the early detection and culling of subfertile bull calves or young genomic bulls.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t82550 Watch 128 Multiparous Holstein cow vaginal microbiome near parturition associated with neonatal fecal microbiome. 5 C. E. Owens microbiome calf reproduction C. E. Owens1, H. G. Huffard1, A. I. Nin-Velez1, A. J. Duncan1, C. L. Teets1, K. M. Daniels1, K. F. Knowlton1, R. R. Cockrum1 1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA Initial microbial inoculation of the calf gut is thought to stem from the dam’s birth canal and colostrum; the objective of this study was to identify interrelationships between dam reproductive, colostrum, and calf fecal microbiomes. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 6) were enrolled at 14 d before expected calving. At 10 d before expected calving, a calving alert system was placed on cows. Flocked swabs of the posterior vagina were collected within 24 h before calving. At birth, calves (n = 6; heifers = 3, bulls = 3) were immediately isolated and meconium samples were collected. Representative colostrum samples were collected within 1 h of calving and representative placenta samples were collected within 6 h of calving. Calf fecal samples were collected at 24 h and 7 d of age. Bacterial DNA was isolated from all samples and 16S rDNA amplicons underwent 2 × 300 paired end sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences were aligned to the 97% Greengenes reference database in CLC Genomics Workbench. Alpha diversity was calculated using phylogenetic diversity and β diversity was calculated using weighted unifrac distances. Spearman’s rank correlations were performed based on genera relative abundance in the placenta, vagina, and colostrum of a dam and its calf’s meconium and fecal samples. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum in the placenta (48%), vagina (58%), colostrum (96%), and 24 h calf feces (85%), while Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phylum in meconium (43%) and 7 d calf feces (43%). Colostrum and placenta samples had the least phylogenetic diversity within each sample, but had a high similarity between samples. Genera in the vagina had a moderate correlation with genera in meconium (rs = 0.45 ± 0.03). Genera in colostrum had a low correlation with 24 h calf feces (rs = 0.10 ± 0.04). Dam vaginal microbiota could be used to predict calf gut composition. Further research on understanding these relationships could lead to discovery of core microbes that are the most influential on microbial composition.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81769 Watch 129 Investigating conception rate for beef service sires bred to dairy cows. 6 T. M. McWhorter sire conception rate beef-on-dairy beef bull fertility T. M. McWhorter1, J. L. Hutchison2, H. D. Norman3, J. B. Cole2, G. C. Fok3, D. A. L. Lourenco1, P. M. VanRaden2 1Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 2USDA Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, 3Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, Bowie, MD The widespread use of sexed semen on US dairy cows has led to an excess of replacement heifers’ calves, and the sale prices for those calves are much lower than in the past. Cows not selected to produce the next generation of replacement heifers are increasingly being bred to beef bulls to produce crossbred calves for beef production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of beef service sires bred to dairy cows and heifers and to provide a tool for dairy producers to evaluate beef service sires’ conception. Sire conception rate (SCR) is a phenotypic evaluation of service sire fertility that is routinely calculated for US dairy bulls. A total of 268,174 breedings were available which included 36 recognized beef breeds and 7 dairy breeds. Most of the beef-on-dairy inseminations (95.4%) were to Angus (AN) bulls; therefore, final evaluations were restricted to AN service sires bred to Holstein (HO) cows. Pedigree data for AN bulls was unavailable. There were 233,379 breedings from 1,344 AN service-sire to 163,919 HO cows. A mean (SD) conception rate of 33.8% (47.3%) was observed compared with 34.3% (47.5%) for breedings with HO sires mated to HO cows. Mean SCR reliability was 64.5% for 116 publishable bulls, with a maximum reliability 99% based on 25,217 breedings. Average SCR was near 0 (on AN base) with a range of −5.1 to 4.4. Breedings to HO heifers were also examined which included 19,437 breedings (443 AN service sire and 15,971 HO heifers). A mean (SD) conception rate of 53.0% (49.9%) was observed, compared with 55.3% (49.7%) for breedings with a HO sire mated to a HO heifer. Beef sires were used more frequently in cows known to be problem breeders, which explains some of the difference in CR. Mean service number was 1.92 and 2.87 for HO heifers, and 2.13 and 3.04 for HO cows mated to HO and AN sires, respectively. Mating dairy cows to beef bulls may be profitable if calf prices are higher, fertility is improved, or if practices such as sexed semen, genomic testing, and improved cow productive life allow herd owners to produce both higher quality dairy replacement and increased income from market calves.
Breeding and Genetics (M4)   Breeding and Genetics 6/22/2020 13:30 t81789 Watch 130 Across-country genomic prediction of bull fertility in Jersey dairy cattle. 7 F. M. Rezende multi-country reference population semen fertility value sire conception rate F. M. Rezende1, M. Haile-Mariam2, J. E. Pryce2, F. Peñagaricano1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Agriculture Victoria Research, Bundoora, VIC, Australia The use of information across populations is an attractive approach to increase the accuracy of genomic predictions for numerically small breeds and traits that are time-consuming and difficult to measure, such as male fertility in cattle. This study was conducted to evaluate genomic prediction of Jersey bull fertility using an across-country reference population combining records from United States (US) and Australia (AU). Data set consisted of 1.5k US Jersey bulls with sire conception rate (SCR) records, 603 AU Jersey bulls with semen fertility value (SFV) records and roughly 90k SNP genotypes. Both SCR and SFV are evaluations of service sire fertility based on cow field data, and both are intended as phenotypic evaluations because the estimates include genetic and non-genetic effects. Within and across-country genomic predictions were evaluated using univariate and bivariate GBLUP models. Predictive ability was assessed in 5-fold cross-validation using the correlation between observed and predicted fertility values. Genomic predictions within-country exhibited predictive correlations around 0.30 and 0.02 for US and AU, respectively. The AU Jersey population is genetically diverse, so careful selection of the reference population by including only closely related animals (e.g., excluding New Zealand bulls) allowed to increase the predictive correlations up to 0.20. Notably, the use of bivariate models fitting all US Jersey records and the optimized AU population allowed to achieve predictive correlations around 0.24 for SFV values, which is a gaining in predictive ability of 20%. Conversely, for predicting SCR values, the use of an across-country reference population did not outperform the standard approach using a pure US Jersey reference data set. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic prediction of male fertility in cattle is feasible, and the use of an across-country reference population would be beneficial when local populations are small and genetically diverse.
Dairy Foods Processing M4   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:30 t83158 Watch 131 Effect of pH on the morphology and tensile properties of milk protein-based electrospun fibers. 1 P. Tomasula nanofibers caseinates fibrous mats S. Akkurt1, P. Tomasula1 1Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA Electrospinning has been used to produce edible mats from nanosized fibers of calcium (CaCN) or sodium (NaCN) caseinate with pullulan(PUL) added to facilitate fiber formation. The electrospun mats are a promising method to preserve and deliver bioactives to foods; e.g., because of the fiber's large surface area/volume, but fiber imperfections such as bead formation and variations in diameter size would prevent consistent performance of the mats. To improve fiber quality, NaCl has been recommended as an additive to increase shear viscosity for drawing thinner fibers while electrospinning; however, we found NaCl ineffective and hypothesized that NaOH would increase solution viscosity and also strengthen the mats through CN aggregate formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pH on the morphology and tensile properties of CaCN or NaCN with PUL electrospun fibers. Aqueous solutions of 15 (wt/wt)% CaCN or NaCN, and PUL were prepared at 20°C. Then, 1:1(pH 6.7) and 2:1(pH 6.7) blends of either CN with PUL solution were prepared and adjusted from the initial pH6.7 to pH 8, 9, and 10 with 1N NaOH. A syringe fed 3 mL of each solution to an electrospinning unit at flow rate of 3mL/h and at 20kV, with fibers deposited on a rotating drum. At pH6.7, the mean diameters, D, of the CaCN and NaCN:PUL(1:1) fibers were 226 ± 25 and 215 ± 18nm, respectively, with beads noted on the fibers. As pH was increased to 8 and then 9, the fibers became thicker with D of 274 ± 20 and 234 ± 16nm and bead-free, becoming thinner at pH 10, with D of 105 ± 16 and 93 ± 15nm, respectively. Similar trends were noted for the (2:1) blends. Tensile Strength (TS) and Elongation at Break% (EAB) measurements showed that the initial (TS,EAB%), (1.4 ± 0.5MPa, 4.0 ± 0.6%) and peak (4.7 ± 0.3MPa, 8.4%) values the for CaCN mats occurred at pH 9 with a sudden 60% decline in these values at pH10 suggesting that the negatively-charged CN aggregates partly disassociated. This did not occur for the NaCN aggregates at pH10 most likely due to lower electrostatic repulsion. Studies on CN in fibers will provide insights to their structure and that relative to casein micelles.
Dairy Foods Processing M4   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:30 t81793 Watch 132 Production of high-purity phospholipid concentrate from buttermilk powder using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide. 2 A. Ubeyitogullari buttermilk phospholipids supercritical carbon dioxide A. Ubeyitogullari1, S. S. H. Rizvi1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids are in considerable demand due to their well-known health benefits and superior functionality to create clean-label products. However, MFGM phospholipid concentrates of commercial utility are still scarce. This study was designed to explore a new strategy using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) to produce MFGM phospholipid concentrate of high purity. The effects of extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, and ethanol concentration) on the yield and phospholipid concentration were investigated. The total lipid and phospholipid contents of commercially available buttermilk powder were determined using the conventional Folch extraction and found to contain 9.0% total lipids, of which 60% was phospholipids. A sequential extraction strategy of using pure SC-CO2 followed by ethanol-modified SC-CO2 was employed to first extract the nonpolar lipids as the first fraction and the phospholipid-rich concentrate was obtained as the second fraction. The total lipid yield of the first fraction was 2.5% which contained only 0.3% phospholipids. On the other hand, the second fraction yielded 4.3% total lipids with a phospholipid content of 76%, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest phospholipid concentration obtained from buttermilk powder. The sequential SC-CO2 extraction process achieved a recovery of 97% of the nonpolar lipids and 61% of the phospholipids from buttermilk powder. At the optimized extraction conditions, the major phospholipids in the extract were dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM; 5%), sphingomyelin (SM; 24%), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; 22%), phosphatidylserine (PS; 2%), phosphatidylinositol (PI; 3%), and phosphatidylcholine (PC; 44%). The triacylglycerol compositions of the extracts obtained by Folch and SC-CO2 extractions methods were similar. Such phospholipid-rich concentrate offers a new opportunity for value addition to buttermilk powder using a commercially scalable process.
Dairy Foods Processing M4   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:30 t82661 Watch 133 Understanding the switchable solvent extraction of phospholipids from dairy by-products. 3 K. Rathnakumar tertiary amine phospholipids byproducts K. Rathnakumar1, S. I. Martinez-Monteagudo1 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Switchable solvents have been used for the extraction and subsequent separation of polar compounds. These solvents represent a new class of solvents having the capacity to change their polarity with an external stimulus. Recently, we have used a tertiary amine (N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, CyNMe2) as a switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) for extracting phospholipids from different dairy matrices. The underlying principle behind the change in polarity is due to the formation of ammonium carbonate salt in the presence of CO2. Upon removing the CO2 with nitrogen, the carbonate salt returns back to its original amine. Unfortunately, the extraction mechanism by which CyNMe2 acts is largely unknown, which may limit its further development. In this work, we extracted PLs from buttermilk and B-serum by CyNMe2. In addition, the extraction was systematically studied in terms of yield of PLs, gel electrophoresis, particle size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For comparison, the PLs were also extracted using Folch extraction. For buttermilk, the extraction of PLs by CyNMe2 resulted in yields remarkably higher (significantly different P < 0.05 according to Tukey’s test) than the control treatment (99.96 ± 1.21 and 11.37 ± 2.31%, respectively). Similarly, the recovered PLs in B-serum by CyNMe2 (7.57 ± 0.59%) were significantly different (P < 0.05 according to Tukey’s test) by then the control extraction (5.34 ± 0.61%). Analysis of gel electrophoresis revealed some degree of disruption of the protein matrix, being more extensive in the case of SHS. Images through CLSM of untreated samples showed aggregates of fat and protein entrapped, while the use of CyNMe2 resulted in disruption of such aggregates. Additionally, SEM images revealed the separation of the lipids from the protein network with the extraction by CyNMe2. Our results indicate that the extraction of PLs from buttermilk and B-serum is mainly ascribed to protein disruption, which may release the PLs into the aqueous medium. The outcomes of this study help to gain insights into the extraction mechanism by which CyNMe2 acts, and develop extraction strategies for protein matrices.
Dairy Foods Processing M4   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 13:30 t82781 Watch 134 Pilot-scale production of enriched phospholipid concentrate from whey protein phospholipid concentrate using enzymatic hydrolysis and microfiltration. 4 A. V. Swaminathan whey protein phospholipid concentrate phospholipids microfiltration A. V. Swaminathan1, M. Molitor2, K. J. Burrington2, D. Otter2, J. A. Lucey1,2 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 2Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research, Madison, WI Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) contains high amounts of phospholipids (PL) (3–5% db) thereby making it a good source for further extraction of PL to make highly enriched PL product. Enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with microfiltration (MF) was used for pilot-scale production of an enriched PL concentrate derived from WPPC. This was achieved by allowing hydrolyzed peptides to pass through into MF permeate while concentrating fat and PL in MF retentate. Benchtop experiments were done to determine the most suitable proteolytic enzyme from among 5 different commercial proteases. SDS-PAGE analysis was done to measure the extent of protein hydrolysis over a period of 4 h with samples drawn every 30 min. Alcalase enzyme was found to exhibit maximum proteolytic activity at optimum conditions of pH 8 and temperature of 50°C. The intensity of major protein bands (MFGM, caseins, β-lactoglobulin) was found to decrease in SDS-PAGE profiles as hydrolysis progressed, along with bands appearing below 17 kDa. This indicated that degradation of proteins resulted in the generation of smaller peptides. Pilot-scale MF production coupled with diafiltration (DF) yielded a final retentate with total PL content of 9.3% (% of final retentate in db) and with protein and fat contents at about 43.8 ± 0.4% (db) and 48.9 ± 1.2% (db), respectively. A 2-fold increase in PL content (db) was therefore achieved through this process with an ~18% reduction in protein content. The MF permeate had 0% fat content indicating that there was no transmission of lipids or phospholipids through the permeate during MF/DF process. Complete removal of proteins and peptides was not achieved by this process; either additional enzymes or more extensive DF might be needed to remove more peptides.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M4)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:30 t83157 Watch 135 Evaluating the predictive ability of point cloud deep learning to identify individual animals using surface-based body shape of dairy calves. 1 R. E. P. Ferreira growth calf deep learning R. E. P. Ferreira1, T. Bresolin1, L. G. Pereira2,1, J. R. R. Dorea1 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 2Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juíz de Fora, MG, Brazil Advances in machine learning techniques have allowed the development of computer vision systems (CVS) that can potentially monitor growth development of livestock animals. In this context, depth images from dorsal view are the most used inputs to estimate animal BW and biometrics. Frequently, such CVS rely on identification (ID) systems as a way to match animal ID and predicted phenotype. However, the use of surface-based body shape acquired from dorsal images to predict BW could also be adopted for animal recognition. Such alternative would optimize CVS to recognize animal ID and monitor growth development at the same time. Nonetheless, growing animals are continuously changing body shape, which could limit its use as an invariant feature for pattern recognition. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the use of 3D dorsal images from calves as a potential tool for animal identification; and (2) to investigate if changes in body shape due to growth affect the prediction accuracy for animal identification. Images from 5 Holstein calves were acquired over 3 weeks using a depth sensor. From each image, the background was removed and only 3D data points of the animal’s back were used. For objective 1, the algorithm was trained (n = 111), validated (n = 23) and tested (n = 22) using images within wk 1. For objective 2, the algorithm was trained (n = 221) and validated (n = 53) using images from wk 1 and 2, and tested using images from wk 3 (n = 172). Accuracy within wk 1 was 90.9% on the testing set. In objective 2, the overall accuracy decreased to 54.7% on the testing set. The prediction accuracy for each respective animal was: 38.5% (n = 32); 97.1% (n = 55); 88.4% (n = 62); 3.1% (n = 38); and 32.4% (n = 34). Animals with reduced number of images in the training data set presented lower accuracies on the testing set. Thus, increasing the amount of training samples can potentially improve predictive performance when later weeks are evaluated. The results show that the use of animal’s 3D body surface is a promising tool for animal recognition.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M4)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:30 t82323 Watch 136 Inconsistency of precision dairy monitoring technologies measuring the same behaviors. 2 B. W. Jones precision dairy monitoring technology accelerometer B. W. Jones1,2, I. C. Tsai3, Y. M. Chang4, J. M. Bewley5 1Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 2Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Stephenville, TX, 3DeLaval, Lansing, MI, 4University of London, London, UK, 5CowFocused Solutions, Elizabethtown, KY The objective of this study was to evaluate agreement among precision dairy monitoring technologies (PDMT) measuring same behaviors. Holstein cows (n = 108) were fitted with PDMT 10d before their impending calving date. Six different PDMT, namely, IceQube (IQ; IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland), AfiAct Pedometer Plus (AFI; Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel), Track a Cow (TAC; ENGS Systems Innovative Dairy Solutions, Israel), Smartbow (SB; Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria), CowScout S Leg (GEA; GEA Farm Technologies GmbH, Bönen, Germany) and Cow Manager SensOor (SEN; Agis Automatisering, Harmelen, Netherlands) were included in the study. Six different behaviors, lying time (hours/day), step (number/day), lying bouts (number/day), activity (hours/day), eating time (hours/day), and rumination (hours/day), were recorded. Before analysis, data was cleaned by removing potential outliers. Spearman’s correlation was used to evaluate rank correlation among PDMT. All analyses were carried out in SAS (Cary, NC). For lying time, AFI, IQ and TAC show strong correlations (rs ranged from 0.79 to 0.90), and they were weakly correlated with SB (rs ranged from 0.33 to 0.43). For number of steps, GEA was moderately correlated with all other technologies (rs ranged from 0.50 to 0.61) and all other technologies were only weakly correlated (rs ranged from 0.39 to 0.47). Weak to moderate correlations among lying bouts measures existed (rs ranged from 0.42 to 0.66). Correlations between 2 activity measures and the 2 eating time measures were low (rs = 0.32 and 0.37, respectively). Moderate correlation for rumination time was observed between SEN and SB (rs = 0.61). Overall, there is limited agreement among most PDMT except for lying time. Although PDMT offers exciting opportunities to develop automated monitoring products to inform farm management, quality of captured data requires careful scrutiny.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M4)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:30 t83105 Watch 137 Is the rate of milk yield increase in early lactation associated with milking frequency, rumination, and activity in dairy cows? 3 M. Peiter early lactation milking frequency milk yield M. Peiter1, H. N. Phillips1, M. I. Endres1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN Peak milk yield (PMY) has been shown to be positively associated with whole lactation milk yield. Cows that peak early with high PMY and are able to maintain a high overall milk yield during their lactation are desirable. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the association between milk yield increase rate (MIR) and 250-d milk yield (250MY), and 2) to investigate the association between MIR and early lactation change in rumination time (RT), activity, and number of successful milkings. Daily cow data were collected from 34 free-flow AMS farms in MN and WI. Milk yield increase rate was calculated by dividing PMY by days at peak for each cow. A simple linear regression line of best fit was estimated for RT over the first 7 DIM for each cow to find the change in RT. Activity and milkings were averaged over the first 7 DIM. A nonparametric regression test using Huh-Jhun methods while controlling for parity group was performed to measure the association between MIR and 250MY. A multivariate linear mixed model was performed with MIR as the outcome variable (n = 3,117). The model included main effects of change in RT, activity, milkings, and parity (1, 2, 3+) as fixed effects. Farm and cow within farm were included as random effects. The Wald statistic indicated that the 250MY increased by 455 kg per each kg increase in MIR (n = 859; P = 0.0002). The inclusion of all the predictors improved the multivariate linear mixed model fit. However, milkings had the greatest association with MIR (0.067 ± 0.007 kg/d per 1-unit increase in milkings; P < 0.0001). The mean [95% CI] MIR was 0.76 [0.72, 0.81], 1.33 [1.3, 1.4], and 1.38 [1.3, 1.4] kg/d for parity 1, 2, and 3+, respectively. Parities 2 and 3+ had greater MIR than parity 1 (P < 0.0001). Due to the association found between the rate of increase in milk yield until peak and 250MY yield, this study suggests that increasing the number of milkings during the first 7 DIM may increase the MIR and subsequent whole lactation milk yield.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M4)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:30 t82214 Watch 138 Energy consumption on five Midwest dairy farms. 4 K. Sharpe dairy electricity K. Sharpe1, B. Heins1, E. Buchanan1, M. Reese1 1West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN The objective of this study was to measure electricity use from specific components on 5 Midwest dairy farms. Data were collected from farms located in west central Minnesota: a 9,500 head, cross-ventilated barn with a rotary parlor (A), a 300 head, naturally-ventilated barn and an automatic milking system (B), a 200 head, naturally-ventilated barn and a parabone parlor (C), a 400 head, naturally-ventilated barn and a parallel parlor (D), and a 275 head, pasture-based farm with a parabone parlor (E). Electricity was monitored from July 2018 to December 2019. Multiple electric loads were monitored on the farm side of the electric utility meter at the circuits. Electrical use was evaluated on an electrical load basis (Table 1). Despite barn design and cow numbers on farm, ventilation was the largest user of electricity across farms A, B, and C. Ventilation use ranged from 12% to 36% of total electricity used across all farms. Electricity for lighting ranged from 4 to 19% of total electricity usage. Manure handling ranged from 0.02 to 24% of total electricity usage. Milk cooling (compressors and chillers) ranged from 5 to 34% of total electricity usage. Approximately 14% of the electricity usage on Farm B was for operation of the automatic milking system. The annual mean kWh of electricity per cow was: 965 kWh/cow on Farm A, 1,145 kWh/cow on Farm B, 574 kWh/cow on Farm C, 775 kWh/cow on Farm D, and 400 kWh/cow on Farm E. Mean electricity to produce one kg of milk ranged from 0.04 kWh/kg on Farm C to 0.11 kWh/kg on Farm A. Monthly mean electricity per kg/fat plus protein ranged from 0.64 kWh/kg on Farm C to 1.25 kWh/kg on Farm B. Table 1. Percent of total electricity used by various loads on each farm
Item Farm
A B C D E
Mean kWh per month 679,476 30,863 8,725 27,346 7,527
Electricity use, % of total kWh1          
Ventilation, % 36.0 24.0 16.0 13.0 12.0
Lights, % 16.0 7.0 12.0 19.0 4.0
Manure handling, % 9.0 2.0 0.02 34.0 1.0
Milk cooling, % 8.0 23.0 17.0 15.0 37.0
Automatic milking system, % NA 14.0 NA NA NA
1Includes the highest consuming electrical loads on each farm.
Production, Management, and the Environment (M4)   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 13:30 t82218 Watch 139 Use of agrivoltaics to shade cows in a pasture dairy system. 5 K. Sharpe agrivoltaics dairy pasture K. Sharpe1, B. Heins1, E. Buchanan1, M. Reese1 1West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN Recently, the combined use of solar photovoltaics and agriculture has been increasing and may provide farmers with an alternative means of income while increasing the health of their dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grazing cattle under shade cast by a solar photovoltaic system. The study was conducted at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center’s, Morris, MN, organic dairy. Twenty-four crossbred cows were randomly assigned to treatment groups from June to September 2019. The replicated (n = 4) treatment groups of 6 cows each were shade from a 30 kW photovoltaic system in a pasture or no shade on pasture. Behavioral observations and production were evaluated on cows during 4 periods of the summer months. Smaxtec boluses (smaXtec, Graz, Austria) and a sensor (CowManager SensOor, Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) monitored internal body temperature and activity and rumination on all cows. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Independent variables were the fixed effects of breed, treatment group, coat color, period, and parity. No differences (P > 0.05) in fly prevalence, milk production, fat and protein production, BW, body condition score, drinking bouts, hock lesions, or locomotion were found between the treatment groups. Shade cows had more (P < 0.05) ear flicks (11.4 ear flicks/30 s) than no shade cows (8.6 ear flicks/30 s) and had dirtier (P < 0.05) bellies and lower legs (2.2 and 3.2, respectfully) than no shade cows (1.9 and 2.9, respectfully). During the afternoon, shade cows had lower (P < 0.05) respiration rates (66.4 breaths/min) than no shade cows (78.3 breaths/min). From 12:00 to 18:00 h and 18:00 to 00:00 h, shade cows had lower (P < 0.05) body temperatures (39.0 and 39.2°C, respectfully) than no shade cows (39.3 and 39.4°C, respectfully). Furthermore, during daylight hours and between milkings, the shade cows had lower (P < 0.05) body temperatures (38.9°C) than no shade cows (39.1°C). Incorporating agrivoltaics into a pasture dairy system may increase the health of dairy cows, reduce heat stress, and increase the efficiency of the land.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t81907 Watch 140 Performance and digestibility of dairy calves fed milk replacer with all-milk protein or with 35% of vegetable proteins. 1 C. Cajarville milk replacer protein sources digestibility M. García-Cuchma1, J. L. Repetto1, G. Antúnez2, I. Dodera3, H. Pose3, A. Maggio1, J. Dayuto1, C. Cajarville1 1Departamento Producción Animal de Veterinaria (IPAV), Facultad de Veterinaria, UdelaR, Libertad, San José, Uruguay, 2Departamento de Salud en los Sistemas Pecuarios, Facultad de Veterinaria, UdelaR, Paysandú, Uruguay, 3Royal Agrifirm Uruguay Group, Juanicó, Canelones, Uruguay The effect of replacing 35% of milk protein by vegetable protein in milk replacers (MR; 24:18% CP:EE) to young calves in an intensive rearing system was evaluated. Forty-eight Holstein male calves (41 ± 8 kg of BW; 3–5d old), were blocked by BW and birthdate, and randomly assigned to 4 treatments (Trt): (1) 100% milk protein (MP), (2) 65% MP + 35% micronized soybean meal (MS), (3) 65% MP + 35% wheat gluten (WG), or (4) 65% MP + 35% mixed 50:50 MS and WG (SW), offering MR at 20% of BW, 12.5% of DM, twice daily, weaning at d 60. Water and starter (21% CP, since d 21) were offered ad libitum. Intake and BW were recorded daily and weekly, respectively. Total feces were collected from each calf on d 14–18 (digestibility); blood samples were taken at d 23 and 51 (glucose and insulin). All variables were analyzed using a mixed model. Intake, BW, ADG, feed efficiency (FE), glucose, and insulin were analyzed as repeated measures over week (Wk). There was no Trt effect on MR intake (937 ± 10.9 g DM/d; P = 0.40), starter intake (390 ± 31.0 g DM/d; P = 0.28), ADG (738 ± 30.0 g/d; P = 0.95), final BW (85.9 ± 1.8 kg/d; P = 0.95), and FE (635 ± 24.0 g/d; P = 0.54). Replacing 35% of MR protein by MS or WG decreased DM and CP digestibility, but this was not observed when 50:50 mix of MS-WG was used, consuming calves on SW more digestible CP than MP and MS. We found a treatment effect on insulin and insulin to glucose, but not on glucose (Table 1). It is possible that WG and SW affected insulin responsiveness, but more information is needed to confirm it. Therefore, replacement up to 35% of MR protein by a 50:50 mix of MS-WG allows to achieve similar digestion and performance than MR with 100% of MP. Table 1. Effect of replacing milk protein by vegetable protein in milk replacers
Item Treatment SEM P-value
MP MS WG SW Trt Wk Trt × W
DM dig, % 94.8a 91.1b 91.3b 92.6ab 0.85 0.01
CP dig, % 91.0a 82.8b 82.7b 88.3ab 1.83 <0.01
Dig CP intake, g/d 196b 193b 203ab 226a 10.0 0.02
Glucose, mg/L 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0 0.14 0.65 0.01 0.09
Insulin, µU/mL 5.8b 6.7ab 9.2a 9.2a 1.16 0.03 0.73 0.06
Insulin to glucose, µU/mg 19.3a 22.7ab 29.7b 29.4b 3.29 <0.01 0.95 0.36
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t81943 Watch 141 Schizochytrium sp. and lactoferrin improve intestinal health of dairy calves challenged with Escherichia coli K99. 2 L. Ma Schizochytrium sp. lactoferrin dairy calves A. L. T. Zhu La1, W. H. Liu1, L. J. Ren1, S. T. Gao1, Z. T. Yu2, D. P. Bu1, L. Ma1 1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, 2Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Calf diarrhea is a common intestinal disease, and Escherichia coli is the main causative agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate Schizochytrium sp. (SZ) and lactoferrin (LF) for their ability to protect intestinal health of dairy calves challenged with Escherichia coli K99. Forty newborn male Holstein calves (1 d old, 39.9 ± 4.5 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 10): 1) Ctrl: control fed whole milk only; 2) LF: fed whole milk supplemented with lactoferrin (1 g/d); 3) SZ: fed whole milk supplemented with Schizochytrium sp. (20 g/d); and 4) LF+SZ: fed whole milk supplemented with both lactoferrin (1 g/d) and Schizochytrium sp. (20 g/d). The SZ and LF were added to whole milk (protein: fat ratio, 3.64%:4.20%) immediately before feeding and fed daily to each calf from d 2 to 14. At d 7, all the calves were challenged with Escherichia coli K99 (1 × 1010 cfu/mL) once orally. During the experiment, milk and starter feed intake and fecal scores were recorded daily, while BW (BW) was weighted at d 1, 7, and 14. Blood was sampled after the afternoon feeding from the jugular vein at d 7 and 14. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS v. 9.4 with SZ, LF, the interaction of SZ and LF, week, and the 2- and 3-way interactions of SZ, LF, and time as fixed effects. Compared with the control, LF lowered fecal score (2.05 vs 2.30, P < 0.05) and nitric oxide concentration in serum (1.63 vs 1.99, P < 0.05), while SZ increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (1,357.23 vs 1,341.91, P < 0.05), tended to increase the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) (81.99 vs 77.65, 0.05 < P < 0.1) and to reduce the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (163.15 vs 166.47, 0.05 < P < 0.1) in serum. The combination of LF and SZ (LF+SZ) tended (2.05 vs 2.30; 0.51 vs 0.60, 0.05 < P < 0.1) to lower fecal score and serum lipopolysaccharide concentration but lowered blood D-lactic acid concentration in serum (3.31 vs 3.50, P < 0.05). These results indicate that SZ could improve the immunity and anti-inflammatory activities, reduce intestinal permeability and pro-inflammatory activities, and decrease fecal scores in dairy calves, while LF could reduce fecal scores and intestinal permeability. A synergistic effect was shown by this study between LF and SZ in decreasing fecal score and intestinal permeability, which can effectively alleviate diarrhea in dairy calves.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t82079 Watch 142 Effects of inclusion of a high-fat extruded pellet mixed with a conventional pellet in rearing calves. 3 L. Amado calf weaning fat inclusion solid feed L. Amado1, L. N. Leal1, H. van Laar1,2, H. Berends1, W. J. J. Gerrits2, J. Martín-Tereso1 1Trouw Nutrition, Amersfoort, the Netherlands, 2Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands Calf rearing systems are moving toward greater milk allowances (≥20% birth weight in L/d), driven by their benefits for later life performance. However, higher milk allowances can lead to a reduction in solid feed intake before, during and even after weaning, resulting in lower energy intake. Therefore, fat inclusion in the starter pellets can increase energy density of the feed, but it might negatively influence rumen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a high-fat extruded pellet mixed with a conventional starter on feed and energy intake, and performance in calves. Forty Holstein bull calves were blocked by serum IgG (2451 ± 109 mg/dL) and date of arrival (2.5 ± 0.5 d of age). Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a pelleted low fat control starter (LFP; 3.2% fat) or the LFP mixed in a ratio of 90:10 with an extruded feed high in hydrogenated palm free fatty acids (HPFFA; 6.8% fat for the mixture). Calf milk replacer (MR: 24.4% CP, 19.6% CF) was provided twice daily until 42 d of age, followed by a gradual weaning period of 7 d. Starter treatments, straw and water were available ad libitum throughout the study (2 to 112 d of age). Measurements included intake, BW, and blood parameters. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED in SAS accounting for the fixed effects of treatment, time (week), and their interaction, plus the random effect of block. Measurements over time entered the model as repeated measures. No differences were observed between LFP and HPFFA calves on BW or ADG until 49 d of age. From weaning (d50) until d 112, HPFFA calves had a greater BW (P < 0.05) than LFP animals (140.0 vs. 131.5 kg). Moreover, HPFFA calves had the highest starter, straw, calculated metabolizable energy and CP intakes after weaning (P < 0.05). No differences were present in blood B-hydroxybutyrate, glucose or IGF-1 concentrations between treatments. In conclusion, the high-fat extruded pellet in at 10% mixed with a conventional starter improved BW, solid feed and energy intake after weaning.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t82080 Watch 143 Effect of dietary energy source replacement in calf milk replacer fed ad libitum on voluntary feed intake and performance in dairy calves. 4 J. Echeverry-Munera milk replacer lactose fat J. Echeverry-Munera1,2, L. Leal2, J. Wilms2, H. Berends2, M. A. Steele1, J. Martin-Tereso2 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Trouw Nutrition, Amersfoort, the Netherlands Compared with whole milk, most commercial calf milk replacers (MR) deliver relatively high levels of lactose (42–45 vs. 35% inclusion), low levels of fat (18–20 vs. 30%), and protein levels that are rather comparable (~23%), resulting in lower energy density and energy to protein ratio of the diet. Thus, the study objective was to determine the effect of exchanging lactose by fat in MR on voluntary feed intake and growth performance. Thirty-two Holstein bull calves (2.1 ± 0.16 d of age, 46.4 ± 0.77 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 16 blocks based on arrival date and serum IgG. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: High lactose MR (HL, 18% fat; n = 16), or high fat MR (HF, 24% fat; n = 16). Lactose was exchanged by fat on a wt/wt basis, resulting in a different energy content. The experiment was divided into 3 phases: Pre-weaning (P1; 0–35 d), weaning (P2; 36–63 d) and post-weaning (P3; 64–84 d). In P1, calves were initially housed in individual pens and fed their respective MR ad libitum through teat buckets and water through plain bucket. After 2 weeks, calves were group-housed (8 calves/ pen; 4 blocks) and fed ad libitum MR, starter feed, chopped wheat straw, and water via automated feeders. During P2, calves were gradually weaned until d-63. Measurements included intakes and BW. Data was analyzed by PROC MIXED in SAS accounting for the fixed effects of treatment, time, and their interaction, as well as the random effect of block. Measurements over time entered the model as repeated measures. Increasing fat content at the expense of lactose decreased MR intake during P1 by 15% (HL = 8.8; HF = 7.6 L/d), whereas total starter intake was not affected by MR composition (HL = 1.8; HF = 1.7 kg/d). Average daily gain (ADG) was higher for HL calves during P1 (0.837 vs. 0.729 g/d); however, no differences were found during P2 or P3. Final BW (d-84) did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, calves fed ad libitum seem to regulate their MR intake based on energy content of the diet, without significant effects on solid feed intake and overall BW.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t82164 Watch 144 Health and performance of dairy calves supplemented with prebiotics: A systematic review. 5 R. Branco Lopes calves review R. Branco Lopes1, N. Silva-del-Río1 1Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, University of California-Davis, Tulare, CA The objective of this study was to systematically review and summarize the current literature on the effect of prebiotic supplementation on performance and health of dairy calves. A review protocol was developed in accordance with PRISMA-P guidelines. The literature search was performed on Oct-2018 and updated on Dec-2019 using 5 electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science). Eligible studies were non- and randomized controlled trials available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, that evaluated the effect of prebiotic supplementation on dairy calves’ performance and health. For randomized trials, the risk of bias was assessed at the outcome (average daily gain; ADG) level, using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. A total of 2,199 publications were retrieved, and 27 manuscripts (32 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies were randomized controlled trials; among those assessed for risk of bias, most did not report the randomization method. Forty-eight percent of the studies received financial support or were affiliated with a prebiotic industry. Trials size ranged from 4 to 60 calves/treatment group; none of the studies included sample size calculations. All the studies used HO or HO crossed calves (n = 1458) with age at enrolment ranging from 0 to 162 d (mean ± SD = 14 ± 28). The prebiotic supplementation was mostly via milk replacer (n = 15) or whole milk (n = 7) during 7 to 143 d (52 ± 33). Twenty studies investigated oligosaccharides; mainly fructo- (n = 5) and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS; n = 5). Among the manuscripts evaluating performance (n = 21), 16 did not observe effect on ADG. Only 5 studies (n = 2 inulin; n = 1 galacto-oligosaccharides; n = 1 MOS; n = 1 polysaccharides) reported a positive effect of prebiotic supplementation on growth. Two of those studies presented a high risk of detection bias; BW was estimated with measuring tape and the personnel was not blinded. Sixty percent of studies evaluating fecal consistency (n = 6/10) did not report positive effect. To allow proper knowledge summary, future research should adhere to guidelines for performance and health measurements.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t83069 Watch 145 Impact of supplementary trace mineral source in the diet of prepartum cows on quality of colostrum and passive transfer of immunity in newborn calves. 6 L. Ogilvie trace minerals colostrum immunoglobulin G L. Ogilvie1, B. Mion1, J. F. W. Spricigo1, B. Van Winters1, B. W. McBride1, S. J. LeBlanc2, M. A. Steele1, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of supplementary trace minerals source, inorganic (ITM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn sulfates and sodium selenite) or organic (OTM; Co, Cu, Mn, Zn proteinates and Se yeast; Bioplex Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc.), fed to prepartum cows at 100% of recommended levels (0.25, 13.7, 40.0, 22.8, and 0.3 ppm respectively), on quality of colostrum and passive transfer of immunity in newborn calves. Heifers and cows (n = 240) were enrolled at 45 ± 3 d before expected calving date, blocked by parity and BCS, and allocated randomly to ITM or OTM. Automatic feeding gates were used to assign treatments to individual cows. Shortly after calving, cows were milked and the volume of harvested colostrum was measured. Percentage Brix was determined by refractometer and concentration of IgG in colostrum was determined by radial immunodiffusion. Newborns were fed 3L of colostrum (%Brix >22) in the first 6h of life, and additional 3L 6h later. Concentration of total protein and IgG in serum was determined 24h after colostrum feeding using refractometry and radial immunodiffusion, respectively. Continuous data were analyzed by ANOVA and binary data were analyzed by logistic regression using the PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Models included the effects of treatment, parity, season, and their interactions. Analyses of data from 182 cows indicated no differences in harvested volume (SQRT scale: ITM = 2.1 vs. OTM = 2.2 ± 0.06 L; P = 0.21), Brix% (ITM = 24.6 vs. OTM = 24.6 ± 0.4%; P = 0.94), and IgG concentration (SQRT scale: ITM = 8.6 vs. OTM = 9.0 ± 0.2 mg/mL; P = 0.20) in colostrum of ITM and OTM cows. Total secretion of IgG in colostrum (volume*concentration) was greater in OTM than in ITM (SQRT scale: ITM = 17.4 vs. OTM = 19.4 ± 0.6 g; P = 0.03). No differences were observed in birth BW (ITM = 42.1 vs. OTM = 42.1 ± 0.5 kg; P = 0.62), concentration of total serum protein (ITM = 6.3 vs. OTM = 6.3 ± 0.1 g/dL; P = 0.92), and serum IgG (ITM = 30.2 vs. OTM = 31.4 ± 1.6 mg/mL; P = 0.59) between calves born to ITM and OTM cows. Our results indicate that replacement of ITM by OTM in the prepartum diet affected the total amount of IgG secreted in colostrum but did not impact the passive transfer of immunity in newborn calves
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 13:30 t83184 Watch 146 The effect of pre-, pro-, and symbiotic supplementation in milk to pre-weaned Holstein heifers on body weight gain and health outcomes. 7 P. Lucey calf probiotic prebiotic P. Lucey1, I. Lean2, S. Aly1, H. Golder2, H. Rossow1 1University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 2Scibus, Camdem, NSW, Australia The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of pro, pre and symbiotic supplementation on average daily weight gain (ADG), diarrhea and odds of pneumonia treatment with an antibiotic in pre-weaned dairy heifer calves. A total of 1,801 healthy Holstein heifer calves from a large California dairy were enrolled at 4 – 12 h of age until weaning at approximately 60 d of age. Calves were block-randomized based on birth order on a repeating random order of all possible orderings of the 4 treatments: 1) control, 2) enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast product (pre), 3) Bacillus subtilis (pro), 4) combination of both products (symbiotic), which were administered in milk twice daily from enrollment until weaning. Serum total protein at enrollment and BW at 7, 42 and 56 d of age were measured. Fecal consistency was assessed daily on a scoring system of 1 −3, for the entire pre-weaned period. Linear regression showed that symbiotic treated calves had 20 g increased ADG compared with control calves for overall BW gain (7 – 56 d) (P = 0.042), controlled by calf location in farm, month of enrollment and pneumonia incidence. For late BW gain (42 – 56 d), prebiotic treated calves had 84 g increased ADG (P = 0.007) and symbiotic treated calves had 79 g increased ADG (P = 0.012) compared with control calves, controlled by month of enrollment. Linear regression showed no difference in the length of the first diarrhea episode per calf by treatment. Cox regression showed no difference in hazard of diarrhea compared with control calves. Logistic regression showed no difference in the odds of calves experiencing pneumonia. Although no effects were seen on diarrhea length or pneumonia incidence, superior BW gain in the late pre-weaned period may increase health outcomes of calves across the weaning process.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t82625 Watch 147 Effects of probiotics on in vitro digestibility, rumen fermentation, methane and gas production from a corn silage-based TMR. 1 A. Oyebade methane probiotics rumen fermentation A. Oyebade1, K. G. Arriola1, H. Sultana1, S. Lee1, E. Duvalsaint1, F. Amaro1, I. Fernandez Marenchino1, C. Nino De Guzman1, L. Marroquin Pacheco1, L. Ghedin Ghizzi1, M. Reboucas Pupo1, M. Agarussi1, L. Ferraretto1, A. Adesogan1, D. Vyas1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The study objective was to evaluate effect of 2 probiotic supplements on in vitro nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using in vitro batch fermentation assay. Three ruminally-cannulated cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design and fed either basal corn silage-based TMR without probiotics (Control; CON), the basal diet top-dressed with mixture of Lactobacillus animalis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii at 3 × 109 cfu/day (BOV) or the basal diet top-dressed with BOV and mixture of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis at 11.8 × 109 cfu/day (BOVC). Each experimental period was 28-d, and rumen fluid was collected from each cow, 3 h after feeding on d 22, 24, 27, and 28 of the experimental period for 4 runs of in vitro batch fermentation assay per period. Rumen fluid collected from each donor cow corresponded to the specific dietary treatment the cow was receiving. Additionally, 2 more treatments (BOV+ and BOVC+) were included in the assay by adding extra dose (1.62 mg/mL) of the 2 probiotic supplements (BOV and BOVC) to the vials containing their respective rumen fluids. A corn silage-based TMR (1mm; 0.5 g) used as substrate was incubated in serum vials with respective rumen fluid buffered with Van soest medium and reducing agent at 39°C. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. Treatments were used as fixed effects while cow and run were considered random factors. No treatment effects were observed on digestibility parameters. The BOV and BOV+ inocula decreased molar proportion of butyrate (13.8 and 13.6%), compared with CON (14.3%), while BOVC+ tended (P = 0.07) to decreased molar proportion of butyrate. BOV+ lowered gas production (143.9 vs 162.8 mL/g DMD), and tended to reduce CH4 production (9.07 vs 11.6 mg/g DMD), compared with CON. BOVC reduced ruminal acetate (50.2 vs 51.1%) and tended to reduce isovalerate (P = 0.07) molar proportion. In conclusion, probiotic supplementation did not change in vitro nutrient digestibility; however, it tended to lower CH4 production.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t82124 Watch 148 Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products reduce effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on CowPi-predicted functionalities of rumen microbiota in lactating dairy cows. 2 J. Guo Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product SARA rumen microbiota J. Guo1, Z. Zhang3, I. Yoon2, M. Zhou3, L. Guan3, E. Khafipour2, J. Plaizier1 1University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, 2Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA, 3University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Cows were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (n = 8) that received a TMR (34.9% NDF, 18.6% starch, DM basis) supplemented with 140 g/d of ground corn (Control), 126 g/d of ground corn and 14 g/d of XPC (XPC, Diamond V Original XPC, Cedar Rapids, IA), 121 g/d of ground corn and 19 g/d of NutriTek (NTL, NutriTek, Diamond V), or 102 g/d of ground corn and 38 g/d of NutriTek (NTH) from 4 wk before until 12 wk after calving. Subacute ruminal acidosis(SARA) challenges were conducted during wk 5 (SARA1) and wk 8 (SARA2) after calving by replacing 20% of the TMR with pellets containing 50% barley and 50% wheat. Rumen samples were collected weekly from wk 3 until wk 10 after calving. DNA was extracted, Illumina sequenced at the V1–V2 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, and analyzed by QIIME2. The OTU counts and sequence tables were constructed in the galaxy implementation of CowPI to predict the Kegg ortholog abundances at the pathway-level. Out of 205 functions, 165 were changed by SARA. The relative abundance of arachidonic acid metabolism increased, but this was reduced by NTH (P = 0.03) during SARA2. The abundance of glycosaminoglycan degradation was lower during NTL than during Control (0.038% vs 0.044%, P = 0.01. The nod-like receptor signaling pathway decreased more during SARA2 than SARA1 (P < 0.01), and NTH increased its relative abundance compared with Control (0.065% vs 0.063%, P = 0.05). Retinol metabolism tended to increase more during SARA2 than SARA1 (P = 0.08), and NTH decreased its abundance compared with Control (0.0031% vs 0.0035%, P = 0.05). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis and LPS biosynthesis proteins increased during SARA challenges (P < 0.01), which agrees with increases in rumen free LPS observed in a parallel study. SARA challenges altered predicted rumen functionalities related to inflammation, and NutriTek attenuated these changes.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t82070 Watch 149 Influence of hydrolyzed soybean meal on glycogen production by mixed ruminal microbes. 3 M. B. Hall fermentation protein glycogen M. B. Hall1, M. L. Sullivan1 1U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, USDA-ARS, Madison, WI Increasing the supply of degradable protein can alter products formed by mixed ruminal microbes, decreasing glycogen and increasing microbial nitrogen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing supernatant (SUP) from enzymatically hydrolyzed soybean meal (SBM) on glycogen production by mixed ruminal microbes. SBM (20% solids with distilled water; dH2O) with (+e) or without (-e) ENZECO Protease BL was incubated with continuous mixing for 1 h at 60°C. SUP was isolated by centrifugation at 15,000 x g for 10 min at 5°C. SUP N mg/mL were -e: 5.87 and +e: 13.31. Replicate in vitro fermentations (3) were performed with Goering-Van Soest medium without tryptone. Each tube contained 20 mL medium, 1 mL reducing solution, 79.5 mg glucose in 0.5 mL, 1 mL of tryptone solution or 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mL of SUP brought to 1 mL with dH2O, and 5 mL of strained rumen fluid. Increasing SUP delivered N mg/tube of 1.17, 2.35, and 3.52 for -e, 2.66, 5.32, and 7.99 for +e, and 2.66 or 5.32 for tryptone. -e gave insight to the impact of SUP carbohydrate addition from SBM. Tubes harvested at 3 h of fermentation were analyzed for microbial glycogen. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with run as a random variable. Gel electrophoresis showed the pattern of proteins in -e was similar to that in solubilized SBM; for +e, higher molecular weight proteins present in SBM were reduced and more lower molecular weight proteins were apparent. Glycogen amount was greater with -e (15.2 mg) than +e (13.6 mg; Effects: protease, P < 0.01; supernatant dose, P = 0.76; interaction, P = 0.20; SED 0.68) with a tendency for a quadratic effect of SUP dose (P = 0.08). Comparison of +e and tryptone at the 2 common levels of N gave glycogen values of 13.8 mg for +e and 11.6 mg for tryptone (P < 0.01) with no effects of N dose (P = 0.17) or the interaction (P = 0.97; SED = 0.56). Lower glycogen values for +e vs. -e and for tryptone vs. +e indicate reduced storage of glycogen with +e and tryptone, describing potentially more efficient fermentations, ostensibly due to relatively greater amounts of more immediately available degradable protein and peptides.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t81787 Watch 150 Effect of autochthonous Nepalese plants on ruminal methane production in vitro. 4 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez digestibility fermentation methane R. Dhakal1, E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1, M. González-Ronquillo2, H. H. Hansen1 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark, 2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Instituto Literario 100, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México The objective of this study was to determine the use of dried fruits from commonly used Nepalese plants on rumen fermentation in vitro. Two plants and a plant product were tested in 3 concentrations: the fruit of Terminalia chebula (HA), Terminila belliricia (BA) and Triphala Churna (TC), a commercial mixture with 3 equal parts (DM basis) of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminila belliricia, and Terminalia chebula. These plants/product were tested pure and at 20% and 40% of the total sample dry matter in maize silage (MS). Additionally, pure MS was used as a control. These 10 treatments were tested during 2, 48-h fermentations with quadruplicate samples. Rumen fluid was collected from 2 fasting cannulated heifers. Total gas production (TGP: mL at standard temperature and pressure (STP)/g DM), methane production (MP), and volatile fatty acids contents (VFA) were measured or calculated from measurements. Data were analyzed with linear mixed models using R version (3.5.1) with each treatment as a main effect and run as a random variable. Total gas production and MP were less (P < 0.05) than MS (186 mL gas/g DM with 10% methane) for pure samples, but not significantly different from MS for 20 and 40% plants/product mixtures with a reduction in TGP between 5 and 15 and 8 to 16% for methane. Neither total VFA production (mmol/L) nor proportions of propionic acid and acetate (mol/100mol) were significantly different between MS and plant/product and MS mixtures (P > 0.05). The reduction in MP and similarities between total VFA, TGP, and VFA profiles for the plants/product mixtures and pure MS suggest that these can be used with MS at the given inclusion rates. The decrease in methane represents a heat energy value of between 2.3 and 5.5 MJ/kg of DM, which the animal can theoretically use. Therefore, these plants/product may increase productivity while decreasing enteric methane emission.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t81908 Watch 151 Effects of feeding a yeast culture product on performance, blood biomarkers, rumen fermentation, and rumen bacteria species in peripartal dairy cows. 5 N. A. Carpinelli transition cow yeast culture rumen bacteria N. A. Carpinelli1, J. Halfen1,2, S. D. L. Ramirez1,3, E. Trevisi4, J. D. Chapman5, E. D. Sharman5, J. S. Osorio1 1Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão em Pecuaria (NUPEEC), Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 3Universidad de la Salle, Bogotá, DC, Colombia, 4Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition (DIANA), Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Italy, 5Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ Feeding yeast culture fermentation products has been associated with improved feed intake and milk yield in transition dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture product (Cellerate Culture Classic HD (YC); Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) on performance, blood biomarkers, and rumen fermentation and bacterial population in dairy cows during the transition period until 50 DIM. Forty Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in a randomized complete block design from −30 to 50 DIM and blocked according to expected calving day, parity, previous lactation milk yield, and genetic merit. At −30 DIM cows were assigned to either a basal diet plus 114 g/d of ground corn (CON; n = 20) or basal diet plus 100 g/d of ground corn and 14 g/d YC (n = 20), fed as a top-dress. Cows received the same close-up diet from −30 until calving (0.63 Mcal/kg DM and 12.3% CP) and lactation diet from calving to 50 DIM (0.73 Mcal/kg DM and 15.6% CP). Blood samples were collected at −30, −15, 7, 14, and 30 DIM to evaluate biomarkers of muscle body mass, metabolism, and oxidative stress. Rumen fluid (~50 mL) was sampled via esophageal tubing on −59, −30, 5, and 30 DIM for analysis of ammonia, VFA, and bacterial populations via qPCR amplification. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. There was a trend (P ≤ 0.13) for increased milk yield (+2.5 kg/d), ECM (+3.2 kg/d), and ECM/DMI (+0.13) for cows fed YC than CON. A trend (P = 0.10) for lower NEFA in YC than CON cows was observed. A trend (P = 0.08) for a Diet × Time was observed for butyrate percentage, where lower (P = 0.03) butyrate was observed in YC than CON at 5 DIM. Rumen bacteria associated with improved feed efficiency such as Megasphaera elsdenii was greater (P = 0.05) in YC cows compared with CON while Prevotella albensis was greater (P = 0.01) in YC compared with CON cows at 30 DIM. These results suggest that feeding YC to transition dairy cows can affect rumen fermentation by altering rumen bacteria populations, which helps explain the observed improvements in milk yield and milk yield efficiency.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion (M4)   Ruminant Nutrition: Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/22/2020 13:30 t81888 Watch 152 Yeast culture supplementation effects on lactation performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and abundance of major species of ruminal bacteria in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. 6 J. Halfen yeast culture rumen bacteria dry matter intake J. Halfen1,2, N. Carpinelli1, J. Chapman3, E. D. Sharman3, J. L. Anderson1, J. S. Osorio1 1Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão em Pecuária (NUPEEC), Departamento de Clínica Veterinaria, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Plotas, RS, Brazil, 3Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ Improvements in milk yield and efficiency have been observed when feeding yeast culture products to dairy cows, and this has been partially attributed to alterations in rumen fermentation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding yeast culture [Cellerate Culture Classic HD (YC); Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ] on lactation performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen bacterial populations in lactating dairy cows. Forty mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (121 ± 43 DIM; mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design consisting of 7 d adaptation period and 60 d treatment period. Cows were blocked by parity, DIM, and previous lactation milk yield and assigned to a basal TMR plus 114 g/d of ground corn CON (n = 20) or basal TMR plus 100 g/d of ground corn and 14 g/d YC (n = 20). Blood and rumen fluid samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 d. Rumen fluid was analyzed for ammonia-N, VFA concentrations, and relative abundance of bacterial populations via qPCR amplification. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.07) to be 1.4 kg/d lower in YC than CON cows, while milk yield was not affected (P = 0.43) by diet. Consequently, a trend (P = 0.07) was observed for greater milk efficiency in YC than CON cows (1.46 vs. 1.34 milk/DMI). The trend (P = 0.11) for a Diet × Time interaction in rumen pH resulted in greater rumen pH in YC than CON cows at 60 d. Greater (P = 0.02) propionate was observed in YC than CON (26.9 vs 25.4%). A trend (P = 0.07) for lower acetate was observed in YC than CON (60.2 vs 61.2%). There was lower (P = 0.04) acetate:propionate ratio in YC than CON. Prevotella albensis, associated with improved feed efficiency, was greater (P = 0.05) in YC than CON. Ruminobacter amylophilus, related to rumen acidosis, had a Diet × Time effect (P < 0.01) with lower (P < 0.01) abundance in YC than CON at 30 d. These results suggest feeding YC may help maintain milk production during transient reductions in DMI, by modulating rumen microbiota and fermentation patterns.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82853 Watch 10 Manufacturing heat-stable whey protein isolate by clarification. 1 G. Subbiah Prabhakaran whey protein isolate isoelectric precipitation clarification G. Subbiah Prabhakaran1, J. A. Lucey1,2, M. Molitor2 1University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI, 2Wisconsin Centre for Dairy Research, Madison, WI Residual fat (RF) in whey protein isolate (WPI) is detrimental for storage flavor and functional applications. Objective of this study was to remove RF without utilizing microfiltration. We believe that by demineralizing whey via ultrafiltration (UF), phospholipoprotein (PLP) fractions can be precipitated along with denatured proteins and removed by centrifugation. Ca is also removed which improves heat stability. By removing RF and hence reducing oxidation of PLPs, we expect the resultant WPI to have a longer shelf life. Demineralization was achieved by acidifying liquid WPC-34 to pH 4.5 using HCl and ultrafiltering it along with extensive diafiltration. Benchtop trials (n = 4, P < 0.05) studied effects of pH (4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.2), protein concentration (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9% wb) and conductivity (300, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 mS/cm2) of demineralized UF retentate (UF-r) on precipitation of RF. The UF-r was adjusted to various combinations of pH, protein concentrations (PC) and conductivities and centrifuged on a bench scale at 7500 × g for 10 min. Sedimentation of RF was estimated by measuring turbidity of supernatants. RF precipitation was highest at PC ≤3% because of reduced viscosity. At pH 4.5–4.7, precipitation was maximum showing that denatured protein and PLPs coagulate at pH values close to isoelectric point of denatured proteins. Reducing conductivity, increased precipitation of RF indicating that more coagulation occurs with reduced charge screening. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated there was sedimentation of PLPs, caseins and denatured proteins while native whey proteins remained soluble. Thus, isoelectric precipitation was effective in removing RF from sweet whey. Results were used to scale up the process. 200 gal of sweet whey was demineralized and clarified using a pilot-scale desludging clarifier and spray dried to produce WPI powder (91% protein, 2.6% fat db). Test for heat stability showed that 98% protein remained soluble when a 5% protein solution was heated treated at 80°C for 30 min. Future work will compare functional, flavor and storage properties of this WPI with some commercially available WPIs.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82783 Watch 11 Application of lactose oxidase to control Pseudomonas spp. and delay age gelation in UHT milk. 2 V. K. Rivera Flores lactose oxidase age gelation UHT milk V. K. Rivera Flores1, T. A. DeMarsh1, S. D. Alcaine1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Shelf-stable milk is consumed worldwide, and this market is expected to continue growing. One quality challenge for UHT milk shelf life is age gelation, which can be caused by bacterial heat-stable proteases (HSP) synthesized during the raw milk storage period before heat processing. Some Pseudomonas spp. are HSP producers and their ability to grow well at refrigeration temperature make them important spoilage organisms to control for UHT processors. Previous work from our group showed that lactose oxidase (LO), a commercial enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide and lactobionic acid from lactose, can control bacterial growth in raw milk. In this research, we investigated the ability of LO to control HSP producer outgrowth and thus prevent, or delay, age gelation in UHT milk. Six strains of Pseudomonas spp. were selected based on their ability to synthesize HSP and used as a cocktail to inoculate both raw and sterile milk at a level of 1 × 105 cfu/mL. Samples were treated with and without LO, incubated for 3 or 4 d at 6°C, and monitored for cell count and pH. A heat treatment was applied after the incubation period, and particle size analysis and visual inspection were used to monitor gelation from HSP activity. Coagulation assessment -analyzed using Tukey’s HSD test- showed that in sterile milk, a LO treatment [0.12 g/L] was significantly different from the control (P < 0.05). In raw milk, however, a LO treatment of 0.24 g/L was needed to prevent gelation. The test was scaled up to 18.9 L pilot plant batches of raw milk, which were challenged with the Pseudomonas spp. cocktail, and treated with LO [0.24 g/L] for 3 d. Batches were then processed with a MicroThermics UHT unit, and bottles monitored for gelation at room temperature. Significant difference in particle size between the sample treated with LO and the control was observed as early as one month after processing (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that LO can be used to prevent age gelation in UHT milk induced by HSP-producing Pseudomonas spp., representing an opportunity to improve quality and reduce post-production losses in the shelf-stable milk market sector.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82623 Watch 12 Improving the extraction of dairy phospholipids by the combined effect of ultrasound pretreatment and switchable solvents. 3 K. Rathnakumar switchable solvent ultrasound phospholipids K. Rathnakumar1, J. Ortega-Anaya2, R. Jimenez-Flores2, J. Reineke1, S. I. Martínez-Monteagudo1 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH In the last decade, the consumption of phospholipids (PLs), a class of polar lipids, has been associated with important health benefits. Dairy by-products are an abundant source of PLs with potential for extraction and isolation. In this work, we report improvements in the extraction efficiency of PLs from Beta-serum, a dairy by-product, by the application of ultrasound (USD) before the extraction with switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS), these solvents can switch from hydrophobic to hydrophilic form by inserting the CO2.The ultrasound pretreatment consisted of the application of 3 levels of acoustic intensity (either 134.15 ± 1.20, 274.91 ± 2.47, or 385.67 ± 3.47 W/m−2) for 4 min. After the pretreatment, the extraction of the lipid fraction was performed using a tertiary amine (N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, CyNMe2) as a switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) at 3 different sample to SHS ratios (1/3, 1/6 and 1/12). The PLs were recovered by solid phase-microextraction, and the individual PLs were quantified by HPLC with charged aerosol detector. The effect of acoustic intensity (385.67 ± 3.47 W/m−2) followed by SHS extraction using 1/12 ratio recovered 69.07 ± 0.11% of PLs, while only 7.57 ± 0.59% of the PLs were recovered without the ultrasound pretreatment. The recovered fraction of PLs mainly comprised of phosphatidylinositol (32%),phosphatidylethanolamine (30%), and sphingomyelin (37%) found higher compared with untreated samples. Scanning electron images, particle size, and gel electrophoresis revealed great disruption of the protein matrix that may release the PLs into the aqueous medium. The application of ultrasound prior the SHS extraction remarkably improved the recovery efficiency of PLs. The proposed method improves the extraction of dairy PLs and may help to expand the utilization of thereof.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82178 Watch 13 Effect of cold plasma treatment on the functional properties of MPC 85. 4 S. Raghunath cold plasma functionality milk protein concentrate S. Raghunath1, T. Schoenfuss1, K. Mallikarjunan1, G. Annor1 1University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Saint Paul, MN Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is a high-quality protein found in milk and a complete protein consisting of both casein and whey. MPC is known to have poor solubility and flowability due to physicochemical interactions. The cold plasma (CP) treatment is known to modify protein and thereby alter its functionality. The scope of this study is to improve functional characteristics of MPC after cold plasma treatment and understand mechanisms involved. In this study, MPC 85 powder was directly subjected to various treatment duration (15 min to 60 min) with cold plasma at 25°C, 120 W radio frequency (RF) power, and flowrates of 10 and 25 cm3/min of argon and CO2. The samples (treated and untreated) were then subjected to various physiochemical tests including flowability, water activity, solubility, moisture content, dry mass, foaming capacity, stability, pH, wettability, zeta potential, water binding capacity and solubility (at 50, 22 and 5°C) in triplicates. The statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, and the significant differences were calculated (P < 0.05) using Tukey HSD. Flow index significantly increased by 50% at 45 min. Foaming capacity and stability had a 63% (157.33 to 257.33 mL/g) and 64% (52.54 to 86.11%) increase till 30 min and then had a drop to 22% (192.00 mL/g) at 60 min whereas the stability remained constant. The pH remained constant in the range of 6.8 – 7.00. There was an 80% decrease (93s to 18.67s) in wettability and 38% (45.16 to 62%) increase in water binding capacity after 45 min. Zeta potential did not follow a particular trend. The dry mass remained constant, but the moisture content decreased to 77% (9 to 2). The solubility increased significantly after CP treatment but the maximum increase was observed at different time points for each temperature. The solubility at 50 and 5°C had an increase of 16% and 97%, respectively. The flowability, wettability, foaming capacity and stability, water binding capacity improved following the CP treatment due to the change in protein structure. Results proved that the samples showed better functionality in comparison to untreated samples. RF cold plasma could provide an alternative non-thermal processing approach to modify functional properties of MPC 85 and can be tailored for specific applications.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81740 Watch 14 Shelf stability of milk protein gels created by pressure-assisted enzymatic gelation. 5 L. Wang high-pressure processing (HPP) milk protein gels shelf stability L. Wang1, C. I. Moraru1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Recent studies showed that high-pressure processing (HPP) provides exciting opportunities for structure formation in high concentration protein foods, with minimal impact on their overall nutritional and sensory properties. In this work, a new concept of pressure-assisted enzymatic gelation of milk protein concentrates (MPC) was applied, with the goal of further enhancing the structure and stability of pressure-induced milk protein gels, facilitating their use for the manufacture of novel dairy products. MPC powder was reconstituted to form a 12.5% (wt/wt) protein solution. Calf chymosin (45 IMCU/1000g milk) was added to the samples. Immediately after chymosin addition, the samples were treated with HPP at 600 MPa at 5°C for 3 min, followed by a shelf life study of 28 d at 4 ± 0.2°C. Textural analysis and water holding capacity measurements were carried out on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The processing trials and measurements were conducted in triplicate. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA at a 95% confidence level. Pressurization of MPCs led to extensive protein aggregation and gel formation, in a much shorter time (3min) compared with conventional enzymatic coagulation (around 30 min). The gel hardness of MPCs with added chymosin was 297 ± 61g at the beginning of storage and remained at 410 ± 19 g after 7 d. The water holding capacity remained at 91 ± 1% during refrigerated storage. Without chymosin, HPP-created MPC gels had a lower gel hardness value, of 227 ± 54g, which decreased by 5.9% to 213 ± 10 g during refrigerated storage. However, the water holding capacity remained at 100% during 28 d of refrigerated storage. These results clearly show that enzymatic coagulation under pressure can create gel structures that are stable during 28 d of refrigeration. These findings demonstrate that controlled, fast structural modification of high concentration protein systems can be obtained by pressure-assisted enzymatic treatment. Overall, this study provides insights into the possibility of using HPP for the development of milk-protein based products with novel structures and extended shelf life.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82122 Watch 15 A method to diagnose mid-infrared milk analyzer prediction equation performance. 6 M. Portnoy mid-infrared intercorrection factor partial least squares models M. Portnoy1, D. M. Barbano1 1Department of Food Science, Northeast Dairy Food Research Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Mid-infrared (MIR) milk analyzers are used for milk payment and product testing. Our objective was to determine if a modified milk calibration sample set could be used to diagnose and identify weaknesses in both partial least squares (PLS) based and traditional fixed-filter based predictions of milk component concentration. The modified milk calibration set (14 samples with a wide range of fat, protein, lactose and urea), is formulated in an orthogonal design and all-lab mean reference chemistry that, allows the identification of specific weaknesses in MIR prediction equations that are due to incorrect compensation for variation in the background milk matrix effects of fat, protein, and lactose concentration. In the case of traditional fixed-filter prediction models, the calibration equations can be adjusted based on the results of analysis of the modified milk set to improve instrument accuracy, while in the case of PLS models, specific model weaknesses can be identified and pointed out to the PLS model developer. For traditional filter models that predict fat, protein, and lactose, the sensitivity of predicted values to a mismatch of the intercorrection factor settings with the instrument optic system characteristics caused the standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between instrument prediction and reference chemistry to be larger (e.g., SDD of 0.004 vs 0.021 for fat when intercorrection factor for protein on fat B differs by 0.03), with systematic under or over estimation of the component being predicted at the ends of the concentration range of the interfering milk component. For PLS models, the inability of a PLS model to cancel out the background matrix variation effects of fat, protein, and lactose concentration on the parameter being predicted can be clearly identified and quantified. Based on this diagnostic data that can be produced by analysis of the modified milk samples, the population of milk sample spectra that need to be added to the PLS modeling population to improve the prediction accuracy of a PLS model measuring major milk components, or for prediction models for minor milk components (e.g., milk urea nitrogen or fatty acids) can be determined.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81895 Watch 16 Impact of milk protein type and concentration on the composition, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat, high-protein ice cream. 7 L. R. Sipple ice cream high protein low fat L. R. Sipple1, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The market for frozen desserts with added protein has grown in the last decade. Milk proteins are important in the development of ice cream structure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of liquid dairy proteins on the composition, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat (about 4%), high-protein ice cream. Ice creams were formulated in duplicate with liquid micellar casein concentrate (MCC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), or whey protein isolate (WPI) to contain 3, 6, or 9% crude protein (CP, total nitrogen x 6.38) for each protein type. The composition, color, particle size, and viscosity of ice cream mixes were determined. Mix was frozen on a continuous freezer, and the overrun and particle size of frozen ice creams were determined. The color, meltdown rate, and trained panel flavor and texture attributes were determined for ice creams following 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo storage. Ice cream made with WPI had higher mix viscosity (P < 0.05), and lower overrun than MCC or MPC ice cream (P < 0.05). WPI ice cream also had a larger mean particle size and wider particle size distribution before and after freezing than MCC and MPC ice creams (P < 0.05). Vanilla flavor was highest in MCC ice creams (P < 0.05) followed by MPC and then WPI ice creams. Ice creams with lower protein had higher vanilla flavor (3 > 6 > 9% CP) (P < 0.05). Vanilla flavor also declined over time for all protein types and concentrations (P < 0.05). Astringency increased with increasing CP, and WPI ice creams were higher in astringency than MCC or MPC ice creams (P < 0.05). Cardboard flavor developed in ice creams over time, and this flavor intensity was higher in higher CP ice creams (P < 0.05). Firmness, denseness, mouth coating, and melted viscosity increased with increasing CP (P < 0.05), whereas crumbliness had an inverse relationship with CP. MCC ice cream was lower in mouth coating and melted viscosity than MPC and WPI ice creams (P < 0.05). Over time, a decrease in crumbliness and mouth coating was observed in ice creams while denseness and smoothness increased (P < 0.05). This research elucidates the impact of milk protein source and protein concentration in ice cream on structural and sensory properties.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81797 Watch 17 Decarboxylation of hydroxycinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from dairy products. 8 G. Miyagusuku-Cruzado microbial biotransformation fermented food flavor compound G. Miyagusuku-Cruzado1, I. Garcia-Cano1, D. Rocha-Mendoza1, R. Jimenez-Flores1, M. M. Giusti1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Food flavor and aroma are significantly impacted by the presence of 4-vinylphenols (4VPs), volatile compounds with very low-perception thresholds produced by decarboxylation of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) ubiquitous in nature. 4VPs can be found in dairy products such as cheese and yogurt, and when in low concentrations, they contribute positively to the flavor by adding complexity and uniqueness. In HCA-rich foods subjected to bacterial fermentation, it is key to select strains that will produce the desired sensory properties, highlighting the need for screening lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for decarboxylating ability. The decarboxylating activity of LAB strains from the Ohio State University–Parker Endowed Chair collection (137 strains) with potential to produce phenolic acid decarboxylase (22 strains) was evaluated after incubation with HCAs for 36 h at 32°C. Decarboxylation was monitored using a high-throughput spectrophotometric method based on hypsochromic shifts when HCAs are transformed into 4VPs. Spectrophotometric results were confirmed by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses, looking for longer retention times and shorter λ230–500 max than their precursor HCA, and characteristic m/z. Enterococcus mundtii, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus were capable of decarboxylating p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids producing their 4VP derivatives. Seven other strains were only capable of biotransforming p-coumaric and caffeic acid, 1 was able to decarboxylate only caffeic acid and 1 was able to decarboxylate only p-coumaric acid, while 10 strains were not able to biotransform any HCA. No strain in this study was capable of decarboxylating sinapic acid. p-Coumaric acid had the highest biotransformation efficiency, followed by caffeic acid and lastly ferulic acid. This is the first study showing decarboxylating activity by the E. mundtii strain. This work can help improve LAB strain selection for food applications, improving the sensorial characteristics of fermented dairy products such as cheese and yogurt, especially the ones formulated with HCA-rich fruit and vegetable extracts.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81778 Watch 18 Radiofrequency-assisted thermal process validation of dairy powder considering the effect of storage time. 9 X. Wei surrogate thermal death time dielectric heating X. Wei1, B. Chaves1, M.-G. Danao1, S. Agarwal3, J. Subbiah2 1University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 3Mars Wrigley, Chicago, IL Salmonella persistence in dairy powders has caused several multistate foodborne outbreaks. Therefore, effective antimicrobial treatments need to be identified and validated to ensure the safety of dairy powders. Because storage time may influence the thermal resistance of Salmonella in dairy powders, this factor needs to be included in the process validation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of storage time on the thermal resistance of Salmonella in dairy powders; evaluate the suitability of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a non-pathogenic surrogate for Salmonella during thermal processing; and validate radiofrequency (RF)-assisted thermal processing as a suitable pasteurization process to inactivate Salmonella in dairy powders. Nonfat dry milk and whole milk powder were inoculated with a 5-strain Salmonella cocktail or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 and equilibrated to a low water activity (aw) level of 0.10 representing an extreme worst-case scenario (typical aw is 0.20). The samples were stored for 30, 60, and 90 d and decimal reduction values (D-values) were determined at 85°C. D-values were also determined at 90 and 95°C at 30 d of storage to identify the adequate thermal processing time and temperature combination for RF-assisted thermal processing. A custom-designed thermal death sandwich was used to conduct the isothermal treatments. Based on the determined processing conditions, RF heating of dairy powders was conducted in a 6-kW, 27.12-MHz pilot scale parallel plate RF heating system to achieve the target temperature and then transferred to a convective hot air oven for specific holding time. Results showed that storage time did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the thermal resistance of Salmonella in dairy powders. E. faecium was a suitable surrogate for Salmonella due to its significantly (P < 0.05) higher thermal resistance (D-value) and similar inactivation kinetics during thermal treatment of dairy powders. RF studies are currently being conducted at 85, 90, and 95°C to validate at least a 5-log reduction of Salmonella in dairy powders.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82918 Watch M7 Application of micro-nano-bubbles to improve the processability of milk protein concentrates. 1 K. Sajith Babu milk protein concentrate micro-nano-bubbles rheology K. Sajith Babu1, J. Amamcharla1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Micro-nano-bubbles (MNB) have unique properties and offer potential applications in various fields. The first objective of this study was to confirm the MNB injection method is capable of producing sufficient MNBs. The bubble particle size and concentration in deionized (DI) water and MNB treated DI water was measured using a nanoparticle tracking system. MNB treated DI water had a mean particle size of 249.8 ± 115.8 nm and a bubble concentration of 3.76 × 108 particles/mL. In other words, the concentration of MNB treated DI water was significantly higher compared with the DI water (>300 million nano-bubbles/mL). The second objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of MNB treatment to improve the rheological and functional properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). Reconstituted MPC (20%, wt/wt) passed through a pump was considered as control (C-MPC), and MPC passed through the MNB system was considered as MNB treated (MNB-MPC). The rheological behavior and microstructure of C-MPC and MNB-MPC were evaluated. The viscosity of MNB-MPC at shear rate of 100 s−1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) from 0.165 to 0.03 Pa.s (C-MPC). The C-MPC and MNB-MPC were spray dried in a lab-scale spray dryer and the rehydration characteristics, bulk and shear flow properties, and morphology were evaluated. Focused beam reflectance measurement of the MNB-MPC powders showed higher counts of fine particles during dissolution, which indicated MNB-MPC powders were more soluble than C-MPC powders. Conditioned bulk density and flow function coefficient were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the MNB-MPC powders. MNB-MPC powders were more free-flowing as observed from significantly lower (P < 0.05) basic flow energy values compared with the C-MPC powders. MNB-MPC powders exhibited less cohesiveness and better flow characteristics than C-MPC powders. This study, therefore, confirms the potential of using MNB treatment for more efficient drying and improved functionality of MPC powders.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82779 Watch M8 Tracking microbiome shifts throughout cheddar cheese production. 2 B. Rackerby cheese microbiome high-throughput sequencing J. Choi1, B. Rackerby1, S. Lee1, R. Frojen1, L. Goddik1, S. Ha2, S. Park1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Geonggi-Do, South Korea It is essential for the dairy industry to understand the microbial community structure of cheese as manufacturing practices influence the microbiome which in turn drives safety and sensory characteristics, thereby affecting the quality of the cheese. While some organisms impart desirable characteristics, others are associated with a reduction in quality. To characterize the shifts in microbial community structure throughout the cheddar cheese making process, 3 batches of cheddar cheese were produced at the Oregon State University Creamery on April 26, June 6, and June 26, 2018. Samples were collected from 36 time points throughout processing and separated into 3 stages: pre-inoculation, production, and aging (6 mo). Environmental samples were collected from the facility to identify a source of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), contaminants of cheese which often impart negative characteristics. DNA was isolated from all samples and sequenced at the 16S rRNA V4 region using an Illumina MiSeq to analyze differences in microbial populations. All cheese samples were predominated by Streptococcus and Lactococcus, both of which were present in the starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB). Raw and pasteurized milks showed high levels of α diversity before the addition of SLAB. Upon SLAB inoculation, microbial richness decreased significantly and microbial compositions shifted. NSLAB appeared 15 weeks after aging and were determined to be an unidentified group of Lactobacillaceae. Beta diversity analysis revealed that community structure changed sequentially throughout production, and that the April cheese differed from the 2 June produced cheeses, indicating that microbiota differ across both production stage and batch. Functionally, post-inoculation samples from production and ripening clustered together, sharing similar functional properties that differed significantly from pre-inoculation samples. Addition of SLAB reduced the microbial richness and shifted the microbial communities to be more similar both compositionally and functionally. A source of NSLAB was not determined, however growth was present in 39 of 72 samples.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82615 Watch M9 Characterization of adhesion property between Lactobacillus reuteri and milk phospholipids, and the gene expression of binding-promoting proteins. 3 L. Zhang milk phospholipids lactic acid bacteria adhesion property L. Zhang1, I. García-Cano1, R. Jiménez-Flores1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Due to the beneficial effects of milk phospholipids (MPLs) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the application of using them as a combination is getting scientists’ attention and has promoted research on analyzing their nutritional and functional properties. Recently, a strain-specific adhesion property between MPLs and LAB, especially Lactobacillus reuteri, was observed. This study aims to quantify such adhesion property and investigate its correlation to gene expression of 3 binding-promoting proteins: mucus adhesion-promoting protein (mapA), cell and mucus-binding protein A (cmbA) and collagen-binding protein (cnb). Out of 122 LAB cultivated in MPLs supplemented MRS medium, 27% demonstrated an adhesion property, 28% showed a “semi-adhesion” property, while the rest separated from the MPLs layer after incubation. It also indicated that the adhesion property was strain-specific −38% of LAB demonstrating the adhesion property with MPLs was L. reuteri. Six L. reuteri strains and 6 strains from other species were selected to quantify the adhesion property using a modified sucrose density gradient centrifugation method. Three binding-promoting proteins presented in L. reuteri were selected, and the gene expression of them in selected bacteria were analyzed using RT-qPCR in triplicates. The change of gene expression was calculated with the paired T-test. The criterion for significance was set at P < 0.05. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between gene expression level and adhesion property. The result indicated that the gene expression level of all 3 proteins were not significantly changed by the addition of MPLs into MRS medium. However, in L. reuteri, the gene expression level of cmbA showed a significant correlation with the adhesion property. This study suggests that the addition of MPLs may not likely to affect the mucus adhesion property of LAB. Meanwhile, the combination of MPLs and L. reuteri with a high cmbA expression level might contribute to the delivery of MPLs into gut microbiota upon consumption.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81981 Watch M10 Effect of soluble casein isolate on the functionality and mechanical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC80) during storage. 4 Y. Zhu milk protein concentrate soluble casein isolate atomic force microscopy Peak-force QNM Y. Zhu1, M. S. Molitor2, S. Ikeda1, J. A. Lucey2 1Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 2Center for Dairy Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI MPC80 is a high-protein milk powder widely used in the food industry as a functional ingredient. A problem associated with MPC80 is its poor solubility, which can further deteriorate during storage at high temperature and humidity. A new approach to improve MPC solubility was investigated. The Center for Dairy Research (CDR) has developed a technology to produce soluble casein isolate (SCI), which is very similar to sodium caseinate but made via a membrane filtration method. Various levels (0, 1, 5, 10%) of soluble casein isolate (SCI), manufactured by CDR, was added to the UF retentate before spray drying and the MPC powders were stored at 30°C for up to 60 d after manufacture. The above processes were replicated twice, using different lots of skim milk. The results showed that addition of SCI did not change the particle size distribution or disrupt the casein micelle structure. Adding 5% or more SCI (in final dry matter) significantly improved MPC solubility and foam capacity on d 0 (P < 0.05), but the foam capacity was not significantly different after 60 d storage (P > 0.05). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in Peak Force QNM mode was used to investigate the nanomechanical properties of powder particle surfaces. The powder particle surface topography was hardly impacted by storage under high temperature, however, storage under high temperature led to an increase in powder stiffness for all 4 samples and the elastic modulus of the MPC samples was negatively correlated with solubility (r = −0.86, P < 0.001). Addition of SCI, at levels 5–10% in final dry matter, could have increased the amount of non-micellar casein on powder surface and possibly slow down the case hardening of MPC powder particles during high temperature storage, which might have contributed to the improvement in solubility and functionality.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81776 Watch M11 The effect of micellar casein concentrate purity on sulfur/eggy flavor in UHT milk protein-based beverages. 5 D. Whitt micellar casein purity protein beverages D. Whitt1, B. G. Carter1, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) is made by removing serum proteins (SP) from skim milk by microfiltration (MF). Milk SP denature during thermal processing and are the source of volatile sulfur/eggy off-flavors (H2S and C2S). Our objective was to determine the amount of milk derived whey protein (MDWP) removal (i.e., SP) required to eliminate sulfur/eggy flavor in milk protein beverages at 15 g protein / 240 mL serving. MCC with 95% MDWP removal was produced from skim milk (50°C) using a 3X, 3-stage ceramic MF process using 0.1 µm pore size graded permeability membrane. Model beverages with carrageenan, cellulose gum, and dipotassium phosphate were created by adding MDWP back into the MCC to simulate 4 levels of MDWP removal: 95.2%, 91.0%, 83.2%, and 69.2% which correspond to MCC purities (i.e., casein % of true protein) of 93.8, 93.2, 92.2 90.2%, respectively. Beverages were ultrapasteurized (UHT) by direct steam injection (140°C for 2.3 s), bottled and cooled (4°C). Residual SP and MCC purity were measured by Kjeldahl before UHT. Beverages were profiled by descriptive analysis and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for sulfur volatiles (H2S, C2S). The H2S concentrations were 9.3d, 21.9c, 35.4b, 58.6a ppb and C2S were 33.3d, 58.5c, 100.7b, 148.8a ppb (P < 0.05) for beverages corresponding to 95.2, 91.0, 83.2, and 69.2% MDWP removal, respectively. The residual MDWP concentrations increased (0.40d, 0.44c, 0.51b, and 0.63a g/100 g beverage), as milk serum protein removal % decreased. Sensory perception of sulfur/eggy flavor intensity increased with increasing level of residual SP (P < 0.05). Concentrations of H2S and C2S were below documented threshold values, and sulfur/eggy flavors were not detected by the trained panel in the MCC with 95% serum protein removal. Serum protein removal from MCC must be greater than 91% to achieve a product with no sulfur off-flavors following thermal processing. To eliminate sulfur eggy flavor in a milk protein beverage at 15 g protein and 0.35 g fat per 240 mL serving, the residual SP concentration needs to be <0.96 g/240 mL beverage.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition   ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82939 Watch M12 Development of a novel milk protein concentrate containing whey proteins as fibrils. 6 G. Rathod modified milk protein concentrate viscosity G. Rathod1, J. Amamcharla1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is used to provide nutritional benefits, enhanced viscosity, and water holding in various food products. Altering the protein configuration and protein-protein interactions in MPC can provide a novel functionality in terms of gelling and viscosity. Hence, an attempt was made to modify MPC by converting whey proteins as fibrils. Whey protein fibrils are known to increase viscosity and water holding capacity compared with the native protein. The objective of this work was to evaluate the functionality of modified MPC by converting whey proteins as fibrils. For this purpose, a commercial native whey protein (nWP) and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) were procured from commercial sources. The nWP was dissolved in distilled water to make a 2% (wt/wt) solution and divided into 2 equal parts. The pH of the first part was adjusted to 2 and heated to 80°C for 20 h. Once the fibrillation was complete, the pH of the solution was adjusted to 6.7 and served as modified. The second part was served as control. Subsequently, the control and treated solutions were mixed with MCC to provide a final casein to whey protein ratio of 80:20 to resemble MPC with 10% protein. The control and modified MPC were analyzed in terms of viscosity, thioflavin T (Th T) value, particle size, and morphology. All the experiments were carried out in duplicate. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of whey protein fibrils in the modified whey protein solution. However, the number of fibrils were visibly low after pH adjustment and MCC addition. The apparent viscosity at low shear rates was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for modified MPC compared with control MPC. Both the samples showed a shear thinning behavior with flow behavior index less than one. The consistency coefficient for control and modified MPC solution was found to be 0.0015 ± 0.0005 and 11.8696 ± 0.1368 Pa.Sn, respectively. The Th T fluorescence value of modified MPC (792 ± 185 AU) was higher than the control sample (632 ± 186AU). Overall, modified MPC containing whey proteins as fibrils showed promising differences when compared with the regular MPC.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81607 Watch 19 The effect of pre-, pro-, and symbiotic supplementation in milk to pre-weaned Holstein heifers on body weight gain and health outcomes. 1 P. Lucey calf probiotic prebiotic P. Lucey1, I. Lean2, S. Aly1, H. Golder2, H. Rossow1 1University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 2Scibus, Camden, NSW, Australia The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of pro-, pre-, and symbiotic supplementation on average daily weight gain (ADG), diarrhea and odds of pneumonia treatment with an antibiotic in pre-weaned dairy heifer calves. A total of 1,801 healthy Holstein heifer calves from a large California dairy were enrolled at 4 – 12 h of age until weaning at approximately 60 d of age. Calves were block-randomized on a repeating random order of all possible orderings of the 4 treatments: 1) control, 2) enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast product (pre), 3) Bacillus subtilis (pro), 4) combination of both products (symbiotic), which were administered in milk twice daily from enrollment until weaning. Serum total protein at enrollment and BW at 7, 42 and 56 d of age were measured. Fecal consistency was assessed daily on a scoring system of 1 to 3, for the entire pre-weaned period. Linear regression showed that symbiotic treated calves had 20 g increased ADG compared with control calves for overall BW gain (7 – 56 d) (P = 0.042). For late BW gain (42 – 56 d), prebiotic treated calves had 84 g increased ADG (P = 0.007) and symbiotic treated calves had 79 g increased ADG (P = 0.012) compared with control calves. Linear regression showed no difference in the length of the first diarrhea episode per calf by treatment. Cox regression showed no difference in hazard of diarrhea compared with control calves. Logistic regression showed no difference in the odds of calves experiencing pneumonia. Although no effects were seen on diarrhea length or pneumonia incidence, superior BW gain in the late pre-weaned period may increase health outcomes of calves across the weaning process.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82979 Watch 20 Metabolomic profile differs between Holstein strains at grazing conditions during early and mid lactation. 2 E. Jorge-Smeding Holstein strains grazing metabolomics E. Jorge-Smeding1, D. Armand-Ugon2, A. Mendoza2, M. Carriquiry1, A. Astessiano1 1Departamento de Producción Animal y Pasturas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2Programa de Producción de LecheUnidad de Lechería, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, Colonia, Uruguay The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Holstein strain on plasma metabolome to understand physiological adaptation at grazing of Holstein cows of 2 genetic origins: American (HFA, n = 8; 588 kg live weight, 2.60 BCS) and New Zealand (HFNZ, n = 8, 524 kg live weight, 2.50 BCS) during early and mid-lactation. Multiparous cows were used. Cows were fed 64% pastures, 31% of concentrate and 5% on average. Cows produced 33.0 vs. 30.4 ± 2.0 kg/d of milk for HFA and HFNZ respectively (P = 0.02), without differences between genetic strains in body condition score (P = 0.10). Plasma were collected at 21 and 180 d in milk and analyzed using a targeted metabolomic approach through a gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. A total of 172 metabolites were quantified. According to principal component analysis, data were clustered in 2 groups corresponding to DIM and a partial least square discriminant analysis classification model was obtained (R2 = 0.95; Q2 = 0.40) being oxoproline, p-tolyl glucuronide, 5-hydroxynorvaline, erythritol and isoleucine the 5 metabolites with the highest score of variable importance in the projection (VIP score >2.0 in all cases). Univariate analysis (false discovery rate-corrected ANOVA) showed 68 metabolites differing (adj-P < 0.05) between strains and 5 that tended (adj-P < 0.10) to be affected by the interaction between strain and DIM, but none of the metabolites were affected by DIM. Most of these differing metabolites belonged to amino acid metabolism (n = 26), fatty acids (n = 11), kidney deficiency pathways (n = 4), bile acids (n = 3) and the others composed single metabolite classes. There was not a clear trend on the effect of strain for most of the metabolite families as — on average— within each group (AA, fatty acid, kidney deficiency pathways, bile acids), half of the metabolites had a fold change >1.0 and half <1.0 for HFNZ compared with HFA cows. However, with the exception of linoleic and stearic acid, all fatty acids were increased in HFNZ compared with HFA cows (e.g., palmitoleic, arachidonic acids, adj-P < 0.05, fold change >1.0 in all cases). The effect of genetic strain on metabolic adaptations to pastoral constrains seems to rely, at least in part, on nitrogen metabolism.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t83023 Watch 21 Simultaneous minimization of diet costs and phosphorus excretion on dairy farms. 3 A. F. White   A. F. White1, L. E. Moraes1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH The study objective was to develop a mathematical programming model capable of simultaneously optimizing diets with different weights for least cost (LC) and least on farm P-balance (LP). The ration ingredients, herd composition, and animal categories were designed to represent the Jersey herd of the Ohio State University Waterman Dairy Center. The model constraints were set to meet the current recommendations of the NRC (2001), and additional constraints based on industry recommended practices were specified to limit the inclusion of specific feeds in the diet. Using OpenSolver (v.2.9.0, opensolver.org), 3 objective functions were individually optimized to (1) minimize the diet cost; (2) minimize the excess of P balance in the system, computed as the difference between P excreted and P uptake by forage production on-farm; and (3) minimize the weighted deviations from the values of the 2 previously optimized objective functions. A grid of 100 potential weights were used that varied the size of the effect of each deviation from the given optimization model on the current optimized objective. Total daily feed cost per kg of milk for LC and LP were $0.21 and $0.25 (19% increase with respect to the LC diet), respectively; daily farm P balance per kg milk was 0.9g and 0.3g (67% decrease). Thus, at the extreme points of the weight grid, a substantial decrease in P balance was obtained; however, at a substantial increase in diet costs. The trade-offs between the 2 goals set by the weighting scheme, however, allowed the identification of a set of diets that all met the NRC (2001) requirements while having different costs and determining different P balances on the farm. For example, the weighted goal programming model identified a diet that allowed a 37% reduction of P balance occurring with a 0.4% increase in cost (with respect to LC). These initial reductions in P were generally accompanied by increased forage fed, increase of on-farm corn silage production, and increased purchase of hay. These optimizations suggest a potential use of weighted goal programming as a technique to identify diets that allow a reduction in on-farm P balance with limited effect on whole-farm feed cost.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81798 Watch 22 Predictive models for early diagnosis of metritis and clinical cure of dairy cows using behavioral parameters. 4 V. R. Merenda predictive model metritis cure V. R. Merenda1, R. C. Chebel1,2 1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville, FL Our objectives were to predict the occurrence of metritis and cure from metritis. Holstein animals (n = 564) were fitted with an automated device 21 d prepartum. Cows were examined for metritis (fetid, watery, red/brown uterine discharge) and, at diagnosis (d 0), were paired by parity and severity of metritis [metritis vs. puerperal (rectal temperature ≥39.5°C)] and were randomly selected to receive ampicillin trihydrate or ceftiofur crystalline free acid. Cows that were not diagnosed with any diseases (n = 374) were enrolled in the study. Cure from metritis was defined as the absence of metritic discharge and rectal temperature <39.5°C, 11 d after diagnosis. Rumination, resting, feeding and activity time from 10 d prepartum until 10 d after metritis diagnosis were used. In all models, farm, lactation, retained placenta, vaginal laceration score, stillbirth, male, twins, dystocia, rumination, resting, feeding, and activity time were included. In addition, BCS prepartum and at calving were included in the models to predict the occurrence of metritis, and severity of metritis and BCS at diagnosis were included in the models to predict the probability of cure. The area under the curve (AUC) according to the receiver operator characteristic for the model predicting metritis at 1 [AUC = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70, 0.78] and 2 (AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.81) DIM were (P < 0.01) acceptable. The models predicting puerperal metritis at 1 (AUC = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.77, 0.84) and 2 (0.82; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) DIM were (P < 0.01) excellent. The AUC of the models using behavioral changes peripartum to predict cure at d −1 (0.81; 95% CI = 0.74, 0.87) and 0 (0.81; 95% CI = 0.75, 0.87) relative to diagnosis were (P < 0.01) excellent, as was the AUC of the model using total behavior time on d 0 (AUC = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.88; P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that behavioral changes peripartum allows for the early diagnosis of metritis and whether cows will be cured from metritis, allowing for the implementation of preventive strategies and earlier decision making regarding metritis treatment.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82977 Watch 23 Effect of a commercial active dry yeast (CNCM I-1079) on productive and metabolic measures during the periparturient transition. 5 M. R. Steelreath active dry yeast periparturient cow blood metabolites M. R. Steelreath1, H. C. Hung1, R. L. Hiltz1, M. N. Degenshein1, A. Aguilar2, H. Nielsen2, A. H. Laarman3, P. Rezamand1 1Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI, 3Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada The periparturient period is a metabolically demanding time for dairy animals because of the increased nutrient requirements for milk yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding a commercial active dry yeast (ADY) in dairy cows on productive and metabolic measures during the periparturient period. Primiparous (n = 33) and multiparous (n = 35) cows were fed a close-up TMR before calving and a lactation TMR postpartum. Three weeks before expected calving time, animals were blocked by parity and BW and then randomly assigned to either control group (CTRL; n = 34) or treatment (ADY; n = 34). The ADY animals received a top-dressed ADY (S.c. Boulardii, CNCM-1079) fed daily at 12.5 g per head (10 × 109 cfu). Blood samples were collected weekly. Milk yield, feed intake, and milk composition data were collected. Plasma/serum samples were analyzed for glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and haptoglobin (Hpt). Colostrum samples collected within the first 6–10 h were analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC) and IgG, IgA, IgM concentrations. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with time as a repeated measure. Model included time, parity, treatment, and their interactions. Significance was declared as P ≤ 0.05 and tendency at P < 0.1. The ADY animals produced more milk (39.3 vs 37.2 ± 2.02 kg/d; P = 0.02), tended to produce more energy-corrected milk (ECM; 35.5 vs 34.2 ± 1.44 kg/d; P = 0.07), and had a better feed efficiency (ECM/DMI; P = 0.06). There was a treatment × parity × time effect on milk protein percent; the multiparous ADY animals had a greater protein percent wk 2 postpartum (P < 0.01). There was not a difference in plasma glucose, serum NEFA, serum BHB, or colostrum IgG, IgA, and IgM by main effects or their interactions. Multiparous animals had a greater colostrum IgA (1011 vs. 749 ± 38 mg/dL) but a lower SCC (926 vs. 1578 × 1000/mL). ADY animals had a greater serum Hpt (P = 0.03) while Hpt concentration peaked for all animals wk 1 postpartum. Research is needed to understand the effects of this ADY on metabolism.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82827 Watch 24 Identifying factors associated with lameness and its impact on productivity in automated milking herds. 6 R. D. Matson automated milking system lameness herd management R. D. Matson1, M. T. M. King1, T. F. Duffield2, D. E. Santschi3, K. Orsel4, E. A. Pajor4, G. B. Penner5, T. Mutsvangwa5, T. J. DeVries1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Lactanet, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 5Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Voluntary milking is critical for success in automated milking systems (AMS); impaired gait (lameness) may negatively affect the ability and desire for cows to milk voluntarily. The objective of this study was to assess the impact lameness has on the productivity of AMS herds and identify factors associated with lameness. From April to September 2019, 76 robot herds were visited, and data on barn design and farm management practices were collected. Data from AMS units were collected, along with milk recording data for the 6 mo period before farm visits. Farms averaged 99 ± 73 lactating cows, 2.3 ± 1.4 robot units/farm, 43.9 ± 9.0 cows/robot, 36.7 ± 4.7 kg/d of milk, a milking frequency of 3.0 ± 0.4×/d, and a herd-average SCC of 198.3 ± 88.1 (×1,000) cells/mL. Thirty percent (minimum of 30 cows/farm) were scored for body condition (BCS 1 = underconditioned to 5 = over conditioned) and gait (1 = sound to 5 = lame; with clinically lame ≥ 3: 28.6 ± 11.7%; and severely lame ≥ 4: 3.0 ± 3.2%). Univariable models were used to screen independent variables (as fixed effects) in mixed-effect linear regression models and variables with P < 0.25 were offered to multivariable models. Clinical lameness was 10.2 percentage points (p.p.) less prevalent on farms with sand bedding (P < 0.01) and tended to be 2.8 p.p. lesser for each additional time stalls were raked/d (P = 0.07) and 5.7 p.p. lesser for farms that built new barns vs. retrofitting existing barns (P = 0.07). Herd average milk yield/cow decreased with greater prevalence of clinical (−0.1kg/d for 1 p.p. increase; P = 0.01) and severe lameness (−0.8kg/d with doubling of prevalence from 3 to 6%; P < 0.01). Milk yield/robot decreased with a greater prevalence of clinical lameness (−7.1kg/d for 1 p.p. increase; P = 0.01). Lesser milking frequency was associated with a greater proportion of over-conditioned cows (P = 0.04). SCC was associated with a greater proportion of clinically lame (P < 0.01) and under-conditioned cows (P = 0.05). Overall, this study demonstrates that productivity and milk quality in AMS herds are optimized by maintaining mobility and body condition of cows.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81966 Watch 25 Heat stress abatement for late-gestation dairy heifers improves thermoregulation and productivity. 7 B. D. Davidson cooling heifer milk yield B. D. Davidson1, B. Dado-Senn1, N. Rosa Padilla1, T. F. Fabris1, L. T. Casarotto1, V. G. Ouellet1, G. E. Dahl1, J. Laporta1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Multiparous cows are negatively impacted by heat stress when dry, however, the impact of heat stress on pregnant heifers has received less attention. Our goal was to determine if late gestational heat stress abatement improves thermoregulatory responses and milk production of nulliparous heifers. Pregnant heifers were randomly assigned to either heat stress (HT, shade; n = 16) or cooling (CL, shade, soakers, and fans; n = 15) environments during the last 60 d of pregnancy (~8 weeks). Rectal temperatures (thermometer), respiration rates (flank movements/min), sweating rates (SR; VapoMeter), and skin temperatures (ST; infrared thermometer) were measured thrice weekly from enrollment to calving. Vaginal temperatures (i-button intra-vaginal device) were measured every 10 min for 7 consecutive days at wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 relative to enrollment. Daily thermoregulatory patterns were assessed by SR and ST measured every 4 h over a 36-h time interval at wk 3, 5, and 7. Milk yield was recorded twice daily for 15 weeks. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED (repeated measures) with treatment, hour, week, and all possible interactions as fixed effects. Cool heifers had lower (all P ≤ 0.01) rectal temperatures (38.7 vs. 38.9°C), respiration rates (46.3 vs. 59.6 bpm), and ST (34.8 vs. 35.3°C) relative to HT heifers. Sweating rates were lower in the CL vs. HT heifers from wk 2 to 8 (P < 0.0001). Vaginal temperatures were lower (P = 0.002) in CL relative to HT heifers during wk 1, 3, and 7, particularly between 1000 h to 1400 h and 2200 h to 0500 h. When measured continuously over a 36-h time interval ST and SR were lower (P ≤ 0.006) in CL heifers for all weeks; notably, CL heifer ST was reduced overnight and SR was reduced during the daytime. Cooled heifers had higher milk yield (3.7 kg/d, P = 0.05) when compared with HT heifers during all weeks except wk 2 and 5, in which there was a tendency (P ≤ 0.08) for higher milk production in CL heifers. Similar to multiparous cows, our data indicate that actively cooling heifers in late pregnancy is effective in improving thermoregulation and production.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82206 Watch 26 The effects of feeding pelleted dried distillers grains with different concentrations of forage on milk production, nutrient digestibility, passage rate, rumen characteristics, and chewing behavior of lactating Jersey dairy cows. 8 K. C. Krogstad dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility rumen passage rate K. C. Krogstad1, K. J. Herrick2, P. J. Kononoff1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 2POET Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD Particle size or processing of feeds can influence chewing behavior, rumen characteristics, rumen passage rate, and digestibility. Changing particle size is usually achieved through grinding or chopping forages, but processing feed ingredients by pelleting them also changes particle size. Seven rumen cannulated lactating Jersey cows averaging 126 ± 33.3 (Avg ± SD) DIM and 462 ± 36.7 kg of BW were used in a crossover design. The treatments contained 15% DM of DDGS in either meal or pellet form along with a diet containing either 45% or 55% forage on a DM basis. The forages used were corn silage, alfalfa hay, and wheat straw. The factorial treatment arrangement was as follows; meal-form DDGS and low forage (LLF), pelleted DDGS and low forage (PLF), meal-form DDGS and high forage (LHF), and pelleted DDGS and high forage (PHF). Both dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.14) averaging 19.8 ± 0.85 kg and 27.8 ± 1.22 kg. Fat yield was unaffected (P > 0.32) averaging 1.7 ± 0.06 kg, but protein yield was affected by the interaction of forage and DDGS (P = 0.081); Protein yield was 1.08, 1.05, 0.99, and 1.05 ± 0.035 kg for LLF, PLF, LHF, and PHF respectively. The digestibility of NDF and energy increased by 2.8 and 1.6 units, respectively (P < 0.05). Rumen mass and passage rate were not affected by treatment (P > 0.21) and averaged 10.0 ± 0.73 kg of DM and 2.7 ± 0.21%/h. Rumination time was increased from 417 min to 454 min by increasing the concentration of forage (P = 0.08). Rumen pH and ammonia also increased due to increasing forage concentration; pH increased from 5.86 to 5.92 ± 0.057 (P = 0.04) and rumen ammonia increased from 16.8 to 19.1 ± 3.22 mg/dL (P = 0.002). Outcomes confirm that increasing forage concentration increases rumen pH and rumination time. Our results also indicate that pelleting DDGS does not appear to affect milk production, rumen characteristics, or passage rate but may increase NDF and energy digestibility.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition   ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82648 Watch 27 Prepartum shifting light circadian rhythm disruptions cause insulin resistance in periparturient dairy cows. 9 C. J. McCabe insulin sensitivity glucose tolerance test circadian rhythm C. J. McCabe1, A. Suarez-Trujillo1, T. M. Casey1, J. P. Boerman1 1Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Circadian clocks function to maintain homeostasis. Disruption of clocks by altering timing of external cues affects glucose metabolism in humans and rodents, with long-term disruption associated with development of metabolic diseases. The objective of this experiment was to analyze the effect of exposure to chronic light-dark cycle phase shifts from 5 weeks before expected calving (BEC) to parturition on glucose tolerance at 2 weeks prepartum and 1 week postpartum in dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 16) were exposed to 16 h of light and 8 h of dark (CON) or phase shifting (PS) of the start of the light cycle 6 h every 3 d beginning 35 d BEC. Following calving, both treatments were exposed to control lighting through 60 DIM. At 14 d BEC and 7 DIM, intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed with a dose of 250 mg/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution. Before dextrose administration, cows were fasted for one hour and baseline blood samples were taken at 15 and 5 min before administration to determine Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI). We observed no difference in insulin sensitivity between treatments at both physiological stages via RQUICKI (P > 0.05). Following dextrose administration, blood samples were taken at 14 time points over 3 h to quantify blood glucose, BHBA, insulin, and NEFA. Linear mixed model analysis indicated no effect of treatment on blood glucose by time point or area under the curve (AUC) for both stages (P > 0.05). At 14 BEC, there was no difference in baseline values, but insulin AUC was higher in PS compared with CON (P = 0.05; 4,302.8 vs. 2,386.3 ng/mL/180 min). At 7 DIM, there was no effect of treatment on glucose AUC (P = 0.71), but the difference in insulin AUC between PS and CON (P = 0.03; 1,052.9 vs. 697.1 ng/mL/180 min) was maintained. There was no effect of treatment on BHBA nor NEFA, but there was an interaction between treatment and time for NEFA at 7 DIM (P = 0.007). CON vs PS cows produced more milk through 60 DIM (42.6 vs. 40.3 kg/d; P = 0.05). Exposure to chronic light-dark PS in late gestation decreased insulin sensitivity in periparturient cows, which may influence milk production.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82899 Watch M13 Impact of palmitic acid and pH on ruminal NDF digestibility and fermentation in a continuous culture system. 1 L. Padilla fatty acids rumen pH L. Padilla1, A. Sears1, F. Batistel1 1Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT Non-rumen bacteria incorporate exogenous long-chain saturated fatty acids to change membrane fluidity under low pH conditions. We hypothesized that rumen bacteria use a similar mechanism, thus, providing saturated fatty acids in the diet could support bacterial metabolism and growth and consequently enhance fiber digestibility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on ruminal NDF digestibility and fermentation. The study was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using continuous culture fermenters (n = 8). Treatments were a control diet without supplemental fatty acids or the control diet plus 1.5% of palmitic acid factorialized with normal pH (diurnally ranging from 6.4 to 7.0) or low pH (diurnally ranging from 6.0 to 6.4). The control diet (40 g DM/day) was a 50:50 orchardgrass hay:concentrate mixture that provided 5.8 g CP, 14 g NDF, 7.3 g starch, and 1 g fatty acids fed twice daily. The fatty acid treatment maintained the same nutrient input into the fermenters as the control except for fatty acids. Both buffer solutions (normal and low pH) were delivered continuously at rate of 10%/h. Data were analyzed using a mixed model including the fixed effect of pH, fatty acid, and its interaction, and the random effects of period and fermenter. Data are reported as least squares means with differences declared at P ≤ 0.05. No interaction between fatty acids and pH were observed for the variables measured. Compared with control, palmitic acid increased NDF digestibility (45.2 vs. 39.34%, P = 0.03). The lower pH decreased NDF digestibility in 8.2 percentage units compared with normal pH (46.4 vs. 38.16%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, low pH decreased ammonia (7.30 vs. 5.64 mg/dL, P = 0.01) and total VFA concentration (168 vs. 138 mmol/d, P = 0.02) compared with normal pH; palmitic acid did not (P > 0.10) affect ammonia nor total VFA concentration. Our preliminary data indicate that rumen pH and palmitic acid independently affect NDF digestibility and rumen fermentation. Palmitic acid supplementation increased ruminal fiber digestibility under low and normal pH conditions.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82966 Watch M14 Effects of fatty acid supplementation to prepartum dairy cows on immunity in dams and their offspring. 2 A. Schroeder immunity fatty acids prepartum A. Schroeder1, M. Eastridge1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of fatty acid supplementation differing in ω-6:ω-3 to prepartum dairy cows on colostrum yield and quality and immunity of the dam and calf. The focus is on improving passive immunity and long-term health measures in calves. 53 nonlactating pregnant Holstein cows were allocated to blocked and randomized amound 3 feeding groups considering parity and date of expected calving. All cows were fed ad libitum a TMR formulated at 14% CP and a DCAD of −7.3 mEq/100 g. The TMR consisted of corn silage (42.6%), grass haylage (28.4%), concentrate mix (27.3%), and top-dressed with 1 of 3 treatments consisting of 50% corn and 50% of the fat supplements (1.7%; ~0.227 kg/d): R4 (n = 18) with 23 g/d Prequel and 91 g/d Strata (Virtus Nutrition LLC, Corcoran, CA; ω-6:ω-3 (R) = 4); R6 (n = 18) with 64 g/d Prequel and 50 g/d Strata; and R8 (n = 17) with 91 g/d Prequel and 23 g/d Strata. Treatments were initiated at 21 d before expected parturition, at which time the cows were moved from group housing to individual maternity stalls. Feed offered and refused from individual cows were used to determine daily DMI; BW and body condition score (BCS) were determined at the beginning of the trial and weekly until calving. Blood was collected from the jugular vein when calving was imminent. Fresh animals were milked within 2 h of calving; 4L of fresh colostrum from the dam was bottle fed to each calf, and samples of colostrum and blood from the calf were collected at hour 0 and blood again at 48 h. The mixed model procedure of SAS was used for data analysis with block as the random variable. Data with P < 0.05 was regarded as significant and P < 0.15 a trend. DMI tended (P = 0.11) to be higher for R4 than R6 and R8 at 12.1, 11.6, and 11.6 kg/d, respectively. BW (718 kg) and BCS (3.38) of the dams neither differed by treatment nor was there a treatment by week interaction. Yield (6.1 kg) and Brix reading (26.1) of the colostrum was similar among treatments. Calf birth weight (42.3 kg) also was similar among treatments. Immune function measures will include concentrations of IgG in both the dam and calf and lymphocyte blastogenesis in the calf. Other than for DMI on dams, physical measures were similar amond treatments, but further investigation on immune function will provide addition insight to whether ω-6:ω-3 can impact fetal and neonate development.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82830 Watch M15 Empirical modelling of vitamin B12 duodenal flow in lactating dairy cows. 3 V. Brisson vitamin B12 meta-analysis duodenal flow V. Brisson1, C. L. Girard2, J. A. Metcalf3, D. S. Castagnino3, J. Dijkstra4, J. L. Ellis1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, 3Trouw Nutrition Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada, 4Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands Unlike other B vitamins, vitamin B12 is not found in plants and is produced only by bacteria. Therefore, supply to the dairy cow, unless provided via supplementation, will mainly be the result of B12 manufactured by ruminal microbes. The duodenal flow of B vitamins therefore represents the amount of vitamin available for absorption by the ruminant, which can be used for essential metabolic functions and milk production. However, diet composition may affect ruminal synthesis and the resulting duodenal flow (DF) of vitamin B12, due to alterations to fermentation and ruminal conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis describing how diet composition affects DF of vitamin B12. Data were collected from 340 individual lactating cows involved in 16 published studies. Saved diet and duodenal samples from these studies were subsequently reanalyzed for B vitamin content to create the database used in the present study. Potential driving variables considered included (DM basis) dietary organic matter (%), NDF (%), starch (%), crude protein (%) and DMI (kg/d). The meta-analysis was conducted in 3 steps, followed by statistical evaluation of the resulting empirical models. A Spearman correlation matrix was constructed between all potential driving variables to assess for collinearity between X variables, and guide model creation. Then, using Cook’s distance statistic (Proc MIXED), outliers were determined and removed. Finally, a suite of potential models (with study treated as a random effect) were developed in GLIMMIX. Where models were statistically significant, evaluation was completed using root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) to determine the sources of error. The best performing model was: B12DF (mg/d) = −7.87 (±2.46) + 0.29 (±0.056) × DietNDF(%) + 0.44 (±0.042) × DMI (kg/d); RMSPE: 41.1%, CCC: 0.268. In conclusion, DF of B12 was positively impacted by both the overall DMI and the dietary NDF content of the diet. This information may be used to better understand supply of vitamin B12 to the modern dairy cow, in relation to requirements, to improve milk production efficiency.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81773 Watch M16 Genome-wide association study and functional analyses of clinical and subclinical ketosis in Holstein cattle. 4 R. A. N. Soares association study ketones negative energy balance R. A. N. Soares1, G. Vargas1, F. S. Schenkel1, E. J. Squires1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Ketosis affects high yielding cows and it is one of the most frequent metabolic diseases in dairy cows causing high economic losses. Therefore, finding genetic markers for gene variants associated with resistance to ketosis is of interest to genetically select for less susceptible cows. The aim of this study was to identify and investigate genomic regions associated with clinical and subclinical ketosis in Holstein cattle. To achieve this, weighted single step genome-wide association study (wssGWAS) was performed considering 4 traits: clinical ketosis in first (CK1) and later lactations (from 2 to 5; CK2), and subclinical ketosis in first (SCK1) and later lactations (from 2 to 5; SCK2). The estimated breeding values (EBV) from 77,277 cows and 7,704 bulls were de-regressed and used as pseudo-phenotypes in the GWAS. The wssGWAS model was: y* = µ + Zaα + e, where y* is the vector of pseudo-phenotypes; μ is the overall mean; Za is a matrix that relates animals to pseudo-phenotypes; α is the vector of additive genetic effects and e is the vector of random residuals. The top-20 genomic regions explaining the largest proportion of the genetic variance were investigated for putative genes associated with the traits through functional analyses. Regions of interest were identified in chromosomes 2, 5 and 6 for CK1, 3, 6 and 7 for CK2, 1, 2 and 12 for SCK1 and 20, 11 and 25 for SCK2. The highest proportion of genetic variance explained by a region was located on BTA2 for SCK1. The highlighted genes potentially related to clinical and subclinical ketosis included ACAT2 and IFG1. Enrichment analyses of the candidate genes for the traits showed molecular functions and biological processes that are associated with fatty acid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies and inflammatory response. Several genomic regions and SNPs related to susceptibility to ketosis in dairy cattle, which were previously described in other studies were confirmed here. In addition, some novel potential regions were found that would warrant further investigation on their potential association with clinical and subclinical ketosis.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82760 Watch M17 Mammary blood vessel development in response to estradiol administration in heifer calves. 5 N. R. Hardy angiogenesis growth endothelium N. R. Hardy1, K. M. Enger1, M. L. Eastridge2, L. E. Moraes2, B. D. Enger1 1The Ohio State University, Department of Animal Sciences, OARDC, Wooster, OH, 2The Ohio State University, Department of Animal Sciences, Columbus, OH Mammary blood flow is central to mammary growth, development, and productivity, but development of the vasculature network is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine how the vascular system adapts to mammary growth by inducing different levels of mammary growth and examining 2 regions of the mammary tissue. Holstein heifer calves received 12 daily injections on the days immediately preceding euthanasia at 82 d of age. Treatments were control (n = 4, CON), short-term estradiol (n = 4, SHORT), and long-term estradiol (n = 4, LONG). CON calves received corn oil injections while SHORT calves received 9 injections of corn oil followed by 3 injections of estradiol; LONG calves received 12 estradiol injections. Mammary tissues were collected from the center and edge parenchymal regions of all right rear mammary glands to quantify the tissue area of various tissue structures, the percentage of proliferating epithelial cells, and the number and form of blood vessels. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with the fixed effects of calf treatment and parenchymal region, and calf nested within treatment as a random effect. Results showed LONG calves had a greater tissue area occupied by epithelium (34.0% ± 1.5, P < 0.05) than CON and SHORT calves (21.4% and 23.0% ± 1.5, respectively), while CON and SHORT calves were similar. Edge parenchyma had a greater percentage of proliferating epithelial cells than center parenchyma across all treatment groups. Within the edge region, LONG calves had the greatest percent of proliferating epithelial cells (P < 0.05). Blood vessel number per unit of tissue area was greater in center than edge parenchyma (395 vs 295 ± 19 vessels/mm2, P < 0.001, respectively); the corresponding vessel surface area/unit of tissue area followed this same pattern (23,140 vs 18,166 ± 1088 μm/mm2, P < 0.001). These vessel measures were not affected by estradiol treatment (P > 0.1). These results show there is a large difference in blood vessel number in the center versus the edge parenchyma and estradiol treatment elicits mammary growth but not necessarily increases in blood vessel formation.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82635 Watch M18 Effects of physically effective undigested neutral detergent fiber and rumen fermentable starch on lactation performance and total tract digestibility of lactating cows. 6 K. M. Smith undigested fiber rumen fermentable starch physically effective fiber K. M. Smith1, A. Obata2, K. Hirano2, H. Uchihori2, S. Y. Morrison1, J. W. Darrah1, H. M. Dann1, C. S. Ballard1, M. D. Miller1, R. J. Grant1 1Miner Institute, Chazy, NY, 2ZEN-NOH, Tokyo, Japan Multiparous cows (n = 16) were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to evaluate the effect of feeding different dietary concentrations of 240-h physically effective undigested neutral detergent fiber (peuNDF240) and rumen fermentable starch (RFS) on intake, milk yield and composition, and total-tract digestibility (TTD). Diets differed in peuNDF240 and RFS by inclusion of different corn silage hybrids and cornmeal amount. Treatments were 1) low peuNDF240 (6.4%DM), low RFS (16.7%DM; LULR) 2) low peuNDF240 (6.1%DM), high RFS (19.2%DM; LUHR) 3) high peuNDF240 (8.6%DM), low RFS (16.9%DM; HULR) 4) high peuNDF240 (8.0%DM), high RFS (19.0%DM; HUHR). On d 19–28 of each 28-d period, samples for dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, behavior, rumen pH, rumen fluid, and TTD were taken. Data were summarized by period and analyzed with model effects of diet, period, and replicate using MIXED procedure of SAS (v.9.4). Cow within replicate was a random effect. No significant treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed for (mean ± SEM) DMI, total chewing time (809 ± 14 min/d), daily mean rumen pH (6.1 ± 0.1), total ammonia (7 ± 10 mg/dL), and total VFA (125 ± 3 mM). Cows fed LULR had higher 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) compared with cows fed LUHR with HU diets being intermediate (Table 1). The LULR diet had greater TTD of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) compared with HU diets, and LU diets had lower TTD of starch compared with HU diets. Overall, this data shows that there is a balance when adding fermentable starch to diets with highly digestible fiber in the physically effective fraction, and lesser effect in diets with less digestible fiber in the physically effective fraction. Table 1.
Item LULR LUHR HULR HUHR SEM P-value
DMI, kg/d 29.7 29.4 29.4 29.2 0.7 0.56
Milk, kg/d 53.1a 52.0ab 51.2b 51.5ab 1.3 0.04
Fat, % 3.59 3.48 3.74 3.60 0.08 0.06
FCM, kg/d 53.8a 51.5b 52.9ab 52.2ab 1.3 0.05
TTD NDF, %DM 62.0a 60.1ab 58.6b 57.6b 0.59 0.006
TTD starch, %DM 98.2b 98.5b 98.9a 98.7a 0.14 0.002
abLeast squares means within row without common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition   ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81930 Watch M19 Effects of probiotics, enzymes, and yeast combinations on ruminal fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system. 7 S. Bennett butyrate Lactobacillus Saccharomyces cerevisiae S. Bennett1, J. A. Arce-Cordero1, V. L. N. Brandao1, J. R. Vinyard1, B. Agustinho2, H. F. Monteiro1, L. Tomaz3, R. Lobo1, A. P. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, 3Sao Paulo State University, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in ruminal fermentation when the diet is supplemented with different combinations of probiotics, enzymes, and live yeast. Our hypotheses were (1) inclusion of additives would increase nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid concentration, and (2) increasing additive doses would lead to further improvements in digestibility. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermentors in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 10-d experimental periods, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Diets contained 50:50 forage:concentrate and fermentors were fed 106 g of dry matter per day divided equally between 2 feeding times. Treatments were control; bacterial culture/enzyme blend (1.7 mg per day); bacterial culture/enzyme blend with live yeast (49.76 mg per day); and double dose of the bacterial culture/enzyme blend with live yeast treatment (99.53 mg per day). The bacterial culture/enzyme blend contained 5 strains of live bacteria with a concentration of 1010 cfu (Lactobacillus animalis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Bacillus lichenformis, B. subtillis, and Enterococcus faecium) and 3 enzymes (amylase, hemicellulase, and xylanase). The yeast component was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On d 8 and 9, samples were collected for pH, redox, volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactate, NH3-N and digestibility measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with fermenter, square and period as random effects. Significance was declared at P ≤ 0.05. No effects were observed for pH, redox, NH3-N, acetate, isobutyrate, valerate, total VFA, acetate:propionate, nutrient digestibility or N utilization. Furthermore, no effects were observed for the hourly propionate molar proportion. Within the pooled effluent samples, butyrate increased with the inclusion of additives when compared with the control while propionate had a tendency to decrease. In conclusion, the addition of probiotics, enzymes, and yeast to the diet increased butyrate concentration.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81639 Watch 28 Mitochondrial genome diversity and association of mitochondrial protein gene expression with energy metabolism in dairy cattle. 1 J. Dorji mitogenome gene expression cattle J. Dorji1,2, C. J. Vander Jagt2, J. B. Garner3, L. C. Marett2, B. A. Mason2, C. M. Reich2, C. P. Prowse-Wilkins2,4, R. Xiang2,4, P. N. Ho2, J. Pryce1,2, B. G. Cocks1,2, A. J. Chamberlain2, I. M. MacLeod2, H. D. Daetwyler1,2 1School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia, 2Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia, 3Agriculture Victoria, Ellinbank Dairy Centre, Ellinbank, Victoria, Australia, 4Faculty of Veterinary & Agricultural Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia Mitochondria are primarily organelles for cellular energy metabolism and have a maternally inherited genome encoding 37 genes. Proteins from these genes interact with mitochondrial proteins (MP) encoded by nuclear genes to enable mitochondrial functions. Given the key role of mitochondria in energy production, mutations affecting the expression of MP genes could have flow-on effects on important traits in cattle. Our study had 3 aims: first to assess the diversity of the mitochondrial genome of modern dairy cattle breeds, second, to characterize MP gene expression across tissues within animals, and third, to correlate MP gene expression in blood with feed efficiency in dairy cattle. Mitochondrial genome diversities (nucleotide and haplotype) were estimated based on selected variant positions across the genome. Overall, there was a low diversity in the dairy breeds studied. Broadly, the modern dairy cattle (e.g., Holsteins) were predominantly T3 (~95%, with > 10 evident subgroups) and to a lesser extent T2 and T1 haplogroups. Gene expression in tissue as was quantified by RNA sequencing. We used differential expression and co-expression analyses of genes in 29 tissues from 2 cows. We found consistent overexpression in high energy demand tissues (e.g., heart). This suggests that MP gene expression might also differ between animals that differ within tissue energy demands. We, therefore, measured gene expression in blood samples of 2 groups (14 dairy cows each) divergent for feed efficiency to analyze the differential gene expression and co-expression networks. There were 395 genes differentially expressed (DE) between high and low feed efficiency groups, of which 55 were MP genes. Furthermore, DE genes were significantly enriched for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), an important pathway that generates cellular energy. However, none of the DE MP genes was from the mitochondrial genome. The association between feed efficiency and expression of MP genes involved in the OxPhos pathway was also evident in a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (r = 0.47, P = 0.01). Altogether, our study suggests that there is low mitochondrial genomic diversity among popular dairy breeds and MP gene expression may be associated with variation in traits linked to mitochondrial function.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t81875 Watch 29 Bioactivity of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide in cultured bovine endothelial cells. 2 C. C. F. Walker coliform mastitis endocannabinoids endothelial cells C. C. F. Walker1, L. M. Sordillo1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Vascular endothelial cells are crucial inflammatory-mediating cells susceptible to compromised barrier integrity during coliform mastitis. Endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) is a lipid mediator that can affect barrier integrity through modulation of network formation, proliferation, and viability in human and rodent endothelial cells during endotoxin challenge. We hypothesized that the endocannabinoid AEA will increase barrier integrity of primary cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were treated with varying AEA concentrations (10 nM to 5 µM) for up to 12 h following pre-treatment with 25 ng/mL LPS. Endothelial barrier integrity was continuously assessed by recording electrical resistance using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system and reported resistance was normalized to a media control. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using commercially available plate-based assays. All AEA treatments were compared with LPS control group and analyzed using the ANOVA procedure in SAS9.4. Physiological-relevant concentrations (<1 µM) increased proliferation and viability of BAEC by up to 21.5 ± 2.283% and 19.37 ± 2.564%, respectively, at 1 and 2 h post-treatment (P < 0.05). Normalized electrical resistance was increased for 2 h after AEA treatment at 100 nM (0.105 ± 0.0137 Ω) and 500 nM (0.123 ± 0.015 Ω) (P < 0.05). No differences in resistance were noted for any other treatments <1 µM (P > 0.05). Doses >1 µM decreased electrical resistance, proliferation, and viability for up to 2 h post-treatment (P < 0.05). All treatment effects were lost at 6 or 12 h (P > 0.05). Physiological AEA concentrations of <1 μM improve barrier integrity of BAEC when challenged with LPS, in contrast to the potential toxicity associated with super-physiological concentrations of >1 µM. Ongoing projects are focused on the mechanistic effects of AEA on endothelial cell barrier integrity with the goal of reducing the severity of coliform mastitis.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t83044 Watch 30 Effect of feeding Camelina sativa cake on rumen microbiota and gene expression in follicular cells in dairy Italian Holstein Friesian heifers. 3 F. Omodei Zorini camelina cake fertility rumen microbiota F. Omodei Zorini1, M. Dell'Anno1, G. Pennarossa1, G. Morini2, G. Ranzenigo3, V. Caprarulo1, L. Rossi1, P. Cremonesi4, B. Castiglioni4, F. Biscarini4, G. Invernizzi1 1Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety ‘Carlo Cantoni’, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, 2Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy, 3DVM, Varese, Italy, 4Institute for Biology and Biotechnology in Agriculture (IBBA), NRC, Lodi, Italy Omega-3 PUFAs have unique role in several biological systems in mammals. However, its impact on rumen microbial environment could represent a critical point for both rumen welfare and its availability for the animal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion in the diet of a terrestrial vegetable and sustainable source of omega-3 PUFAs (Camelina sativa cake) in dairy heifers on rumen microbiota and gene expression of fertility markers in follicular cells. The trial was conducted at the tie stall dairy barn of the Experimental Farm of Animal Production Research and Teaching Centre of Lodi, University of Milan, Italy and lasted 56 d. Sixteen Italian Holstein Friesian heifers 12 mo old were divided in 2 homogeneous groups randomly allocated to 2 treatments: CAME (n = 8) receiving the basal diet supplemented with 800 g/head/day of camelina cake and CTR (n = 8) receiving the basal diet supplemented with an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soybean-based premix. Basal diet consisted of a dry TMR composed by alfalfa hay, durum wheat middlings, sugar cane molasses, corn meal, soybean hulls, rice bran, sunflower meal and minerals (15.15 PG, 42.63 NDF, 19.43 starch on DM basis). Performances were recorded weekly, feed intake daily. Rumen and follicular content samples were collected at d 0, 28 and 56 of the trial. Follicular developmental competence was assessed by RT-PCR analysis. Performance data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. No differences were detected for live BW, FCR and BCS, but an interaction between diet and time was observed (P ≤ 0.05) on DMI with higher values for CAME at d 34, 51, 52 and 55 compared with CTR (14.44 ± 0.93 kg vs. 10.47 ± 0.93 kg; 13.36 ± 0.93 kg vs. 10.81 ± 0.93 kg; 13.21 ± 0.93 kg vs. 10.86 ± 0.93 kg; 13.99 ± 0.93 kg vs. 11.15 ± 0.93 kg). Higher expression levels for HAS2, GREM1, LHCGR and FSHR genes were detected in CAME group compared with CTR, suggesting a positive effect of treatment diet. Rumen microbiota was influenced by dietary treatment both at 28 and 56 d showing significant α diversity values.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t83001 Watch 31 One plus one is … three? Evidence for a compounding effect of long-chain fatty acids on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity. 4 S. Busato long-chain fatty acids peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) nutrigenomics S. Busato1, M. Bionaz1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors with known nutrigenomic response to fatty acids. In ruminants, PPAR control the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, and milk fat synthesis. While information on the in vitro potency to activate PPAR of some individual fatty acids exists, we were interested in exploring the activation of PPAR by a wider range of fatty acids and their combination. We hypothesized that the activation of PPAR with the combination of fatty acids is larger than the sum of the effect of individual fatty acids. We assessed in BFH-12 cells (immortalized bovine hepatocytes) the dose-response of 10 fatty acids common in bovine nutrition. PPAR activation was assessed by a gene reporter containing luciferase (3xPPAR response element) and normalized by renilla. Doses from 0 to 500 µM were applied using a HP D300e digital dispenser. Results were analyzed using GLM of SAS with dose as main effect and replicates (n = 4) as random. Response to each fatty acid was variable both in extent and in dose at maximum activation, with palmitic, stearic and dodecanoic acid showing the greatest impact on PPAR activation (3.5-fold, 3.7-fold and 4.3-fold vs. untreated control, respectively). Conversely, octanoic, myristic and linoleic acid displayed little to no effect. Cells were then treated with 2 fatty acids in combination, using only the 6 with the highest impact on PPAR activation, at the dose that maximizes PPAR activation. As hypothesized, the impact of 2 fatty acids in combination was greater than the sum of the activation of each individual fatty acid. The combinations of 3 fatty acids, each at a dose equal to one third of the optimal individual dose, resulted in a similar magnitude of effect on PPAR activation as compared with the combination of 2 fatty acids, while minimizing the total amount of fatty acids present in the medium. Our data indicates a greater nutrigenomic effect via PPAR of a mixture vs. single fatty acids, paving the way for the effective activation of PPAR isotypes in dairy cows through dietary means.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82775 Watch 32 Effects of dietary organic acid and plant botanical supplementation on growth performance in Holstein calves challenged by heat stress. 5 A. B. P. Fontoura calf heat stress organic acid A. B. P. Fontoura1, V. Sáinz de la Maza-Escolà1,2, B. N. Tate1, J. T. Siegel Nieves1, A. T. Richards1, F. Wang1,3, L. F. Wang1,4, M. E. Van Amburgh1, E. Grilli2,5, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 3China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 4Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China, 5VetAgro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and dietary organic acid and plant botanical (OA/PB) supplementation on growth in calves. In a completely randomized design, 62 bull and heifer calves were assigned to 1 of 5 groups (n = 12–13/group): thermoneutral conditions (TN-Con), HS conditions (HS-Con), thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS-Con (TN-PF), HS with low-dose OA/PB (75 mg/kg of BW; 25% citric acid, 16.7% sorbic acid, 1.7% thymol, 1.0% vanillin, and 55.6% triglyceride; AviPlus R; Vetagro, Italy; HS-Low), or HS with high-dose OA/PB (150 mg/kg of BW; AviPlus R; HS-High). Supplements were delivered as a twice daily bolus via the esophagus wk 1 through 13 of life; all calves received boluses equivalent for triglyceride. Post weaning, calves (62 ± 2 d; 91 ± 10.9 kg) remained in thermoneutral conditions (temperature-humidity index [THI]: 60 to 69) for a 7-d covariate period. Thereafter, calves remained in TN conditions or were moved to HS conditions (THI: 75 to 83) for 19 d. Clinical assessments and BW were recorded, and blood was sampled. Organs from HS-Con and TN-Con were harvested at trial completion. The mixed model included fixed effects of BW at birth, treatment, time, and their interaction. Rectal and skin temperatures, and respiration rates were greater in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P < 0.01). Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were lower in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P < 0.01). Comparing HS-Con and PF-Con, ADG and gain:feed were similar. Plasma fatty acids were elevated in TN-PF versus all other groups (P = 0.04; not observed for HS-Con). Liver and small intestine weights were lower in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P = 0.03 and 0.15, respectively). DMI was greater with HS-Low, relative to HS-Con (P < 0.01). ADG for HS-Low and HS-High were not different from HS-Con or TN-Con (i.e., effect was intermediate). Compared with HS-Con, calves fed OA/PB tended have greater gain:feed (P = 0.08). We conclude that reductions in DMI account for losses in growth during HS and dietary OA/PB supplementation enhances HS resilience in calves.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82773 Watch 33 Feeding rumen-protected lysine prepartum increased energy-corrected milk in Holstein cows during early lactation. 6 L. K. Fehlberg lysine milk protein transition period L. K. Fehlberg1, A. R. Guadagnin1, B. L. Thomas1, Y. Sugimoto2, I. Shinzato2, F. C. Cardoso1 1University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 2Ajinomoto Co. Inc, Tokyo, Japan Balancing for AA in the diet can optimize milk yield and composition; however, there is little information on the requirement of AA, specifically Lys, during the transition period. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected Lys (RPL; AjiPro-L Generation 3, Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL) prepartum (0.54%DM of TMR), postpartum (0.395%DM of TMR), or both on performance. Seventy-five multiparous Holstein cows, blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk production, expected calving date, and body condition score during the far-off dry period were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized, complete block design with a crossover of diet with RPL (L) or without (C). Treatments consisted of TMR with RPL prepartum and postpartum (LL), with RPL prepartum and without postpartum (LC), without RPL prepartum and with postpartum (CL), and without RPL prepartum and postpartum (CC). Cows were milked 2 × per d and milk samples were taken on 7 ± 1.3, 14 ± 1.4, and 28 ± 1.1 d relative to calving. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were obtained daily. Statistical analyses were performed using MIXED procedure of SAS. Cows in L had greater (P = 0.03) BW (823 ± 3kg for wk −2 and 785 ± 3kg for wk −1) during the −2 wk before calving compared with those in C (814 ± 3kg for wk −2 and 775 ± 3kg for wk −1). Postpartum BW (717 ± 6kg) was greater (P = 0.05) and DMI (18.12 ± 0.74kg) tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for cows in LL and LC compared with those that were in CL and CC (706.5 ± 6 and 16.84 ± 0.74 kg, respectively). Energy-corrected milk (48.7 ± 1.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (50.1 ± 2.1 kg/d), milk fat (1.93 ± 0.09 kg/d), milk true protein (1.41 ± 0.05 kg/d), milk casein (0.64 ± 0.04 kg/d), and milk lactose yields (2.07 ± 0.08 kg/d) were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for cows in LL and LC compared with those that were in CL and CC (44.2 ± 1.9, 45.2 ± 2.1, 1.71 ± 0.09, 1.30 ± 0.05, 0.54 ± 0.04, 1.88 ± 0.08 kg/d, respectively). In conclusion, cows that consumed RPL prepartum tended to increase DMI postpartum and increased energy-corrected milk and milk component yields.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82741 Watch 34 Effects of rumen undegradable protein and amino acid sources and replacing forage or non-forage fiber in postpartum cows on production. 7 A. W. Tebbe   A. W. Tebbe1, W. P. Weiss1 1Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH Greater metabolizable protein (MP) supply from rumen undegradable protein (RUP) improves production in fresh cows. However, using one RUP source instead of blends may worsen AA imbalances as RUP (% of MP) increases. Replacing forage instead of non-forage fiber with RUP may also increase MP supply by increasing intake. Our objective was to determine whether high MP diets using one or a blend of RUP and AA sources and whether substituting forage NDF (fNDF) rather than non-forage NDF with RUP improves production in fresh cows. In a randomized block design, 40 primigravid and 40 multigravid Holsteins were blocked by calving date and fed a common diet (11.5% CP). After calving to 25 DIM, cows were fed 1 of 4 diets: 1) deficient MP (DMP, 17% CP, 24% fNDF), 2) adequate MP met with high inclusion of treated soybean meal (AMP, 20% CP, 24% fNDF), 3) adequate MP met with a blend of RUP and rumen protected AA (Blend, 20% CP, 24% fNDF), or 4) Blend but replacing fNDF rather than non-forage NDF with RUP (Blend-fNDF, 20% CP, 19% fNDF). Cows were fed a common diet (17% CP) from 26 to 92 DIM. Data were averaged by week and analyzed with models with fixed effects of diet, week (repeated), parity, their interactions and random effects of block nested within parity. During treatment, Blend vs. AMP tended to increase DMI (17.4 vs. 16.4 kg/d; P = 0.098) but not for Blend-fNDF (17.2 kg/d; P = 0.79). Blend and AMP had similar DMI from 26 to 50 DIM (19.2 vs. 20.1 kg/d; P = 0.16). For milk, fat and protein, AMP and Blend increased yields 2.1, 0.05 and 0.14 kg/d, respectively, vs. DMP (P ≤ 0.06) but AA profile and fNDF interacted with parity. Blend vs. AMP had similar yields during treatment, but energy-corrected milk and fat yields increased (P < 0.01) 5.6 and 0.33 kg/d from 26 – 92 DIM in multiparous cows only. Blend-fNDF vs. Blend decreased (P ≤ 0.01) milk and milk fat yields 2.8 and 0.32 kg/d in multiparous cows only. Lower milk fat yield (P = 0.01) carried over until 92 DIM (1.85 vs 1.65 kg/d). Blends of RUP and AA are better for fresh cows fed high MP, especially multiparous cows. Multiparous cows may also require more fNDF than primiparous cows.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82699 Watch 35 Reproductive outcomes associated with delayed clinical cure of metritis in dairy cows. 8 C. Figueiredo uterine disease health pregnancy C. Figueiredo1, V. Merenda1, E. de Oliveira2, F. Lima2, R. Chebel1, K. Galvao1, J. Santos1, R. Bisinotto1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2University of California, Davis, CA Approximately 20% of cows treated for metritis fail to resolve clinical signs shortly after antimicrobial therapy. Objectives were to evaluate reproductive outcomes, uterine health, and estrous cyclicity associated with delayed clinical cure of metritis. This prospective cohort study included data from 4 experiments performed between 2012 and 2018 in 6 Florida dairies. Metritis was characterized by presence of watery, fetid, reddish-brownish vaginal discharge (VD; VD = 5) within 21 DIM (d 0). Cows with metritis were treated with ampicillin or ceftiofur and paired with counterparts without metritis (NoMet; n = 2,906). On d 11, cows with metritis with VD <5 were classified as cured (MetC; n = 1,136) and those with VD = 5 were classified not cured (MetN; n = 279). Incidence of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) was evaluated at 32 ± 7 DIM using the Metricheck device and estrous cyclicity was evaluated via 2 ultrasonographic exams 10 to 14 d apart, with the last exam between 50 and 67 ± 3 DIM. Binary variables were analyzed by logistic regression. Hazard of pregnancy and time to pregnancy were evaluated by Cox’s proportional hazard regression models. Services per conception (SPC) was assessed by ANOVA. Incidence of PVD was greater (P < 0.001) for MetN compared with MetC and NoMet (93.2, 79.2, and 43.2%). Proportion of cyclic cows was smaller (P < 0.02) for MetN compared with MetC and NoMet (67.2, 79.9, and 91.8%). Pregnancy per AI (MetN = 28.2, MetC = 29.2, NoMet = 31.8%) and pregnancy loss (MetN = 13.1, MetC = 11.5, NoMet = 13.5%) after first AI did not differ (P > 0.35) among groups. SPC was greater (P = 0.04) for MetN compared with NoMet and intermediate for MetC (3.43, 2.98, 3.15). Hazard of pregnancy was smaller (P < 0.001) for MetN compared with MetC (AHR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.94) or NoMet (AHR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.70), and for MetC compared with NoMet (AHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.90). Mean days to pregnancy for MetN, MetC, and NoMet were 211, 183, and 170. Delayed clinical cure of metritis was associated with impaired subsequent uterine health, delayed resumption of ovulation postpartum, and decreased hazard of pregnancy.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82267 Watch 36 Variation in bovine colostrum fat content is related to specific lipid species. 9 R. N. Klopp colostrum fat lipidome R. N. Klopp1, A. Suarez-Trujillo1, C. R. Ferreira2, T. M. Casey1, J. P. Boerman1 1Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 2Metabolite Profiling Facility, Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Colostrum is an essential source of nutrients, energy, and antibodies for neonates. Studies across multiple species associate long-term programming effects of colostrum on health, fertility and production capacity. However, the quality of colostrum varies extensively across cows and herds, including fat content, which is essential for calf temperature regulation and thermogenesis. Understanding what is potentially driving the variation of fat content in colostrum may enable the development of approaches to standardize quality to ensure nutrient needs of calves are met. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the percent fat of colostrum and the amount of specific lipids in colostrum. Colostrum was collected from 16 multiparous cows within 2 h of calving and immediately frozen at −20°C until analysis. Colostrum fat percent was measured using the creamatocrit approach, 5.46 ± 2.20% (mean ± SD) and range from 0.92 to 8.36%. The Bligh and Dyer protocol was used to extract lipids from the colostrum and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) profiling was used to measure colostrum lipids on an Agilent 6410 QQQ mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies). MRM-profiling was divided into 2 phases, a discovery and screening phase. For discovery phase a pooled colostrum sample was profiled, and lipids with intensities ≥1.3-fold in relation to the blank were selected for the screening phase. Individual colostrum samples were profiled for selected lipids. Data were uploaded into MetaboAnalyst 4.0 for statistical analysis following autoscaling for normalization. Correlation analysis, evaluating non-triglycerides, indicated a significant relationship between percent fat and multiple lipids in colostrum, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) 32:1 (P = 0.004, r = 0.67), PC 32:0 (P = 0.02, r = 0.57), PCo 40:0 (P = 0.01, r = −0.62), and PCo 42:4 (P = 0.05, r = −0.50), sphingomyelin (SM) d18:0/24:0 (P = 0.02, r = 0.59), and SM d18:1/24:0 (P = 0.03, r = 0.55). These findings suggest that specific colostrum lipids are related to percent fat, however further studies are required to determine regulatory mechanisms for colostrum fat synthesis.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82146 Watch 37 Effect of hyperketonemia on circadian patterns of blood metabolites and milk predicted constituents in dairy cows. 10 C. Seely hyperketonemia Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FTIR) C. Seely1, K. Bach1, D. Barbano2, J. McArt1 1Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Estimates of milk and blood constituents by Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FTIR) analysis of milk offer a promising tool to monitor energy deficit in dairy cows. We sought to explore the (1) diurnal changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and FTIR estimates of milk BHB and milk predicted blood NEFA (pbNEFA), (2) correlation between plasma BHB and NEFA, and (3) effect of hyperketonemia (HYK) on circadian patterns of plasma and milk metabolites. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 28), between 3 and 9 DIM, were fit with jugular catheters and blood samples were collected every 2 h for 5 d. Cows were milked thrice daily (0600, 1400, 2200 h) and milk samples were collected at every milking for the same 5 d. Cows were fed daily at 0900 h and offered ad lib access to a TMR. Plasma NEFA and BHB was quantified by enzymatic analysis and milk BHB and pbNEFA was estimated by FTIR. Cows were retrospectively grouped as HYK positive (n = 13) if plasma BHB was ≥1.2 mmol/L for ≥3 study days or HYK negative (non-HYK; n = 15) if plasma BHB was ≥1.2 mmol/L for ≤2 study days. Explanatory models were used to analyze plasma and milk metabolites over time and differences in metabolites between HYK groups. Models analyzing metabolites over time included the random effect of cow and fixed effect of time; those analyzing differences between groups included the random effect of cow and fixed effects of HYK group, time, and HYK group × time. The correlation between plasma NEFA and BHB was analyzed by calculating the area under the curve for total plasma NEFA and BHB. Plasma BHB and NEFA, milk BHB, and pbNEFA all changed throughout the day (P < 0.001). The amplitude of change in plasma BHB was greater within a day for the HYK cows than the non-HYK cows (P = 0.009). Plasma NEFA and BHB were positively correlated (r = 0.81), suggesting that accounting for diurnal variation increased the correlation of plasma metabolites. Our results support the use of FTIR estimates of milk constituents as a tool to monitor energy deficit and suggest that time relative to feeding should be considered when analyzing both plasma and milk metabolites.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition   ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82027 Watch 38 Isoprostanes reduce production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in a bovine model of oxidative stress. 11 A. K. Putman isoprostane oxidative stress A. K. Putman1, J. C. Gandy1, L. M. Sordillo1 1Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, MI Oxidative stress is associated with several economically important diseases in dairy cattle and results in damage to tissue macromolecules. Isoprostanes (IsoP) are molecules generated from interactions between free radicals and membrane phospholipids, thus serving as excellent indicators of free radical-mediated lipid damage during times of oxidative stress. In dairy cattle, IsoP have been detected throughout the lactation cycle, during both health and disease. While IsoP are recognized as excellent biomarkers of oxidative stress, their physiological role remains largely unknown. The vascular endothelium is a primary target of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress. Thus, this experiment aimed to determine the effect of the most extensively studied IsoP, 15-F2t-IsoP, on bovine endothelial cells during oxidative stress conditions. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated in the presence of 10 nM 15-F2t-IsoP alone and in combination with known oxidizers 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 15-F2t-IsoP decreased ROS production in BAEC incubated with AAPH for 12 h compared with cells incubated with AAPH alone. Additionally, 15-F2t-IsoP decreased apoptosis in BAEC incubated with LPS for 12 h when compared with cells incubated with LPS alone. The results of this study indicate that 15-F2t-IsoP may have a cytoprotective role during times of oxidative stress. Future studies should be directed toward investigating if IsoP alter other factors associated with vascular damage during oxidative stress, such as endothelial cell barrier integrity. This research benefits the industry by providing insight into how a well-known biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cattle may contribute to the pathophysiology of economically important diseases.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t83142 Watch M20 Effects of precision feeding Holstein and Jersey heifers an increasing poultry fat inclusion on rumen fermentation parameters. 1 S. M. Hussein precision feeding poultry fat heifer S. M. Hussein1, S. Twyman1, M. Toledo1, O. Thomas1, J. Echesabal1, R. M. Stockler2, M. J. Aguerre1, G. J. Lascano1 1Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 2Auburn University, Auburn, AL Fat inclusion can increase energy density of diets fed to ruminants, therefore reducing dry matter intake (DMI) required to meet caloric demands, however detrimental effects to rumen fermentation have been reported. There is evidence that not all fat sources have this negative response. Diets used for precision-feeding are more nutrient dense, allowing an increase in energy and nutrient utilization efficiency while decreasing nutrient loss. We hypothesized that including poultry fat (PF) would reduce intake without compromising rumen fermentation in dairy heifers. Four Holstein and 4 Jersey cannulated heifers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments, included 55% forage diet with 4 increasing PF inclusion starting with a basal concentration of fat in the diet [3% fat (0% PF); 5% fat (2% PF); 7% fat (4% PF); and 9% fat (6% PF)]. Treatments administered according to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design for 4 periods of 21 d [(16 d adaptation, (5 d sampling; rumen sampling were collected on the last day of each period)]. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with fixed effects of period, breed, PF inclusion, breed × PF interaction, and a random effect of heifer (breed) and repeated measures when needed. There were no differences on rumen VFA between the Holstein and Jersey-group. Total VFA concentration and acetate molar proportion decreased linearly with the increased level of PF inclusion. Concurrently, there was a linear increase in propionate molar proportion resulting in a linear reduction on the A:P ratio with PF incremental inclusion. Iso-butyrate molar proportion increased linearly as PF increased. Mean rumen pH was not affected by breed, but the PF inclusion showed a linear increase on rumen pH (P < 0.03). Rumen NH3-N concentration was not affected by breed, but PF inclusion resulted in an increasing linear trend on rumen NH3-N (P = 0.10). These results suggest that Holstein and Jersey heifers had a similar pattern and rate of rumen fermentation and that increasing PF inclusion in precision feeding program is affecting rumen fermentation pattern mainly by reducing the A:P.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82860 Watch M21 Effects of feeding rumen-protected lysine during the transition period on postpartum immunometabolic gene expression and morphology of uterine samples of Holstein cows. 2 A. Guadagnin gene expression lysine mucin A. Guadagnin1, L. Fehlberg1, B. Thomas1, Y. Suginomoto2, I. Shinzato2, F. Cardoso1 1University of Illinois, Department of Animal Sciences, Urbana, IL, 2Ajinomoto Co. Inc, Tokyo, Japan Methionine has an impact on the reproductive immune function and metabolism of dairy cows. However, whether lysine plays a similar role is unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected Lys (RPL, AjiPro-L Generation 3, Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL) pre- (PRE, 0.54%DM of TMR) and/or postpartum (POS, 0.395%DM of TMR) on mRNA gene expression profiles of endometrial samples of Holstein cows. Seventy-three (n = 73) multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized, complete block design with a crossover of a diet with RPL (L) or without (C). Treatments consisted of TMR with RPL pre- and postpartum (LL), with RPL pre- and without RPL postpartum (LC), without RPL pre- and with RPL postpartum (CL), and without RPL pre- and postpartum (CC). Endometrial tissue samples were collected through uterine biopsy at 28 d relative to calving and analyzed for expression of genes related to inflammation and protein metabolism, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphology evaluation. Data collected were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS. There was a tendency for an effect of POS (P = 0.06) on the gene expression of mucin 1 mRNA (MUC1) and mucin 4 mRNA (MUC4), in which cows in L postpartum had greater expression of MUC1 (1.15 ± 0.48) and MUC4 (1.05 ± 0.43) than cows in C (0.83 ± 0.48 and 0.22 ± 0.43, respectively). A PRE x POS interaction was observed for the expression of interleukin-10 mRNA (IL10), where cows in LL (11.31 ± 1.40) had greater (P < 0.01) expression of IL10 than cows in CC (4.57 ± 1.40), CL (4.00 ± 1.40), or LC (6.06 ± 1.40). There was no difference in the number of endometrial glands (P = 0.20) nor on the number of cells per gland (P = 0.14). In conclusion, feeding RPL postpartum impacts uterine immune response, through increasing the expression of mRNAs that encode glycoproteins involved in the protection and renewal of epithelial cells, and also increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 mRNA expression.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82790 Watch M22 Effects of ruminally degraded protein and starch on gluconeogenic precursors in lactating cows. 3 A. Hruby stable-isotope VFA propionate A. Hruby1, L. Campos1, M. Li1, J. Prestegaard1, M. Hanigan1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA In lactating dairy cows, gluconeogenesis is vital to maintain glucose (Glu) levels for milk production. Propionate (Pr) produced by ruminal fermentation is the primary precursor for Glu synthesis, however, lactate and amino acids (AA) also contribute. The objectives of this study were to assess the relative contributions of these 3 substrates to gluconeogenesis when Pr and AA supplies are manipulated and to assess the validity of determining Pr production via isotope dilution in the blood pool. Two multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows (247 ± 26 and 166 ± 61 DIM, respectively) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of high and low dietary concentrations of ruminally degraded protein (RDP), and high (HS) and low (HS) dietary concentrations of starch. Treatments were applied in a 4 × 4 Latin Square with 4, 14-d periods. [2–13C]-Pr was ruminally infused on d12. Jugular infusions of [1,2–13C]-Glu, [1–13C]-lactate, and [2–13C]-Pr were administered on d13 and [U-13C]-AA on d14. Jugular vein samples were taken during and following each infusion and assessed for substrate concentrations and isotopic enrichment. Blood samples were pooled and assessed for lactate, Pr, Glu, and AA concentrations. Met and Pro concentrations were greater for diets containing high starch; further, the latter was lower with high RDP (Table 1). Lactate concentrations were greater for the high RDP, HS treatment, and Pr concentrations tended to be greater with HS. Further, Pr appearance in blood through direct jugular infusions was assessed by isotope dilution in response to varying RDP and starch. Data from this experiment will allow preparation of an improved model for gluconeogenesis in lactating cows. Table 1. Least squares means of metabolite and AA concentrations in pooled blood plasma samples1
Item Low RDP High RDP SE P-value2
LS HS LS HS RDP S RDP × S
Propionate entry rate (g/h) 51.4 24.2 25.1 52.8 6.80 0.87 0.97 <0.01
Propionate (μM) 32.0 32.2 28.0 34.0 3.10 0.58 0.12 0.16
Lactate (mM) 0.619 0.660 0.650 0.500 0.050 0.12 0.18 0.03
Ala (μM) 327 343 328 314 19.1 0.55 0.97 0.55
Ile (μM) 203 160 145 141 12.3 <0.01 0.03 0.07
Met (μM) 22.9 27.1 22.8 28.4 1.19 0.56 <0.01 0.46
Pro (μM) 104 113 89.1 102 6.30 <0.01 <0.01 0.56
Ser (μM) 93.7 108 91.8 103 6.90 0.59 0.07 0.81
Val (μM) 353 301 302 287 24.5 0.04 0.05 0.22
1S = starch; LS = low starch; HS = high starch. 2Significance declared at P<0.05.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82715 Watch M23 Stimulation of microbial protein synthesis by branched-chain volatile fatty acids in dual-flow cultures varying in forage and PUFA concentrations. 4 K. E. Mitchell branched-chain VFA cellulolytic PUFA K. E. Mitchell1, B. A. Wenner1, C. Lee1, M. T. Socha2, J. L. Firkins1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are deaminated by amylolytics to branched-chain VFA (BCVFA), which are growth factors for cellulolytic bacteria that cannot degrade or synthesize their own BCAA. Our objective was to determine the dietary conditions that would increase the uptake of BCVFA. Increasing forage would increase cellulolytic bacterial abundance and their stimulation by BCVFA as growth factors. However, in a low forage diet, amylolytic bacteria should outcompete for BCVFA. Supplemental PUFA should inhibit cellulolytic bacteria growth, but additional BCVFA should minimize that inhibition. Supplementation of BCVFA could therefore increase efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in both low forage (LF), high forage (HF), and high PUFA diets. The study was an incomplete block design with 8 dual-flow continuous cultures used in 4 periods with treatments (n = 4) arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial. The factors were: HF or LF (67 or 33%), without or with supplemental corn oil (CO, 3% DM), and without or with 2.15 mmol/d each of isovalerate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate (MB). The isonitrogenous diets consisted of 33:67 alfalfa: orchard grass pellet, and was replaced with ground corn and soybean meal in the LF diet. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED in SAS (v. 9.4, SAS Institute 2015) with random effects of period and fermenter and fixed effects of diet, CO, BCVFA, and their interactions. The main effect of supplementing BCVFA increased (P = 0.10) NDF digestibility (NDFd) by 2.97% units, and CO increased (P = 0.07, for interaction) NDFd by 6.46% units in LF diets. BCVFA and HF increased (P < 0.03) bacterial N by 1.54 and 1.84 g/kg OM truly degraded, respectively. Total BCVFA net production was lower (P < 0.01) with HF compared with LF. When CO and BCVFA were supplemented with LF, total BCVFA net production decreased (P = 0.10, for interaction). When BCVFA was supplemented with CO, MB net production decreased (P = 0.08, for interaction) with HF, but even more with LF. Providing supplemental BCVFA improved efficiency of cellular growth of cellulolytics and therefore NDFd, which should improve feed efficiency in dairy cows.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82271 Watch M24 Effects of Enogen Feed corn silage and corn grain on nutrient digestibility, production, and enteric methane emission in lactating cows. 5 L. Rebelo Enogen corn grain Enogen corn silage production L. Rebelo1, C. Lee1, W. Weiss1, M. Eastridge2 1The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Increasing rumen starch digestibility can improve production and feed efficiency. Corn that was developed to contain high α-amylase expression (Enogen Feed, Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) was evaluated on nutrient digestibility, production, and CH4 emission in lactating cows. Enogen and isoline corn were grown and harvested for corn silage (CS) and corn grain (CG). Fifteen cows (6 ruminally cannulated; 9 non-cannulated) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (5 orthogonal squares; 14-d adaptation and 14-d sampling in each period). Dietary treatments were: isoline CS and isoline CG (CON); Enogen CS and isoline CG (ECS); Enogen CS and Enogen CG (ECSCG). The diets included 48% CS and 19% CG (DM basis) and contained 15.5% CP, 31% NDF, and 29% starch (DM basis). A 4-d total collection of feces was conducted for nutrient digestibility with cannulated cows, and CH4 was measured in 8 equally spaced times throughout 3 d using Greenfeed (C-Lock Inc.) from non-cannulated cows. Production was obtained from all cows. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with treatment and period as fixed and cow and cow within square as random effects. Total-tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF were not different among treatments. Compared with CON, ECS and ECSCG increased DMI (26.7 and 26.6 vs. 25.1, respectively; P < 0.01). Milk yield increased only for ECS compared with CON (36.5 vs. 33.1 kg/d; P = 0.03). Energy-corrected milk was not affected (34.5, 36.4, and 35.6 kg/d for CON, ECS, and ECSCG, respectively). Milk protein yield was greater (P = 0.02) for ECS vs. CON and ECSCG (no difference between CON and ECSCG). Milk fat content tended to be lower (P = 0.06) for ECS vs. CON and ECSCG (no difference between CON and ECSCG). Methane yield decreased (11.5 vs. 13.5 g/kg DMI; P = 0.04) only for ECS vs. CON. In conclusion, ECS increased milk and protein yields and lowered CH4 yield compared with CON, possibly because of greater starch availability in the rumen. However, ECSCG had only numerical effects on milk and ECM yields compared with CON.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82213 Watch M25 Cooling dairy calves pre- and postnatally increases circulating serotonin and modulates immune function. 6 M. G. Marrero serotonin immunology heat stress M. G. Marrero1, B. Dado-Senn1, S. L. Field1, J. Laporta1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Heat stress suppresses dairy calves’ ability to develop optimum immune responses predisposing them to increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated the effects of providing heat stress abatement across pre- and postnatal periods on dairy calf immune system development. We hypothesized that pre-weaned calves receiving heat stress abatement will have increased humoral immunity and circulating serotonin (5-HT, an immunomodulator). To test this, calves born to heat stressed (HS) or cooled (CL) dams during late gestation (~46 d) were then exposed to postnatal HS or CL environments (56 d) resulting in 2 treatments: HSHS and CLCL; n = 6/group. Postnatal CL was achieved using fans providing wind speed ≥2 m/s. All calves were fed 4 L pooled colostrum at birth. Blood samples were collected weekly (d0 to 56) to measure leukocyte populations, 5-HT and IgG concentrations. On d47 a 24h in vitro LPS-challenge (0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 μg/mL dose) was performed. On d0, 21 and 42 blood was collected using Tempus RNA tubes for gene expression analysis of heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP72), transforming growth factor β (TGFB), toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4), interferon gamma (IFNG), T-cell transcription factors (GATA3, FoxP3, TBX21 and RORcy), 5-HT receptors 2A and 2B, 5-HT transporter (SERT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1). Data were analyzed using mix-model ANOVAs with treatment, day and interaction as fixed effects and ID as random. CLCL calves had greater TPH1 expression at birth (P = 0.005) and greater circulating 5-HT (P = 0.04), however, both groups had greater 5-HT concentrations after LPS-challenge in vitro (P = 0.01). Although there were no differences in neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts (P > 0.11), CLCL calves had greater gene expression of HSP70, FoxP3, TBX21, TGFB, TLR4 and 5-HT2A (P < 0.04). Notably, there was a treatment by day interaction whereby IgG concentrations were higher in the CLCL calves from d35 and thereafter (P = 0.01). Heat stress abatement increases circulating serotonin and has the potential to improve adaptive and humoral immune development in pre-weaned dairy calves.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82153 Watch M26 Assessment of the colon transcriptome changes from pre- to post-weaning in calves fed elevated levels of milk. 7 J. K. van Niekerk colon transcriptome mucosa thickness J. K. van Niekerk1, M. Middeldorp2, L. L. Guan1, M. A. Steele1,3 1Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 3Department of Animal Biosciences, Animal Science and Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada In addition to rumen fermentation, colon fermentation plays an important role in providing energy to ruminants as well. The aim of this study was to assess colon epithelial gene expression changes in calves from pre- to post-weaning and to determine if these changes are associated with calf starter (CS) intake, colon mucosa thickness, fecal starch and serum inflammatory marker concentrations in calves fed at a high milk replacer (MR) feeding rate. Six Holstein calves were fed MR (150 g/L) at 15% of BW and volumes were adjusted weekly according to BW. Calves were weaned by reducing milk allocation by 50% during wk 6. Serum was collected for acute phase protein analysis and fecal matter for starch analysis weekly from wk 4 to 12. Endoscopic biopsies of the colon were performed for histological measurements (wk 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12) and transcriptomic analysis (wk 5, 7 and 12). Phenotypic trait data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with wk as a fixed effect and calf as a random effect. Fecal starch was higher (P = 0.0002) at wk 9 compared with wk 4, 5 and 6 and colon mucosa thickness tended to be decreased (P = 0.08) at wk 8 compared with wk 5. The transcriptome analyses uncovered 10 genes (3 up- and 7 downregulated) differentially expressed (DE) during short-term adaptation (wk 5 to 7) while 65 genes (38 up- and 37 downregulated) were DE during long-term adaptation (wk 5 to 12). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified a gene module (517 genes) that had a negative correlation (Pearson correlation) with fecal starch (P = 0.01) and CS intake (P < 0.001) and a positive correlation with colon mucosa thickness (P = 0.02). There were 13 DE genes that overlapped with the significant co-expressed gene module and most of these genes (AQP8, SLC7A8, SLC13A2, SLC9A3, SLC6A14, SLC40A1 and S100A12) were involved in nutrient transport and inflammatory response. This is the first study to provide evidence of these genes being expressed in the colon of young ruminants and their change in expression suggests that they may be used as future gene markers to evaluate nutrient absorption and gut and immune function.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82094 Watch M27 Association between haptoglobin concentrations and disease incidence, milk production, and reproductive performance at the cow and herd level. 8 A. L. Kerwin inflammation haptoglobin transition cow A. L. Kerwin1, D. V. Nydam2, W. S. Burhans3, S. K. Wall4, K. M. Schoenberg4, K. L. Perfield4, T. R. Overton1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 3Dairy-Tech Group, South Albany, VT, 4Elanco US Inc, Greenfield, IN The objectives of this prospective observational study were to: 1) evaluate the association between elevated haptoglobin (HP) on 305 d mature equivalent milk at 120 DIM (ME305), conception within 150 DIM and conception at first service and 2) identify the HP herd-alarm level that is associated with herd-level changes in disease incidence (DI; displaced abomasum or ketosis), ME305, 21-d pregnancy rate (PR) and conception rate (CR) at first service. Plasma samples were collected from 868 cows, 0 to 12 DIM, across 72 herds, and were analyzed for HP (University of Guelph Animal Health Laboratory). Haptoglobin was dichotomized based on thresholds associated with increased DI (range: 0.55 to 1.52 g/L). Mixed effects models were used for the ME305 and herd-alarm level outcomes (PROC MIXED, SAS 9.4). Conception within 150 DIM was analyzed by a Cox proportional hazards model (PROC PHREG). Conception at first service was analyzed with a mixed effects Poisson regression (PROC GENMOD). The herd-alarm level with the smallest proportion of cows with elevated HP and the lowest HP threshold that resulted in the lowest P-value and largest change in the outcome of interest was kept in the final model. The initial proportion evaluated was 30% and it was lowered by 5% increments. Cows with HP ≥ 0.55 g/L produced 898 kg less ME305 (P < 0.01) and had a 25% (hazard ratio = 0.75; P < 0.01) decreased risk of conception by 150 DIM. Cows with HP ≥ 1.52 g/L were 0.60 times as likely to conceive at first service (risk ratio = 0.60; P = 0.01). The herd-alarm level associated with DI was defined as ≥ 20% of cows having HP ≥ 0.55 g/L, resulting in a 5.8% increase in DI (P = 0.01). The herd-alarm level associated with PR was defined as ≥ 10% of cows having HP ≥ 1.52 g/L, resulting in a 2.5% decrease in 21-d PR (P = 0.09). The herd-alarm level associated with CR at first service was defined as ≥ 20% of cows having HP ≥ 1.52 g/L, resulting in a 6.4% decrease in CR at first service (P = 0.09). There was not a herd-alarm level associated with ME305. These results indicate that HP can be used as a herd health-monitoring tool at the cow and herd-level.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82044 Watch M28 Bacteria count differences in used bedding and bulk tank milk based on bedding type in five New York dairy farms. 9 V. Alanis bedding bacterial counts milk quality V. Alanis1, M. Zurakowski2, D. Pawloski2, D. Nydam1, P. Ospina1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Cornell University, Cobleskill, NY The objectives were to evaluate the differences in bacteria counts between bulk tank milk and 5 different used bedding types (manure solids, paper fiber, straw, recycled sand, and sand) from lactating pens from 5 New York Dairies. Sampling occurred monthly over one year (July 2018–2019). Bedding was collected making sure to avoid manure, from 3 to 5 representative stalls following a strict standard operating procedure to minimize sampling variability, and a bulk tank milk sample was collected on the same day. Bedding (cfu/g) and bulk tank milk (cfu/mL) were cultured for coliform, non-coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. counts. In milk, Staphylococcus spp. counts were also reported. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate bacterial count differences in individual bedding and milk samples. The only bacteria count difference in milk was Staphylococcus spp. where farm bedding with paper fiber had the highest counts and sand had the lowest (P = 0.01). There were no differences in other bacteria counts in milk (P > 0.1). Although there were significant statistical differences between bedding type with organic bedding having slightly higher bacteria counts, overall, organic bedding showed similar bacterial counts than inorganic bedding (Table 1). However, it is important to note that farms using organic bedding were re-bedding more frequently than those using sand. Table 1.
Bacteria group count Used bedding type
Manure solidsn=44 Paper Fibern=70 Strawn=18 Recycled sandn=60 Sandn=45
Bedding samples1          
 Coliforms 6.7±0.9 (6.4–6.9)a 5.9±0.7 (5.8–6.1)b 6.7±0.6 (6.4–6.9)a 4.9±0.7 (4.8–5.1)c 4.9±0.7 (4.7–5.2)c
 Non-coliforms(n)2 8.1±0.4 (7.8–8.2)a 6.5±1.0 (6.2–6.5)b(7) 7.1±0.6 (6.8–7.3)b 5.8±0.7 (5.6–5.8)c(6) 5.9±0.6 (5.7–6.1)c(10)
Streptococcus spp. 9.1±0.3 (8.9–9.2)a 9.2±0.5 (9.0–9.3)a 9.5±0.5 (9.2–9.7)b 8.3±0.6 (8.1–8.4)c 8.5±0.9 (8.2–8.8)d
Bedding frequency Every day Twice weekly Every day Weekly Weekly
Bulk tank samples3          
 Staphylococcus spp. 2.3±0.6 (1.8-2.8)AB 3.3±0.3 (2.9-3.6)A 2.7±0.6 (2.0-3.4)AB 2.6±0.4 (2.2-2.9)AB 2.2±0.4 (1.9-2.5)B
a–dMeans with different lowercase superscripts within a row differ (P < 0.0001). A,BMeans with different uppercase superscripts within a row differ (P < 0.01). 1Mean ± SD, (95% CI) bacteria counts (log10 cfu/g) in bedding over a year. 2Where (n) indicates number of samples removed due to no growth culture result. 3Mean ± SD, (95% CI) bacteria counts (log10 cfu/mL) in bulk tank over a year.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition   ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/22/2020 14:00 t82001 Watch M29 Preference, feeding behavior, and in vitro fermentation characteristics of pelleted feeds containing different binders in growing primiparous Holstein cows. 10 H. T. Hong feeding behavior feed binder H. T. Hong1, H. C. Hung1, K. R. Kerner1, A. L. Peterson1, S. Burkhardt2, A. H. Laarman1, P. Rezamand1 1University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Sustainable Fiber Technologies, Renton, WA Objectives of this study were to test preference, feeding behavior, and rumen fermentation characteristics of a new feed binder, a thermo-chemically treated lignin product. Five pelleted feeds were prepared including a negative control containing neither molasses nor the new product (NCTL), a positive control containing Ameri-Bond 2X at 2.1% dry matter basis (DM, PCTL). Three pelleted feeds that contained the new binder were low (1.6% DM, LOW), medium (3.2% DM, MED), high (4.8% DM, HIGH). Ten Holstein heifers were placed in individual stalls and given one feed, for one hour, to determine the acceptance, intake, and feeding behavior regarding each feed. To determine the preference, cows were given 2 feeds (a reference diet, NCTL; and another feed) in 2 separate buckets with rotations for one hour. Intake was measured and preference was calculated using the following: Preference % = (Test diet) / (Test diet + Reference diet) × 100%. Pelleted feeds were placed in the rumen fluid in vitro for 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h. Degradation of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), NDF, and ADF were analyzed. Data were analyzed using the PROC GLIMMIX (SAS v. 9.4) with significance declared at P ≤ 0.05. Acceptance of LOW was the highest (P = 0.001). Cows spent more time eating on LOW than other feeds (P = 0.001) and less time wandering on NCTL and LOW (P = 0.045), but no difference observed in rumination and drinking time. Intake at each approach was greater for MED which did not differ from LOW or HIGH (P = 0.03). The number of times that cows approached and ate feed for LOW was the highest but it did not differ from NCTL or HIGH (P = 0.025). Cows preferred LOW over other feeds (P = 0.001). The degree of DM degradation for PCTL, LOW, and MED were greater than that of NCTL and HIGH (P < 0.001). Overtime (0–72 h), OM degradation of NCTL was the smallest (P < 0.001). There were no difference for DM, OM, and NDF degradation at 24, 48, or 72 h among feeds. Degradation of ADF at 24 h or 72 h did not differ among feeds but at 48 h showed difference between NCTL vs. other feeds with either binders (P = 0.006).
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82192 Watch M30 Population approach for determining behavioral thresholds associated with health status during transition. 1 P. Pinedo behavior disease performance D. Manriquez1, P. Pinedo1 1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Monitoring of behavioral variables has been used to assess individual health and estrus presentation in dairy cows. The objective was to evaluate population dynamics of behavioral variables during postpartum to determine cut-off values associated with the subsequent occurrence of health events up to 21 DIM. Cows (n = 1,350) in an organic certified herd in CO, were affixed with CowManager tags (AABV, the Netherlands) for monitoring of rumination, eating, and active times (min/d). Health events were retrieved from on-farm software (PCDart, Raleigh, NC). Cows were categorized as healthy (HT) or diagnosed with at least one health event (DZ) within 21 DIM. Explanatory variables included behavioral variables summarized in 20 min intervals at 0, 1, and 2 DIM. Logistic regression and ROC curves analysis were used to calculate cut-off values maximizing sensitivity (Se, %) and specificity (Sp, %). Calving season, parity, and dystocia were included in the models as controlling variables when P < 0.1. Overall, 17.2% of the cows were in the DZ category. Increments of the behavioral variables were associated with lower odds of disease presentation. For each 20 min/d increment in rumination at 0, 1, 2 DIM the odds of DZ decreased by 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92–0.98), 0.92 (0.9–0.95), and 0.90 (0.87–0.92), respectively. For each 20 min/d increment in eating time at 0, 1, 2 DIM the odds of DZ decreased by 0.89 (0.86–0.92), 0.85 (0.82–0.89), and 0.84 (0.8–0.88), respectively. For active time, the odds of DZ decreased by 0.96 (0.93–0.99), 0.94 (0.91–0.96), 0.95 (0.92–0.98), respectively. Eating time at 1 DIM had the greatest area under curve (AUC = 0.69), followed by eating (AUC = 0.68) and rumination time (AU = 0.64) at 2 DIM. The cut-off values that optimized Se and Sp at these points were 233.5 (Se = 65; Sp = 61), 285.9 (Se = 63.2; Sp = 61.3), and 438 (Se = 61.3; Sp = 52) min/d, respectively. AUC for active time was < 0.6 and Se and Sp < 50%. This study suggests that rumination time and eating time have discriminative value at early lactation for cows at risk of health disorders and these assessment points could be used for developing targeted prophylaxis after calving.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82229 Watch M31 Consistency of lying time is associated with reduced serum non-esterified fatty acids of prepartum dairy heifers and cows. 2 B. T. Menichetti prepartum lying time NEFA B. T. Menichetti1, J. M. Piñeiro2, A. Garcia-Guerra3, A. E. Relling4, W. P. Weiss4, G. M. Schuenemann1 1Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Amarillo, TX, 3Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 4Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH The objective was to assess the association of pre-partum lying time (LT) with serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in prepartum dairy heifers and cows. A total of 723 Holstein pregnant dairy heifers (n = 229) and multiparous cows (n = 494) from 3 dairy herds were enrolled at 14 ± 3 d before parturition (dpp). A cohort of 20 to 36 cows was enrolled monthly at each dairy herd and electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) were fitted to the hind leg of individual heifers and cows to assess their LT. To assess consistency of LT, the coefficient of variation (CV) of LT was computed for each individual animal by dividing the SD by mean LT within 7 d before blood NEFA collection and reported as an absolute ratio. Blood samples were collected from animals at 7 ± 3 dpp for serum NEFA concentration. Herd 1 regrouped animals 3 times per week while herds 2 and 3 regrouped animals once per week. PROC CORR procedure of SAS was used to assess the relationship between CV of LT and prepartum serum NEFA. Correlations were adjusted by parity, body condition score (BCS) at enrollment, season (winter, spring, summer and fall), and herd. Season, herd, parity, and BCS were associated with CV of LT (P < 0.05). Pregnant heifers had an overall mild (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001; herd 1: r = 0.13, herd 2: r = 0.52, and herd 3: r = 0.19) significant positive correlation between mean CV of LT and serum NEFA. Multiparous cows had an overall weak (r = 0.11, P = 0.01; herd 1: r = 0.07, herd 2: r = 0.13, and herd 3: r = 0.14) significant positive correlation between mean CV of LT and serum NEFA. The greater the CV of LT (<0.10 vs >0.30) within 7 d before blood collection, the greater the concentration of serum NEFA (302 µEq/L vs 450 µEq/L; P = 0.005). These findings provide evidence that consistency of LT of prepartum heifers and cows should be considered when troubleshooting metabolic problems at the herd level.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t83095 Watch M32 Metabolite health index relationship with metabolism and milk yield and its composition of postpartum dairy cows. 3 R. Almeida liver health transition period E. J. Askel1, M. Poczynek1, A. M. Fillus1, I. F. Carrari1, J. H. Carneiro1, J. C. S. Lourenço1, G. F. M. Leão2, R. Almeida1 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, 2Castrolanda Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Castro, PR, Brazil The goal of this study was to use the metabolite health index (MHI) categorization to evaluated metabolism and productive performance of Holstein postpartum cows. Four hundred 21 cows were evaluated, 173 primiparous and 248 multiparous, from 26 herds in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. Each cow had a single blood sample collected between 0 to 21 DIM. Serum AST, GGT, BHB, NEFA, Ca, glucose, albumin, bilirubin, and cholesterol were evaluated. A MHI was calculated using albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations, as well as their general means and SD (Gallagher et al., 2019) within 3 classes of lactation week; between 0 to 7 DIM, 8 to 14 DIM, and 15 to 21 DIM. All cows were categorized as medium (mean MHI ± 0.5 SD; n = 185 cows; MHI = 0.152), low (<mean MHI – 0.5 SD; n = 108 cows, MHI = −2.832) and high (>mean MHI + 0.5 SD; n = 128 cows; MHI = 2.17) groups, and each cow was categorized within its DIM range. Milk yield (kg), and fat and protein contents in the first test-day were recorded. Fat:protein ratio (FPR) was calculated and accumulated milk up to 30 and 100 DIM (kg) were recorded. Statistical analysis was conducted with GLM procedure from SAS. Cows in the low MHI group had higher BHB (1.00 vs. 0.64 mmol/L; P < 0.01), AST (104.3 vs. 84.3 U/L; P < 0.01), and NEFA (0.83 vs. 0.47 mmol/L; P < 0.01), and lower glucose (58.0 vs. 61.2 mg/dL; P < 0.01), and Ca (8.9 vs. 10.1 mg/dL; P < 0.01) than the high MHI group. It was observed higher (P < 0.01) milk yields at the first test-day for medium and high MHI groups than for low MHI group (39.1 and 37.9 vs. 35.2 kg/d, respectively). But there were no differences (P > 0.05) in accumulated milk up to 30 and 100 DIM, and milk fat content among MHI classes. It was observed lower (P < 0.01) milk protein content for low MHI group than for medium and high classes (3.10 vs. 3.21 and 3.26%), so these last 2 groups had lower FPR (1.18 and 1.19 vs. 1.26) than the high MHI. Our results suggest that there is an effect of the MHI class on milk yield in the first test-day, and there are effects on some blood metabolites which are not included in the MHI calculation.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82016 Watch M33 Metabolic markers for purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. 4 O. Bogado Pascottini transition period uterine disease inflammation O. Bogado Pascottini1, S. LeBlanc1 1Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada This study aimed to compare serum markers for systemic inflammation (SI), and liver and energy metabolism in samples obtained −7, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving from healthy dairy cows and those diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) or subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 35 d postpartum. Measured metabolites in serum were total calcium (tCa), total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, urea, glucose, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), haptoglobin (Hp), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Holstein cows were classified healthy (neither PVD nor SCE; n = 38), PVD (n = 10) or SCE (n = 10) at 35 d postpartum. The cut-point for PVD was mucopurulent vaginal discharge or worse, measured with Metricheck, and for SCE > 5% endometrial polymorphonuclear cells. PVD and SCE were mutually exclusive categories. The association of each blood serum metabolite with reproductive tract health classification was fitted in mixed linear regression models, accounting for repeated measures, sampling day, parity, BCS, and interactions of status and day. Serum haptoglobin was greater at 3, 5, 7, and 15 d postpartum for SCE and at 7 and 35 d postpartum for PVD in comparison to healthy cows. Albumin concentrations were lesser for PVD than healthy at 15 d postpartum and lesser for SCE than healthy at 35 d postpartum. The week before calving, SCE had lesser tCa than healthy cows, and at 7 and 15 d postpartum PVD had lower tCa than healthy cows. At 15 d postpartum, serum NEFA, BHB, and globulin were greater, and IGF-1 lower for SCE than PVD or healthy cows. For all other metabolites, no differences were found. Although PVD or SCE had more indication of postpartum SI (high Hp and low albumin) than healthy cows, markers of energy status were more compromised in SCE than in PVD or healthy cows. This supports the hypothesis that SCE is associated with maladaptation to postpartum metabolic demands and (sterile) SI rather than inflammation associated with uterine infection, as previously demonstrated by other authors for PVD.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t81968 Watch M34 Late gestation conditions leading to postpartal subclinical ketosis in dairy cows affects offspring growth and performance. 5 N. A. Carpinelli calves ketosis fetal programing N. A. Carpinelli1, J. Halfen1,2, S. D. L. Ramirez1,3, J. S. Osorio1 1Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão em Pecuaria (NUPEEC), Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 3Universidad de la Salle, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Ketosis is a common disease associated with NEB in peripartal dairy cows, and the onset of this condition is linked to prepartal preconditions such as decreased intake and excessive fat mobilization. Likely the same prepartal endocrine peripheral changes that predispose cows to subclinical ketosis (SK) postpartum will affect fetal development and colostrum biosynthesis. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of maternal SK in peripartal dairy cows on offspring growth and development. Twelve Holstein dairy cows (n = 6/group) were monitored during the peripartal period. Cows were housed in bedded pack pens and fed the same close-up diet (0.63 Mcal/kg DM and 12.3% CP). After parturition cows were moved to a freestall barn and fed a lactation diet (0.73 Mcal/kg DM and 15.6% CP). Precision Xtra was used to measure blood BHB at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 d postpartum and cows were classified as subclinically-ketotic (KET; > 1.4 mmol/L) or non-ketotic (NONKET; < 1.4 mmol/L). Dairy calves were enrolled if calving difficult < 3, BW ≥ 32kg, single calf, colostrum quality ≥ 21% Brix refractometer, and 3.8 L of colostrum intake from the same dam. Calves born to dams in KET and NONKET groups were assigned accordingly. Calves were monitored from 1 to 8 wk of age. Calves were fed 2.8 L/d of milk replacer 2x/d from 1 to 6 wk, 1x/d in 7 wk, and weaned at 8 wk. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water. The BW and withers height (WH) were measured weekly until wk 8. Health checks were performed daily. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Birth BW was greater (P = 0.05; 42.9 vs 37.9 kg) in KET calves than NONKET. However, a slower (P = 0.02) growth rate was observed in KET calves than NONKET from 1 to 8 wk (53.1 vs 56.2 kg). The latter was reflected in a lower (P = 0.05) final BW at 8 wk in KET than NONKET (71.3 vs 74.8 kg). Overall, offspring’s WH was not affected (P = 0.016) by maternal SK. Results suggest that prepartal endocrine and metabolic mechanisms predisposing dairy cows to postpartal SK may produce long-lasting effects on the offspring’s growth and development.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82111 Watch M35 Effect of timing of prepartum vaccination relative to pen change of dairy cows on lying time and serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and calcium at calving. 6 B. T. Menichetti prepartum fatty acids hypocalcemia B. T. Menichetti1, A. Garcia-Guerra2, J. Lakritz3, W. P. Weiss5, J. S. Velez4, D. Merchan4, G. M. Schuenemann1 1Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 4Aurora Organic Farms, Boulder, CO, 5Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH The objective was to assess the effects of timing of prepartum vaccination (Enviracor J5 and Scourguard4; Zoetis) relative to pen movements of gestating dairy cows on lying time (LT), energy status (plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids [NEFA]) and plasma calcium at calving. Briefly, pregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 296) from one dairy herd were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 treatment groups at 35 ± 3 d before anticipated parturition (dpp): 1) vaccination at 28 d and cow pen change at 21 d (V28-M21; n = 104), 2) vaccination and cow pen change at 28 ± 3 d (V28-M28; n = 96) and 3) vaccination and cow pen change at 21 ± 3 d (V21-M21; n = 96). All prepartum cows were loosed-housed in barns with free access to a contiguous dry-lot patio. Every other week, a group of 43 to 53 animals were enrolled and electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) were fitted to the hind leg of individual cows to assess their LT. Blood samples were collected at 28, 26, 21, 19, 14 dpp and at calving. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedure of SAS accounting for BCS, parity and cohort of enrollment. Regardless of treatment group, LT of prepartum cows ranged from 12 to 13.2 h/d. Cow movement with vaccination reduced LT (P = 0.0003) by 36 min/d for the first 3 d thereafter compared with cow movement alone. V21-M21 cows had higher concentrations of NEFA at 19 (170 µEq/L; P < 0.0001) and 14 dpp (161 µEq/L; P = 0.01) compared with V28-M28 (109 µEq/L and 130 µEq/L, respectively) or V28-M21 cows (102 µEq/L and 141 µEq/L, respectively) while no differences among groups were observed at calving. At calving, V28-M21 cows had higher (P = 0.04) glucose concentration (114.5 mg/dL) compared with V21-M21 cows (101.6 mg/dL) with V28-M28 cows intermediate to other 2 groups (107.2 mg/dL). V28-M21 cows had reduced proportion of hypocalcemia (≤8.0 mg/dL; 18.7%; P = 0.004) compared with V21-M21 (37.3%) but did not differ from V28-M28 cows (24.8%). These findings suggest that vaccinating cows at 28 dpp and pen change at 21 dpp would benefit common prepartum changes in metabolism.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t81919 Watch M36 Blood biomarkers through an ex vivo LPS challenge under ketotic conditions in peripartal dairy cows. 7 N. A. Carpinelli ketosis metabolism lipopolysaccharide N. A. Carpinelli1, J. Halfen1,2, F. Rosa1, E. Trevisi3, A. Minuti3, J. S. Osorio1 1Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão em Pecuaria (NUPEEC), Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, 3Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition (DIANA), Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Italy Negative energy balance is commonly experienced by dairy cows after calving and can lead to metabolic disorders such as ketosis, which can affect the performance and immunity of peripartal dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of ketotic conditions in postpartal dairy cows on immunological parameters via an ex vivo LPS challenge and its relation to animal performance and blood biomarkers. Fourteen Holstein cows (n = 7/group) were monitored during the peripartal period. A retrospective analysis was performed by measuring blood BHB with the Precision Xtra at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 DIM, and cows were classified as subclinically-ketotic (KET; > 1.4 mmol/L) or non-ketotic (NONKET; <1.4 mmol/L). Blood samples were collected at −30, −15, 5, 14, and 30 DIM to evaluate biomarkers of metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. At 5 DIM, blood samples were collected for an ex vivo LPS challenge conducted at 0 (control), 0.01 (low dose), and 5 µg of LPS/mL (high dose) for 3.5h. After LPS challenge, the samples were centrifuged and plasma was obtained for biomarker analysis. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to analyze the data. A Group × Day (G × D; P < 0.01) was observed in postpartal DMI, where lower DMI was observed in KET cows than NONKET during 1 and 2 wk postpartum. There was a trend (P = 0.15) for greater milk yield in NONKET cows than KET (37.3 vs 32.4 kg). A G × D (P < 0.01) was observed in NEFA, which resulted in a trend (P ≤ 0.10) for greater NEFA in KET than NONKET at 14 and 30 DIM. There was a trend (P = 0.06) for G × D in haptoglobin, where greater (P < 0.01) haptoglobin was observed in KET than NONKET at 5 DIM. In the ex vivo LPS challenge, a trend (P = 0.06) for Group × LPS was observed in myeloperoxidase (MPO), where MPO tended (P = 0.09) to increase with greater concentrations of LPS in KET while no change (P = 0.29) was observed in NONKET. A Group × LPS (P < 0.01) was observed in IL-1β, where greater (P = 0.05) IL-1β was observed in KET than NONKET at high LPS. These results confirm that ketosis plays an important role in the effective immune response to additional diseases that peripartal dairy cows may endure soon after calving.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82258 Watch M37 Assessment of the effects of intrauterine dextrose on clinical cure rate, body condition score, and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate and haptoglobin in postpartum dairy cows diagnosed with clinical metritis. 8 A. A. Barragan metritis dextrose inflammation A. A. Barragan1, J. Hamilton1, E. Hovingh1, M. Martinez1, L. Byler1, S. Bas2, J. Zug3, S. Haan3 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Phytobiotics Futterzusatzstoffe GmbH Bvd, Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina, 3Zugstead Farm, Mifflintown, PA The objective of this study was to assess the effects of intrauterine dextrose (50%) infusion on clinical cure rate, body condition score (BCS), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and systemic inflammation (haptoglobin; HP) in dairy cows diagnosed with clinical metritis (CM). Cows (n = 351) from a dairy farm located in Pennsylvania were screened at 7 ± 3 DIM using a Metricheck device to assess vaginal discharge. Cows that presented a fetid red-brownish watery vaginal discharge (n = 53) were classified as CM cows, blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1) CONV (n = 27): 2 injectable (SC) administrations of ceftiofur (6.6 mg/Kg; Excede, Zoetis Inc.) 72 h apart; and 2) DEX (n = 26): 3 intrauterine infusions of dextrose (50%; 1 L/cow) 24 h apart. Furthermore, cows that presented a normal vaginal discharge at 7 ± 3 DIM (i.e., dense clear discharge; healthy group; HLT; n = 27) were randomly selected and matched by parity to CONV and DEX cows. Cows were re-screened at 14 ± 3 DIM and 21 ± 3 DIM to assess clinical cure rate. Body condition score was assessed and blood samples (i.e., BHB, HP) were collected at enrollment and at 14 ± 3 DIM and 21 ± 3 DIM. The data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS as a randomized complete block design. There was no difference in clinical cure rate at 14 ± 3 DIM (CONV = 50.27 ± 12.49%; DEX = 45.9 ± 12.37%) and 21 ± 3 DIM (CONV = 88.05 ± 6.59%; DEX = 88.51 ± 6.35%) between CONV and DEX groups. HLT cows tended to have a higher BCS at 21 ± 3 DIM compared with cows in the CONV and DEX groups (CONV = 3.05 ± 0.09 pts.; DEX = 2.96 ± 0.09 pts.; HLT = 3.25 ± 0.10 pts.). There was no difference in BHB concentrations between study groups. Overall, cows treated with DEX had higher HP concentrations compared with HLT cows (CONV = 119.91 ± 23.52 µg/mL; DEX = 153.06 ± 22.75 µg/mL; HLT = 71.52 ± 23.91 µg/mL). These results suggest that, although intrauterine infusion of dextrose may achieve similar clinical cure rates as a conventional antibiotic treatment, the treatment may not be as effective on decreasing systemic inflammation in CM cows.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82170 Watch M38 The effect of vaccination with a Mannheimia haemolytica subunit vaccine on milk yield in lactating dairy cows. 9 M. Overton Mannheimia vaccine dairy cattle bovine respiratory disease M. Overton1, M. Armfelt1 1Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN Many herds in the US use a Mannheimia vaccine in lactating dairy cows as an aid in reducing the impact of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate milk production changes associated with the administration of a Mannheimia haemolytica subunit vaccine (MHSV; Nuplura PH, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). A total of 972 lactating Holstein dairy cow were randomized into 1 of 3 study groups on a Midwestern dairy. Daily milk production during the 7 d before treatment was averaged and used as the baseline for comparison. Lactation Group (1, 2, or 3+), DIM, and 7-d pretreatment average milk production (41.7 kg) was not different across the groups. Cows were treated at the end of the morning milking on vaccination day according to group assignment of (MHSV), Saline, or Negative Control (no injection). Cow-level milk production was then averaged for vaccination day (Day 0) and the following 2 d. The 3-d post-treatment milk average was then compared with the baseline 7 d average milk yield for each group. The association between vaccination with MHSV and subsequent milk production changes while controlling for explanatory factors was compared with both the Saline and Negative Control groups using ANOVA and fitting least squares using JMP Pro 14.3.0. Negative Control cows served as the referent value. Saline group’s decline in milk was 0.25 kg greater than Negative Control cows but the difference was not significant (P = 0.57). The Nuplura group’s decline in milk was 0.7 kg more than the Negative Control, P = 0.02, but the Saline Nuplura declines were not significantly different (P = 0.17). On Day 1, the Nuplura group loss was 1.18 kg more than the Negative Control cows (P < 0.01) but the Saline group’s loss of 0.13 kg was not different from Negative Control (P = 0.92). On Day 0 and Day 2, there were no significant differences between groups.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82651 Watch M39 OmniGen-AF and OmniGen Pro improve immunocompetence of ewes subjected to dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression. 10 M. Garcia OmniGen immunocompetence immunosuppression M. Garcia1, H. A. Roberts1, S. A. Armstrong1, J. D. Chapman1, D. J. McLean1 1Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ OmniGen-AF (OGAF; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) is a feed additive with demonstrated benefit on improving cellular immunocompetence of stressed animals. OmniGen Pro (OGPRO, Phibro Animal Health) is a new product built on the OmniGen foundation, developed to maintain the principles of OGAF while improving gastrointestinal tract function and integrity. This study aimed to confirm the similar immunological effects of these 2 products. Fifteen Dorset ewes (39 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets: control (no additive), OGAF (6 g OGAF/head/d), and OGPRO (6.75 g OGPRO/head/d). Ewes were fed 227 g of grain, with the additives, and ad libitum hay for 23 d. On d 20, ewes were IV-injected with dexamethasone (DEX) at a rate of 0.4 mg/kg BW/day for 3 d. D 0, 20 and 23 blood draws were used to quantify whole blood gene expression of IL-8-Rβ and L-selectin (qPCR), isolated-neutrophil L-selectin protein abundance (Western blot) and neutrophil functional activity (phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacity, flow cytometry). Data were analyzed with 2 contrasts: Control vs. OmniGen (OGAF + OGPRO) and OGAF vs. OGPRO, and significance declared at P ≤ 0.05. Feed intake and BW gain did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups during the study. L-selectin gene expression was greater for OmniGen-fed ewes at d 20 (P = 0.05) and 23 (P < 0.01). Pre-DEX challenge, IL-8-Rβ gene expression, L-selectin protein abundance, and neutrophil functional activity did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups. Following the DEX challenge, OmniGen increased IL-8-Rβ gene expression (P = 0.02), L-selectin protein abundance (P = 0.03), neutrophil phagocytosis (P < 0.01) and oxidative burst activity (P < 0.01). No differences were observed (P > 0.05) between OGAF and OGPRO for L-selectin (gene expression and protein abundance), IL-8-Rβ (gene expression), nor for neutrophil functional activity before or after DEX. This study confirms OGAF and OGPRO have similar beneficial effects on preventing the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t81700 Watch M40 Low expression of sirtuin 1 in the dairy cows with mild fatty liver alters hepatic lipid metabolism. 11 Y. Li dairy cow SIRT1 fatty liver Y. Li1, H. Ding1, S. Feng1, J. Li1, X. Wang1, J. Wu1, Y. Liang2, J. J. Loor2 1Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, China, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL This study aimed to investigate the effect of hepatic steatosis on mRNA and protein abundance of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), along with the target mRNA and protein expressions and activities of related to lipid metabolism in liver tissue. Lactating Holstein multiparous cows (days postpartum 70 ± 12) of the same breed, age and having similar milk production characteristics and body condition scores were selected from a commercial dairy farm. Control cows (n = 6, parity 3.0 ± 2.0, milk production 28 ± 7 kg/d) and mild fatty liver cows (n = 6, parity 2.3 ± 1.5, milk production 20 ± 6 kg/d) were retrospectively selected based on liver triglycerides (TG) content (% wet liver)(control = 0.45, fatty liver = 7.65, 5–10 was considered as mild fatty liver) . Dairy cows were slaughtered for collecting liver tissue samples and processed as part of the normal work of a commercial abattoir. One-way ANOVA (with Dunnett’s post hoc test) and a 2-tailed Student’s t-test were performed by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) 17.0. Compared with the control group, fatty liver cows had greater concentrations of cholesterol and TG along with the typically vacuolated appearance and greater lipid droplets in the liver. Furthermore, fatty liver cows had greater mRNA and protein abundance related to hepatic lipid synthesis (SREBP-1c, ACSL, ACC and FAS) and lipid transport (L-FABP, ApoE, LDLR and MTTP) (P < 0.05). However, they had lower mRNA and protein abundance associated with fatty acid β-oxidation (SIRT1, PGC-1α, PPARα, RXRα, ACO, CPT1, CPT2 and LCAD) (P < 0.05). Besides, mRNA abundance and enzyme activity of Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Mn-SOD decreased and mRNA and protein abundance of Nrf1 and TFAM decreased (P < 0.05). Lower enzyme activities of SIRT1, PGC-1α, Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Mn-SOD (P < 0.05) and concentration of GSH (P < 0.05) were observed in fatty liver cows. Overall, data suggest that low SIRT1 expression associated with hepatic steatosis promotes hepatic fatty acid synthesis and inhibits fatty acid β-oxidation. Hence, SIRT1 might be a novel therapeutic target for coping with fatty liver in dairy cows.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82849 Watch M41 Validation of putative target genes of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) in bovine. 12 H. Ford NRF2 cow RT-qPCR H. Ford1, M. Bionaz1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Finding ways to ameliorate the oxidative stress experienced by high-producing dairy cattle in the periparturient period is one of the many challenges faced by researchers and producers focusing on dairy production. The nuclear receptor transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been studied in non-ruminant models and may be utilized in ruminants to reduce oxidative stress through the upregulation of genes associated with antioxidant defense and cell survival. This is extremely important in the mammary gland where heightened oxidative stress can cause cell death and reduce milk production. Despite this, research on NRF2 in ruminants is limited and there is a need to identify the genes affected by NRF2 modulation and the associated biological outcomes. In this study, the aim was to validate in bovine a set of 7 putative NRF2 target genes as established in monogastric animals. This was achieved by using a combination of 10 μM of the NRF2 agonist sulforaphane (SFN), 100 nM of the NRF2 antagonist brusatol (BRU), NRF2-translation inhibition via Morpholino, and an untreated control in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T). RNA was extracted for RT-qPCR. Genes upregulated by SFN were GSR, KEAP1, NFE2L2, GCLC and NQO1 while treatment with BRU resulted in significant downregulation of GSTM1 and NQO1, but upregulation of GCLC and NFE2L2. Furthermore, treatment of cells with Morpholino resulted in downregulation of GSTM1, GPX1, and NQO1 but upregulation of GCR, GCLC, and KEAP1. Data indicated that transcription of GSTM1 and GPX1 requires a basic activation of NRF2 but is not induced by it. Transcription of GCLC and NFE2L2 is partly controlled by NRF2 but the regulation is complex, likely involving other transcription factors. The data revealed that NQO1 is the only transcript among the ones tested that is tightly regulated by NRF2 (i.e., true NRF2 target). All the other putative NRF2 targets are likely controlled by additional transcription factors in bovine mammary cells. Our data highlighted the problem of using in ruminant target genes previously identified in monogastric animals and, thus, the need to identify reliable NRF2 targets in bovine.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t82944 Watch M42 Whole-transcriptome analysis of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) modulation in bovine mammary cells. 13 H. Ford NRF2 cow RNA-Seq H. Ford1, M. Bionaz1, S. Busato1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been well studied in non-ruminant models and has gained increased attention for its role as a potential target in promoting antioxidant defense and cell survival. The role of NRF2 in bovine and other ruminant models is not well studied. Given the extreme metabolic changes and associated oxidative stress encountered by dairy cattle as they transition from pregnancy to lactation, there is a clear need to better understand the role of NRF2 in ruminants. To accomplish this, MACT cells were treated with sulforaphane (SFN), a putative NRF2 activator, brusatol (BRU), a NRF2 inhibitor, and Morpholino (MOR), a synthetic oligonucleotide inhibitor of NRF2 translation. After 24h of treatment, both BRU and MOR decreased > 80% while SFN increased > 8-fold NRF2 activation as assessed via a gene reporter assay. RNA was extracted, prepared for sequencing using the QuantSeq kit (Lexogen), and sequenced using HighSeq 3500 (Illumina). The RNA-Seq data were normalized by RPM and statistically analyzed via ANOVA using JMP Genomics (SAS). Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG; FDR ≤ 0.05) compared with an untreated control was performed using DAVID and the Dynamic Impact Approach. The 943 DEG by BRU are associated with overall inhibition of metabolism, especially amino acid and energy metabolism. MOR had 421 DEG associated with activation of inflammatory and immune responses while inhibiting collagen and extracellular matrix. The 502 DEG by SFN are associated with induction of disulfide bonds, glycoproteins and selenoamino acid metabolism, but associated with inhibition of metabolism of other amino acids, ATPase activity, and intracellular trafficking. There were more DEG with opposite effects between BRU and SFN than MOR and SFN (151 vs. 48), indicating that BRU and SFN are modulating not only NRF2. Our study provided the first characterization of NRF2 role in bovine mammary cells highlighting a role of NRF2 that goes beyond the oxidative stress response.
Animal Health Posters 1 Transition Cow   Animal Health 6/22/2020 14:00 t81884 Watch M140 Plasma alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration is associated with key blood biomarkers and disease incidence during the transition period. 14 W. E. Brown acute-phase protein biomarker W. E. Brown1, M. Garcia1, L. K. Mamedova1, K. R. Christman1, M. G. Zenobi2, C. R. Staples2, B. M. Leno3, T. R. Overton3, B. K. Whitlock4, J. A. Daniel5, B. J. Bradford1,6 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 4University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 5Berry College, Mount Berry, GA, 6Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an anti-inflammatory acute-phase protein which is negatively associated with feed intake in postpartum dairy cows. Our objective was to determine associations between AGP and other biomarkers in transition dairy cows, and to evaluate the utility of AGP for predicting postpartum disease risk. Plasma samples (n = 2,086) from 434 Holstein cows in 6 studies were analyzed for AGP, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and haptoglobin on d −21, −12 ± 3, −3, 1, 3, 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, and 21 ± 1 relative to parturition. A model was constructed with linear and quadratic fixed effects of AGP, with random effects of treatment(study). Quadratic effects with P > 0.20 were removed. Nominal logistics were used to determine the association of AGP concentration with disease incidence using fixed effects of AGP and study. On d −12, AGP was quadratically associated with BHB (P = 0.02) and negatively associated with insulin (P = 0.04), and d −3 AGP was positively associated with d 21 FFA (P = 0.04). On d 3 and 7, AGP was positively associated with BHB on d 7 (P < 0.01). Haptoglobin and AGP were positively associated on d 3 (P < 0.001), d 7 (P < 0.001), and quadratically associated on d 14 (P = 0.02). On d −12, AGP was associated with postpartum incidence of retained placenta (RP; P = 0.05) and tended to be associated with milk fever (P = 0.06). Plasma AGP on d 3, d 7, and d 14 was highly associated with postpartum incidence of displaced abomasum (DA), RP, and metritis (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics for the association between AGP and postpartum DA incidence on d 3 (P = 0.02), d 7 (P < 0.001) and d 14 (P = 0.05) were excellent, with area under the curve of 0.99, 1.0, and 0.93, respectively. Plasma AGP on d 1 (P = 0.06) and d 3 (P = 0.09) tended to be associated with retention to 280 d in milk. Despite significant associations between AGP and postpartum disease, its utility for disease forecasting was less promising. Nevertheless, limited associations between AGP and metabolic biomarkers suggest it may serve as a unique predictive variable.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Cheese 6/22/2020 14:00 t81748 Watch M43 Evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation treatment on the compositional, textural, color, volatile profile, and microbiological quality of an artisanal hard-pressed cheese. 1 E. Raffrenato volatile profile ionizing radiation microbial safety F. Nyamakwere1, G. Esposito2,1, K. Dzama1, P. Gouws1, T. Rapisarda3, G. Belvedere3, E. Raffrenato2,1 1Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2RUM&N Consulting, Reggio Emilia, Italy, 3Consorzio per la Ricerca nel settore della Filiera Lattiero-Casearia e dell’agroalimentare, Ragusa, Italy Irradiation treatment can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food-borne pathogens on cheese, thus improving food safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of γ-irradiation against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, coliforms and aerobic colony counts (ACC). At the same time effects on cheese composition, texture, color and odor properties were evaluated. The cheeses were manufactured at 4 farms using raw milk under artisanal processing conditions and aged for 60 dd. Samples were of either 250 or 500 g. The Cobalt-60 γ-irradiator was used at a maximum dose of 5.0 kGy, dose rate of 1 kGy/h and source strength was 150 kCi. Cheese samples both before and after treatment were analyzed by the “SMart Nose” system, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. Data were analyzed with the irradiation treatment and sample weight as the main fixed factors. Moisture, pH, total nitrogen, fat in dry matter, water activity were reduced (P < 0.05) and salt and salt in moisture increased (P < 0.05) after the irradiation treatment. All values were within the acceptable range for hard cheese. Dose and treatment length altered water-holding capacity and some enzymatic and bacterial activities affecting the mentioned parameters. All color parameters (lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle) were decreased (P < 0.05) by the irradiation treatment. Hardness and chewiness values increased (P < 0.05), whereas, cohesiveness and springiness decreased (P < 0.05). The amounts of β-casein decreased (P < 0.05) after the treatment. SMart Nose on the principal component analysis and Odor Active Compounds showed differences (P < 0.05) between the non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The irradiation treatment caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of L. monocytogenes, E. coli, coliforms and ACC on the treated cheese samples. Results and the low cost suggest the potential use of the irradiation treatment as an affordable method to effectively control food pathogens for resource limited producers.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Cheese 6/22/2020 14:00 t81750 Watch M44 The viability of probiotics during ripening and storage in Pladolens: A new Russian semi-hard cheese. 2 S. Roohinejad Pladolens semi-hard cheese probiotics O. Musina1, E. Ott1, J. Allen2, S. Roohinejad2 1Siberian Research Institute of Cheese-Making, Federal Altai Scientific Centre of Agro-Bio Technologies, Barnaul, Russia, 2Tillamook County Creamery Association, Tillamook, OR Pladolens is a new Russian semi-hard cheese that is slightly sour and dense, elastic, homogeneous throughout the mass and has uneven holes with irregular slit-like shape. The mass fraction of moisture, salt, fat (dry matter) and pH are 44.0 ± 1.0%, 1.75 ± 0.25%, 45.0 ± 5.0%, and 5.3 ± 0.1, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacteria) in Pladolens during ripening (1 mo, T = 10 ± 2°C, relative humidity 85–90%) and storage (3 mo, T = 3 ± 3°C, relative humidity 80–85%). The cheese samples were produced using starter cultures in combination with 2 mixtures of probiotics including mixture 1: L. lactis ssp. lactis, L. lactis ssp. cremoris, L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuc. lactis or Leuc. mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, L. plantarum, B. longum and B. bifidum, and mixture 2: L. lactis ssp. lactis, L. lactis ssp. cremoris, L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis and Leuc. lactis or Leuc. mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, L. plantarum, and B. adolescentis. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were grown in Rogosa agar and TOS-MUP agar with subsequent incubation of 72 h, respectively. The smallest real difference (SRD) was used to determine the extent of measurement error with 8 replications. A large number of lactobacillus live cells were observed in the cheese samples inoculated with both types of cultures after 90 d. In the samples inoculated with the mixture 1, the number of bifidobacteria after the press and 90 d storage were 2.0 × 105 cfu/g and 8.9 × 104 cfu/g, respectively, while in the mixture 2, the number of bifidobacteria was in the range of 8.5 × 105 cfu/g after the press and 9.0 × 104 cfu/g after 90 d of storage. Although the survival rate of bifidobacteria in the cheese samples was higher than after the press, no significant differences were observed during ripening and storage (SRD <2.0, P > 0.05). The results demonstrated the high viability of lactobacillus and bifidobacteria in Pladolens during ripening and storage until the expiration date (3 mo).
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Cheese 6/22/2020 14:00 t81794 Watch M45 Manufacture of imitation Mozzarella cheese without emulsifying salts using acid curd and micellar casein concentrate. 3 A. R. A. Hammam micellar casein concentrate acid curd imitation mozzarella cheese A. R. A. Hammam1, L. E. Metzger1 1Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Imitation Mozzarella type cheese (IMC) is a dairy, partial or non-dairy food based on the source of protein and fat used in the formulation. IMC has the same basic principles of manufacture as process cheese (PC) and it is prepared by blending dairy ingredients and non-dairy ingredients with the aid of heat, shear, and emulsifying salts to produce a homogeneous product. Emulsifying salts are critical for the functional characteristics of IMC because they improve the emulsification characteristic of casein by displacing the calcium phosphate complexes that are present in the insoluble calcium-paracaseinate phosphate network in the casein containing ingredients. The objective of this study was to manufacture IMC using a combination of acid curd (AC) and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) that would provide the required emulsion capacity without the use of emulsifying salts. The formulations were targeted to produce IMC with 18.0% protein, 49.0% moisture, 20.0% fat, and 1.5% salt. In the IMC formulation, the AC was blended with MCC so that the formula contained a 2:1 ratio of protein from AC relative to MCC. Additional dairy and non-dairy ingredients (milk permeate, vegetable oil, and salt) were also utilized in the formulations. The IMC was prepared by mixing all ingredients in a kitchen aid to produce a homogeneous paste. Approximately 25 g of the mixture was cooked in the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) for 3 min at 95°C with a 1000 rpm stirring speed during the first 2 min and 160 rpm during the last min. The cooked IMC was then transferred into molds and refrigerated until further analysis. This trial was repeated 3 times using 3 different batches of AC. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected in the cooked viscosity (7500 cP), hardness (95.0 g), melting temperature (50.0°C), melting diameter (31.5 mm), and stretchability (12.3 cm) of IMC made from different AC and was similar to typical IMC produced with emulsifying salts. We conclude that IMC can be made with no emulsifying salts when the formulation utilizes a 2:1 ratio of protein from AC relative to MCC.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Chemistry 6/22/2020 14:00 t83163 Watch M46 Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of glycomacropeptide from whey protein isolate. 4 Y. Qu glycomacropeptide LC-MS/MS whey Y. Qu1, B. J. Kim1, D. Dallas1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR κ-Casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), a 64-amino-acid peptide, is released from κ-casein after rennet treatment and is one of the major peptides in whey protein isolate (WPI). GMP has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial actions. GMP has 2 major amino acid sequences and many different modifications including glycosylation, phosphorylation and oxidation, yet no previous work has provided a comprehensive profile of all the different distinct GMP forms present in whey. The full characterization of the composition and structure of GMP is important to help to understand the bioactivity of GMP. We therefore aimed to develop an analytical method to profile GMP and GMP peptide fragments in WPI using Orbitrap mass spectrometry combined with a nano-liquid chromatography (LC). A commercial WPI was dissolved in water and purified by C18-solid-phase extraction and characterized by a nano-LC/Orbitrap MS/MS under electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation mode. MS and MS/MS results were interpreted using Byos (Byonic and Byologic) processing and manual spectral inspection to verify structures. Forty-five distinct intact GMP forms were identified in the WPI. One intact GMP was without any modification, 5 intact GMP forms were glycosylated only, 4 were phosphorylated only, one was oxidized only, 3 were both phosphorylated and oxidized, 22 were for both glycosylated and phosphorylated and 8 were glycosylated, phosphorylated and oxidized. Four O-linked glycosylations (HexNAc1Hex1, HexNAc1Hex1NeuAc1, HexNAc1Hex1NeuAc1, HexNAc1Hex1NeuAc2) were present on the GMP. In addition to intact GMP, 186 distinct GMP-derived peptides were identified in the WPI, likely generated from partial hydrolysis during whey processing or storage. These glycopeptides were between 9 and 63 amino acid length. We have demonstrated the efficacy of this novel analytical approach to comprehensively profile the range of GMP and GMP-derived structures in whey protein isolates. Our comprehensive profile of all the different distinct GMP forms present in whey provides some fundamental information on determining how GMP is digested in human and understanding the bioactivity of GMP.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/22/2020 14:00 t81851 Watch M47 Effect of inulin on the microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of synbiotic yogurt. 5 D. G. Kamel probiotic yogurt inulin Bifidobacterium bifidum D. G. Kamel1 1Dairy Science Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Nowadays, there is an interest in adding probiotics and probiotics (synbiotic) to yogurt due to its health benefits. The objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of inulin (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%) on microbial and chemical characteristics of probiotic yogurt. The yogurt was manufactured with Lactobacillus delbruckii ssp. bulgaricus (Lb), Streptococcus thermophilus (St), and Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bb). Raw milk was received, pasteurized, and divided into 4 aliquots portions. All portions were inoculated with 1% Lb, 1% St, and 15% Bb. The first portion was utilized as control (T1) while 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% of inulin were added to the second (T2), third (T3), and fourth (T4) portions, respectively. All treatments were inoculated at 40°C until a pH of 4.6 was reached. Subsequently, the yogurt was cooled and stored at 4°C for 16 d. Titratable acidity, sensory evaluation, Bb count, and total bacterial count (TBC) were determined during the storage. This experiment was repeated 3 times using 3 different batches of raw milk. The results showed that the addition of inulin has no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the titratable acidity of the yogurt during the 16 d of storage. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the sensory evaluation of T1, T2, T3, and T4. The TBC increased (P < 0.05) over time in T1, while it was decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing the concentration of inulin in T2, T3, and T4. However, the addition of inulin increased (P < 0.05) the viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum during the storage. We conclude that inulin can be utilized in the manufacturing of synbiotic yogurt by incorporation with probiotic, which, in turn, enhances the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum and antimicrobial activity that decreased the TBC. The impact of inulin in the texture of probiotic yogurt during 16 d of storage will be evaluated in subsequent studies by determining the rheological characteristics.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/22/2020 14:00 t82313 Watch M48 Microbial degradation of FD&C Red No. 40 in strawberry-flavored milk. 6 C. Rush strawberry milk FD&C Red No. 40 shelf-life C. Rush1, J. Waite-Cusic1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Most high-temperature short-time (HTST) fluid milk processors declare their products are consumable 3 to 5 d after code date with minimal changes occurring in flavor and color. Flavored milks tend to display more significant quality defects near the end of shelf life which can negatively impact future purchase decisions. Most strawberry milk products include color additives, including FD&C Red No. 40 and/or red beet juice concentrate. The objective of this study was to observe the color degradation over shelf life in HTST strawberry-flavored milks dyed with FD&C Red No. 40 and to investigate a microbial cause for the color loss. Commercially available strawberry-flavored milks with FD&C Red No. 40 listed as a colorant (n = 2 brands, 3 separate lots) were obtained from local markets. At the code date, the milk was aseptically aliquoted into 50-mL conical tubes and stored at 7°C. Samples were analyzed daily for changes in pH, color, texture, and organoleptic properties (aroma). Once a defect was detected, the sample was spread plated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) and strawberry milk agar (standard methods agar with 10% vol/vol strawberry milk). Visual color degradation began one day post code date (2–4 log cfu/mL) displayed via white streaks on the surface of the sample. Seven days post code date (4–6 log cfu/mL) the samples with only FD&C Red No. 40 as the color agent were visually absent of the pink color (vibrant pink to opaque white) and samples with a secondary color agent had considerably reduced in color (vibrant pink to very light pink). Colonies were streaked on strawberry milk agar that contained FD&C Red No. 40 to select the color-degrading isolates. These isolates will undergo further sequencing to identify the species responsible for the degradation of FD&C Red No. 40 in strawberry-flavored milk.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/22/2020 14:00 t83058 Watch M49 Production and physico-chemical characterization of functional ice cream with whey and buttermilk powder. 7 A. F. Cruz dairy products functionality innovative product A. F. Cruz1, R. T. Pfrimer2, L. Damasceno2, D. S. Fernandes2, L. A. F. Silva1, E. S. Nicolau2, C. Gebara2 1School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, 2Food Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil Consumers have sought healthier foods, with less chemical substances, fat, and sugar content. Natural ingredients are attractive for ice cream production, especially when it reduces thickeners and stabilizers. The use of dairy coproducts, such as whey and buttermilk, as ingredients in the manufacture of food products, is already a worldwide reality. Its use on dairy foods giving a sustainable destination to these coproducts, valuing the environmental appeal. For ice cream production, whey and buttermilk powder can be used due to their high protein content, excellent technological and nutritional characteristics. This work aimed to develop and characterize ice creams produced with whey and buttermilk powder. Formulations were produced with concentrations of whey and buttermilk between 5 and 15%, concentration of milk/cream between 70 and 90%, 10% of sugar, and 1% of emulsifier. The ice cream mix was pasteurized for 70°C for 30 min, and then churn it with the ice cream machine for 80 min. After that, the ice creams were stored at −18°C. Physico-chemical characterization was done by official methods, and results were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey test (P < 0.05) for mean comparison. They presented pH between 6.24 and 6.50, acidity between 0.19 and 0.47 g acid lactic/100 g, moisture between 53.67 and 67.93%, ash between 0.92 and 1.69%; lipids between 8.94 and 9.89%, and lactose content between 7.85 and 18.09%. The results of colorimetry were lightness (L*) between 75.63 and 79.53, a* parameter between −0.80 and −1.73, b* parameter between +10.65 and +14.83. The formulation with higher contents of whey and buttermilk presented higher acidity, ash, lactose content, and trend to yellow color (+b*). The ice cream with a lower concentration of whey and buttermilk presented higher pH, moisture, lipids, lightness, and trend to green color (−a*). Ice cream production using whey and buttermilk is an innovative and viable alternative for the dairy industry, being able to bring technological benefits to the final product and benefits to the consumer's health.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/22/2020 14:00 t82646 Watch M50 Influence of protein content on acidity of fermented dairy beverages with buttermilk and gabiroba pulp (Campomanesia xanthocarpa). 8 L. Damasceno caseins cerrado fruit functional L. Damasceno1, R. T. Pfrimer1, C. F. Cardoso2, E. C. Nogueira3, E. S. Nicolau1, C. Gebara1 1Food Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiàs, Brazil, 2School of Agronomy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiàs, Brazil, 3School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiàs, Brazil, 4Maroca Dairy Industry, Piranhas, Goiàs, Brazil Milk is extremely nutritious and a complete food. The proteins, especially caseins, are one of the most important constituents to technological aspects and can directly influence the physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of fermented products. The aim of this work was to correlate the influence of protein content with variation in acidity of fermented dairy beverages with buttermilk and gabiroba pulp (Campomanesia xanthocarpa). They were formulated by designing simplex centroid mixtures with different levels of milk (40–56%), whey (0–44%), buttermilk (0–44%) and gabiroba pulp (10- 20%). The beverages were analyzed for acidity, proteins and protein fractions, after manufactured after that weekly for 84 d, using official methods. The results were calculated statistically by ANOVA and the media were compared using the Scott-Knott test (P < 0.05). The acidity of the formulations on the first day presented results between 0.34 to 0.56 (g / lactic / 100mL) and that beverages with a higher protein content (2.12 to 2.24%) and caseins (1.69 to 1.88%) had a higher concentration of milk and varied values of whey, milk and pulp in their composition, indicating that milk was the ingredient that determined the highest acidity and protein content. The interactions of mathematical models confirm this result through the prediction equations that demonstrated that the interactions of ingredients with milk were antagonistic, that is, they not influence the increase in acidity. The increase in acidity over 84 d (increasing from 0.46 to 0.56 g lactic acid / 100mL) demonstrates an occurrence of post-acidification. However, as suggested minor changes in the acidity part of the beverages due to the natural acidity of milk, attributed to caseins, despite being an acidic component, it acts as a buffering agent, controlling post-acidification. Thus, the higher milk concentration of the formulations determined high acidity values, however the proposed values remain the minimum levels due to the buffering effect of caseins.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Microbiology 6/22/2020 14:00 t83018 Watch M51 Comparing some genetic determinants associated with colonization of Listeria isolates within dairy plant environment. 9 N. Singh whole-genome sequencing biofilm Listeria N. Singh1,2, S. Anand1,2, J. Gonzalez2, B. Kraus3 1Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Brookings, SD, 2South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Wells Enterprises Inc, Le Mars, IA Listeria monocytogenes is a high-risk pathogen that can colonize and persist in dairy processing plants by forming resilient biofilms. While some strains are repeatedly isolated from a plant environment, others appear to be merely transitory. The current study investigates the genetic determinants that could be associated with the biofilm-forming ability of some environmental Listeria isolates. Three isolates from the dairy processing environment, L. monocytogenes, L innocua, and L. welshimeri were compared for biofilm-forming ability on dairy floors. Small sterile chips (1 × 1 cm2) of dairy bricks were submerged in sterile dairy effluents and held at 22.5°C for 48 h to form biofilms. Swab samples drawn at the end of incubation were plated on brain heart infusion agar to enumerate biofilm-embedded cells. Means were compared using ANOVA. Our results indicate variability in the biofilm-forming ability of the 3 isolates; L. monocytogenes (log cfu 2.50 ± 0.14/cm2), L. innocua (log cfu 2.72 ± 0.26 /cm2), and L. welshimeri (log cfu 3.32 ± 0.18/cm2). The 3 Listeria species were characterized using genetic determinants influencing colonization and biofilm formation. Genomes were assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench; resulting assemblies were used to identify MSLT types based on the Listeria monocytogenes type profile from PubMLST (pubmlst.org). Mapping each of the isolates to the Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e reference genome discovered 110,342 high-quality single nucleotide variants (hqSNVs). The presence of genes related to capsular glycan, cell wall/ capsular LTP, biotin biosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism associated with amino sugars such as chitin were correlated with the biofilm formation. Further studies in this regard would help us identify the genes associated with colonization, and serve as potential targets for novel approaches such as autoinduction interrupters for preventing or limiting Listeria adhesion.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Microbiology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82119 Watch M52 Fermentation kinetics of dairy-relevant sugars in acid whey conditions by Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, and Brettanomyces species. 10 V. K. Rivera Flores acid whey fermentation ethanol V. K. Rivera Flores1, T. A. DeMarsh1, S. D. Alcaine1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Acid whey (AW) from Greek yogurt is an underutilized by-product and a challenge for the dairy industry. One valued-added scheme is the fermentation of AW -with or without the addition of lactase- by yeast such as Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces and Kluyveromyces spp. to produce new styles of fermented beverages. Previous research in our group observed changes in fermentation performance with lactase addition. Therefore, this work aims to describe the fermentation kinetics of dairy-relevant sugars by S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus and B. claussenii in simulated AW conditions to study alcoholic fermentation as an alternative for AW’s reinsertion into the food supply chain. For this purpose, 4 preparations of yeast nitrogen base with amino acids with 40 g/L of lactose (LAC), glucose (GLU), galactose (GAL) or a 1:1 mixture of glucose and galactose (GLU+GAL), with a final pH of 4.20, were used as fermentation media. Each medium was inoculated with S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus or B. claussenii to achieve an initial concentration of 4 × 106 cfu/mL in 500 mL and incubated at 25°C under anaerobic conditions, while density, pH, cell count, ethanol and organic acids were monitored. Statistical analysis was done using Tukey’s HSD test. Results indicated that K. marxianus had a similar or better performance compared with S. cerevisiae, whereas B. claussenii sugar consumption rate was substantially lower. In particular, densities showed that there is no significant difference in the time that K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae need for the complete depletion of GLU (2 d, P > 0.05) and GAL (3 d, P > 0.05), and that GLU+GAL consumption was significantly faster in the presence of K. marxianus (3 d, P < 0.05). On the other hand, B. claussenii exhibited significant differences in sugar utilization while in LAC vs GLU+GAL, not completing the fermentation for the latter (P < 0.05); a phenomenon that will be explored further. These results provide a deeper understanding of dairy sugar utilization by relevant yeast, allowing for future work to optimize fermentations to improve valued-added beverage and ingredient production from AW.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Microbiology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82676 Watch M53 Preliminary studies on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of nonfat dry milk based on spore counts. 11 C. Qian Bacillus endospores classification models dipicolinic acid C. Qian1, D. Vega1, K. Bonilla1, R. Phebus1, J. Amamcharla1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Nonfat dry milk (NDM) is a popular ingredient in a wide range of shelf-stable food products. However, high spore containing NDM can lead to ropiness and introduce unwanted lipase and protease activity. The thermophilic and mesophilic spores can enter into raw milk through the cow, feed, and beddings at the farm level. Further, spore counts can increase during the manufacture of NDM due to the concentration factor as well as contamination from the matured biofilms formed on the equipment. Therefore, the spore count is a critical quality indicator to be monitored during production. Previous research suggests that dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present in the core of endospore and can be used as a fluorophore of interest for rapid detection of spores. This objective of this study was to use DPA fluorescence spectra and chemometrics to develop classification models based on the spore levels. Commercial NDM samples (n = 40) were procured within the United States. The reference spore counts (cfu/g of NDM) were obtained by heating reconstituted NDM (10%) at 100°C for 30 min, plated on Tryptic Soy Agar, and incubated at 55°C for 48 h. To release all available DPA and to remove interferents, the reconstituted NDM (10%) was autoclaved at 121°C for 30 min followed by acidification and centrifugation. The terbium chloride was added to the supernatant buffered to pH 5.6 to enhance the DPA fluorescence signal. Emission spectra of terbium DPA complex were collected between 450 and 650 nm fixed at the excitation of 270 nm. Classification models were developed using partial least square quadratic discriminant analysis (PLS-QDA), forward selection quadratic discriminant analysis (FS-QDA), and random forest (RF). It was found that random forest provided the highest mean classification accuracy of 87% while FS-QDA and PLS-QDA showed the mean accuracy at 84% and 83%, respectively (validated using bootstrapping technique). The results suggest the potential of using fluorescence spectroscopy to classify the NDM based on spore counts.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Microbiology 6/22/2020 14:00 t83170 Watch M54 Low-level microbial contaminants in whey multiply rapidly on food contact surfaces under production conditions. 12 B. Selover biofilm whey microbiology B. Selover1, J. Waite-Cusic1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR As the time between sanitation events increases, bacteria can attach and grow on equipment and surfaces potentially developing biofilms that could impact dairy product quality. Prudent sanitation schedules should be implemented to mitigate biofilm development; however, scientific evidence is lacking to inform these decisions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential for naturally low levels of non-starter bacteria in Cheddar cheese whey to attach and develop biofilms on representative surfaces within the length of a typical production day (18 h). Whey was collected after cutting Cheddar cheese curds during normal production activities at the Oregon State University Creamery. Whey was rapidly cooled and held at 4°C until use. The whey was preheated to 35°C and pumped (1.1 L/h) through a lab-scale CDC bioreactor containing polypropylene and stainless steel coupons. Bulk whey from the bioreactor was sampled at 0, 12, 15, and 18 h and enumerated for starter lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. Coupons of each material were removed at 12, 15, and 18 h and analyzed for bacterial attachment and growth using standard enumeration methods and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experiment was replicated 3 times. Non-starter bacteria increased in whey from 1.8 Log cfu/mL to 6.4 Log cfu/mL in 18 h, while starter bacteria remained constant at 7.6 Log cfu/mL. After 18 h, coliform levels on coupons increased to 6.4 Log cfu/cm2, whereas Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas counts each increased to 4.9 Log cfu/cm2. Whey pH was effectively maintained at 5.9–6.4 throughout the experiment. Bacterial attachment occurred at about the same rate on both materials after 18 h. SEM showed even distribution of attached bacteria on stainless steel, whereas polypropylene harbored biofilms only in manufacturing defects (cracks, crevasses). These results demonstrate that naturally low levels of bacterial contamination in whey can lead to significant bacterial growth on manufacturing surfaces within an 18 h production shift. These findings can inform sanitation schedules for cheese and other dairy manufacturers.
Dairy Foods Posters 1   Dairy Foods: Processing 6/22/2020 14:00 t83146 Watch M55 The effect of whey protein hydrolysate as a binder on the physical characteristics of agglomerated whey protein isolate. 13 B. Zaitoun agglomeration whey physical characteristics B. Zaitoun1, J. Amamcharla1, K. Siliveru1, A. Suprabha Raj1, N. Palmer2 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Glanbia Nutritionals, Twin Falls, ID Wet agglomeration involves spraying a liquid binder on the powder in a fluidized bed chamber causing adhesion of wet particles due to viscous bridges between the particles. These bridges are then consolidated by the continuous supply of hot air to form agglomerated particles. The agglomerates have a porous structure and consequently improve dissolution rate and decrease apparent bulk density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) as a liquid binder on the physical properties of the agglomerated whey protein isolate (WPI). Three lots of WPH were obtained from a commercial manufacturer. A Top-Spray fluid bed granulator (Midi-Glatt, Germany) was used. The experiment was conducted in triplicate based on a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design with pre-wet mass (60, 100, and 140 g), WPH concentration (15, 20, and 25%), and flow rate (11 and 16 rpm). The nozzle pressure, fluid bed pressure and fluid bed temperature were set at 0.65 bar, 0.45 bar, and 60°C, respectively. Agglomerated WPI samples were stored at 25°C and analyzed for particle size and shape, bulk density, and tapped density. The size and shape characteristics of agglomerates were evaluated using Morphology G3-ID (Malvern Instruments Ltd., UK). The mean circle equivalent diameter (CED), circularity, elongation, and convexity were 15.18 µm, 0.74, 0.273 and 0.95, respectively. No significant differences were observed for the CED and convexity (P > 0.05) for the main effects. The WPH concentration, pre-wet, and flow rate significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the elongation of the WPI agglomerates. Bulk densities of agglomerates were between 0.22 and 0.31 g/cm3. Pre-wet mass significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the bulk density of the particles. This might be due to the differences in the formation and breakage of the agglomerates. Tapped densities for the agglomerated samples were between 0.29 and 0.40 g/cm3 and no significant difference was observed (P > 0.05) between the main effects. Overall, pre-wet mass had the major effect on the agglomerates physical properties followed by the flow rate and the WPH concentration.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t83040 Watch M56 Effects of a natural herbal extract on colostrum apparent efficiency of absorption and vigor of neonatal dairy calves. 1 M. E. Reis dystocia supplement vitality M. E. Reis2,1, M. C. Cantor1, C. M. M. Bittar2, J. H. C. Costa1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil Calves can experience poor vigor after birth. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if vigor can be improved by providing a natural herbal extract (extract). The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a natural herbal extract on apparent colostrum absorption efficiency and vigor in neonatal dairy calves. Holstein dairy calves (n = 22) were randomly enrolled to receive either a negative control (15 mL of distilled water) or one 15-mL oral dose of extract (CalfPerk, TechMix, Stewart, MN, USA) 3 h after birth. Cows were watched on live camera to determine delivery time, dystocia score and to ensure no colostrum was sucked from the dam. At 1.5 h after birth, a total vigor score was assigned, combining heart rate, oxygenation rate, response to nasal stimuli and suckle reflex. Afterward, calves were removed from maternity pen, weighed, and placed into an individual pen (3 × 3 m). Blood samples were collected at 2.5, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and additional vigor scores were collected at 2.5 h, 3.75 h, before tube feeding colostrum replacer (Premolac Plus IgG, Zinpro, Chilton, WI) to calves at 4 h after birth. Calves were vigor scored once daily until 4 d of age. Baseline blood BRIX and vigor at 1.5 h before colostrum were not different between treatments; [placebo 7.32 ± 0.38% BRIX and extract 7.32 ± 0.40% BRIX (mean ± sd); P > 0.10]. Total vigor score 15 min before colostrum replacer was not different (P > 0.10) between treatments with a mean for placebo of 4.18 ± 1.40 and for extract of 4.18 ± 1.47. Linear models evaluated the effect of the extract on BRIX with time as a repeated measure, calf as subject, and birthdate as random effect. A logistic model evaluated the odds of extract improving a calf’s vigor score from 1 to 3 d of life (vigor score was categorized as 0–3 poor, 4–5 average, and 6–8 strong). The natural extract was not associated with a change in BRIX (placebo 7.77 ± 0.10%, extract 7.72 ± 0.10% BRIX; LSM ± SEM). Similarly, there was no significant effect of extract on improving vigor likelihood (OR 1.73: 95% CI: 0.66–4.60; P = 0.27). Preliminary results suggest the extract does not affect passive transfer BRIX. Future research in this study will examine the herbal extract’s impact on behavior, and vitality in young calves.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t81846 Watch M57 Weekly body weight change in wild-type and slick-haired Puerto Rican Holstein calves during the first eight weeks of life. 2 I. Colón-Rodríguez dairy calves slick-haired Holstein calves body weight I. Colón-Rodríguez1, K. I. Domenech-Pérez1, H. L. Sánchez-Rodríguez1 1University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Previous studies have reported different growth trends and mature body dimensions between wild-type (WT) and slick-haired (SL) Puerto Rican Holsteins heifers and cows, respectively. However, these comparisons were carried out with animals older than 3 mo of age and, to the authors’ knowledge, no data exists comparing younger animals. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the weekly BW recordings between WT (n = 10) and SL (n = 10) Puerto Rican female Holstein calves at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Lajas, Puerto Rico. From August 30 to November 28, 2019 20 female calves were recruited at birth in WT/SL pairs. Sires were evenly distributed between hair coat groups. The BW of each calf was recorded weekly, every Thursday afternoon during the first 8 weeks of life. During the first sampling the WT and SL groups were on average 4.75 ± 1.39 and 4.56 ± 2.19 d old, respectively. Calves were weaned at 45 d of age and maintained in the same individual cages until the end of the study. Data were analyzed by the GLIMMIX and REG procedures of SAS. There was no interaction between hair coat type and age affecting the calves’ BW (P = 0.6867). No differences (P = 0.2831) were observed for BW between WT and SL calves with 44.58 ± 8.15 and 45.58 ± 8.35kg on average, respectively. However, age affected both groups BW (P < 0.0001). From 1 to 8 weeks of age BW increased at a linear rate in both the WT (BW = 3.31age + 29.02; R2 = 0.84; P < 0.0001) and the SL calves (BW = 3.32age + 30.45; R2 = 0.83; P < 0.0001). In the present study no differences in growth rates were observed between hair coat groups during the first 8 weeks of life. Future studies should be directed at evaluating the complete growth curve for both phenotypes.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82200 Watch M58 The impact of early life events on future reproductive and milk production performance in Holstein dairy heifers. 3 T. S. Steckler pre-weaning reproduction milk production T. S. Steckler1, J. P. Boerman1 1Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of pre-weaning events on heifer conception rate and 1st lactation milk production of calves raised in automatic calf feeders. Daily milk consumption (MC), 400 d predicted BW, average daily gain (ADG), heifer conception rate (CR), and 280 d 1st lactation milk production (280M) were collected between Oct. 1, 2015 to Jan. 31, 2020. Calves (n = 9,099) were fed milk replacer through an automated calf feeding system (feeders = 8) for 60 d (range: 48 – 126d), and fed whole pasteurized nonsalable milk of 5% F and 30% P enhancer added at 20 g per L of milk. Calves were weighed at birth and several other time periods before calving. Daily BW predictions were calculated for individual animals using 3rd order orthogonal polynomials and 400 d (421.0 ± 34.1 kg; mean ± SD) weights were used for this model. ADG was calculated based on predicted BW between 0 and 60 d and 0–400 d. Cumulative 60 d MC was 508.1 ± 67.3 L; range of 179.9–785.1 L. Average age at conception was 437.5 ± 45.0 d; range of 308 to 631 d (n = 5,193), and average 280M was 9,305 ± 1,371.8 kg; range of 712–13,358 kg (n = 2,508). ADG from 0 to 400 d was weakly negatively correlated with conception age (r = - 0.18; P < 0.0001); calves with higher ADG conceived earlier than calves with lower ADG. Cumulative 60 d MC was weakly negatively correlated with conception age (r = −0.10; P < 0.0001), with a 156 L reduction in MC pre-weaning leading to an 11.6 d decrease in heifer CR. Pre-weaning ADG (0–60 d) was weakly positively correlated with 280M (r = 0.08; P < 0.0001). Calves with a 60 d ADG of 0.90 ± 0.07 kg (bottom 25%) produced on average 234 kg less milk than calves with an ADG of 1.20 ± 0.06 kg (top 25%). Genetic milk also influenced 280M (R2 = 0.24, P < 0.0001). There was an 1,853.4 kg difference between calves in the top and bottom 25% of genomic milk index. Heifers with higher pre-weaning ADG, increased milk consumption, and higher genomic milk indexes have reproductive and milk production advantages through their 1st lactation.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82148 Watch M59 Evaluating physically effective fiber from hay in the diet of 2- to 4-month-old Holstein calves. 4 K. Aragona calf weaned hay particle size K. Aragona1, T. Dennis1, F. Suarez1, T. Hill1, J. Quigley1 1Provimi North America, Brookville, OH Previous research from our group indicates during the weaning transition, fiber is poorly digested. However, we have also observed limited hay inclusion optimized post-weaning growth of calves. Little is understood about the role roughage particle size plays in the diet. The objective was to evaluate the effects of hay particle size on growth, intake and digestibility in weaned calves from 2 - 4 mo of age. Male Holstein calves (n = 98; 78 ± 9.1 kg initial BW; 2 blocks of calves) were housed in groups (4 - 5 steers/pen, 6 pens/treatment). The trial was conducted December to April. All treatments were fed the same textured calf starter (CS) that contained 37% whole corn, 35% protein supplement pellet, 25% whole oats and 3% liquid molasses (as-fed basis basis) blended with: 1) no hay (NOH); 2) 5% pelleted hay (PH); 3) 5% short (≤2.5 cm) particle length hay (SH) or 4) 5% long (~12.5 cm) particle length hay (LH). Pen was the experimental unit. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures when appropriate. Pre-planned contrasts of NOH vs. any hay, PH vs. SH, PH vs. LH, and SH vs. LH were evaluated. Calf BW, hip width and BCS were recorded at 0, 28 and 56 d and hip height at 0 and 56 d. Digestibility estimates were evaluated on d 28 using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Hip width change (5.0 vs. 4.7 cm; P = 0.04) and hip height change (14.0 vs. 12.3 cm; P < 0.01) were greater for calves fed any hay compared with calves fed NOH. No differences were observed in ADG when comparing NOH vs. any hay (1.12 vs. 1.14 kg/d; P = 0.69). Calves fed PH had greater ADG than calves fed LH (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d; P = 0.03). Intake (DM as %BW) was 3.0, 3.2, 3.0, and 2.8 for NOH, PH, SH, and LH, respectively, with PH greater than SH and LH (P < 0.05) suggesting bulkiness of the hay can limit intake and increase gut fill in young calves. Digestibility of acid (43.6 vs. 34.2%; P = 0.01) and neutral detergent fiber (51.3 vs. 43.3%; P < 0.01) were greater for calves fed any hay vs. NOH, respectively. Small amounts of processed hay should be included in the diet of weaned calves 2 - 4 mo of age, but particle length may limit DM intake.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82186 Watch M60 Effects of milk replacer plane of nutrition and levels of starch and neutral detergent fiber in pelleted starter on calf growth performance and visceral tissue measurements. 5 T. T. Yohe dairy calf nutrition gut development T. T. Yohe1, T. S. Dennis2, J. D. Quigley2, T. M. Hill2, F. X. Suarez-Mena2, K. M. Aragona2, M. A. Steele1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Provimi, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Brookville, OH The objectives of this study were to investigate how plane of milk replacer (MR) and feeding differing levels of starch and NDF in the starter alters visceral tissue and overall growth of the calf. The 4 dietary treatments (n = 12 per treatment) were: 691 g MR/day (dry matter basis; DM) with starter containing low or high starch (LL:12.0% and LH:35.6% starch, respectively) and 1,382 g MR/day (DM) with starter containing low or high starch (HL and HH, respectively). All calves were in individual pens with straw bedding until wk 5 when bedding was covered. Calves were fed MR twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) containing 24.5% CP (DM), 19.8% fat (DM), and had ad libitum access to pelleted starter and water. Calves arrived between 1 and 3 d of age and the study lasted 8 wk with calves undergoing step-down weaning during wk 7. Intakes were measured daily, BW were measured weekly, and calves were dissected in wk 8 for visceral tissue measurements. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.4 with the fixed effects of treatment, wk, and their interaction, and random effect of calf nested within treatment. There were treatment differences between average daily gain and starter DMI during wk 7 and 8 (Table 1). There were also treatment differences in full and empty rumen mass as percent BW at dissection (Table 1), but all other gastrointestinal measurements did not differ between treatments. These results indicate altering MR amount and starch content in pelleted starter affects ADG, starter intake and subsequently rumen growth and capacity in dairy calves around weaning. Table 1. Growth and intake during wk 7 (step-down weaning) and 8 and rumen measurements at dissection
Item Treatment SEM
LL LH HL HH
ADG, kg/d          
 Wk 7 0.13ab 0.32a −0.06ab −0.27b 0.11
 Wk 8 0.97a 0.64ab 0.37ab 0.24b 0.13
Starter DMI, kg/d          
 Wk 7 0.83a 0.72ab 0.26ab 0.30b 0.10
 Wk 8 1.80a 1.61ab 1.08b 1.06b 0.10
Rumen mass, % of BW          
 Full 9.92a 7.69b 7.83b 5.54c 0.50
 Empty 2.15a 1.74b 1.62b 1.40b 0.09
a–cMeans within a row with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82565 Watch M61 Effects of transition milk on postnatal growth and health of neonatal calves. 6 B. Van Soest calf transition milk development B. Van Soest1, M. Weber Nielsen1, J. Laguna1, Z. Zhou1, A. Abuelo Sebio1, M. VandeHaar1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Transition milk (milk from the 2nd through 4th milkings after calving) supplies additional nutrients and immunoglobulins to the calf compared with milk replacer. Our objective was to determine if feeding TM would stimulate body growth and health. Newborn calves (n = 23) received 2.8 L of colostrum before random assignment to 1 of 2 treatments (Milk Replacer, MR or Transition Milk, TM) fed 3 times per day. TM was pooled by milking number (30.3% fat (DM), 39.2% protein (DM), and 20.22 g IgG/L) and fed 1.89 L (255 g DM) per feeding as followed: milking 2 at feedings 2 to 5, milking 3 at feedings 6 to 8, and milking 4 at feedings 9 to 12 while MR calves received 275 g DM milk replacer (20.6% fat and 26.6% protein) at all 12 feedings. Health measures were scored 0 to 3 at each feeding. Body weights, growth measures, and blood samples were taken d 1, 2, 3, and 5. Both treatments had refusals of 10%. All calves had successful passive transfer of immunity with serum IgG values over 10.0 mg/mL. With the additional 0.7 Mcal ME/d, TM grew more than twice as fast at 0.64 kg/d compared with MR 0.25 kg/d (P = 0.005). TM tended to increase growth in heart girth and hip height (1.12 cm vs. 2.77 cm P = 0.07, and 0.15 cm vs. 1.45 cm P = 0.09). Withers height was not affected. Health scores were reduced for cough (P = 0.05), fecal (P = 0.006), nose (P = 0.05), and ear (P = 0.02) in TM calves compared with MR, with no difference observed in eye score. Blood neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytic capacity was elevated in MR compared with TM (35.62% of cells vs 12.91% of cells P = 0.04; 57.64% of cells vs 48.39%, P = 0.05 of cells respectively). In the ileum, TM increased the number of T cells/mm of the epithelium, while no differences were seen in T cells/mm2 of lamina propria or B cells/mm2 of the Peyer’s patches. Treatment did not affect serum IgG or total serum protein throughout the 5-d period. Feeding TM for the first 12 feedings after colostrum improved both overall growth and health in the first 5 d of life.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82265 Watch M62 Corn processing increases starch digestibility but does not improve performance or other digestibility estimates in weaned dairy calves. 7 T. S. Dennis weaned calf corn processing digestibility T. S. Dennis1, F. X. Suarez-Mena1, K. M. Aragona1, T. M. Hill1, J. D. Quigley1 1Nurture Research Center, Provimi, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Brookville, OH Previous studies in our group have observed small reductions in starch digestibility (2 to 5% units) about 1 to 4 wk after weaning when feeding whole corn (WC) vs. steam-flaked corn or a high starch complete pellet (Quigley et al., 2019; van Niekerk et al., 2020). However, we did not see overall improvements in growth as a result of increased starch digestibility which may be due to reductions in intake often seen with greater starch availability. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate performance and diet digestibility of calves fed WC from 8 to 16 wk of age compared with calves switched to processed corn at 12 wk of age. Holstein steers (n = 48) initially 58 to 60 d of age and 77.4 ± 7.6 kg BW were housed in groups (4 steers/pen) with 2 treatments randomly assigned to pens (6 pens/treatment). Treatments were a textured grower feed with WC fed for 8 wk (WCT) or WCT fed for 4 wk then switched to cracked corn for the remaining 4 wk (CCT). Grower formulas were 42% corn, 30% protein supplement, 25% whole oats, and 3% molasses (as-fed basis) with 20% CP and 43% starch (DM basis). Feeds were blended with chopped grass hay in a 95:5 ratio (as-fed basis) and offered ab libitum. Calf BW, hip widths, and BCS were recorded at 8, 12, and 16 wk of age and hip height was recorded at 8 and 16 wk of age. Digestibility estimates were evaluated at 9, 13, and 15 wk of age (before, 1 wk after, and 3 wk after diet change, respectively) using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Pen was the experimental unit. No differences were observed for ADG, DM intake, feed efficiency, or frame growth overall or by 4 wk period. Digestibility estimates for fat were lower at wk 13 (72.8 vs. 59.6%; P = 0.024) and estimates for starch tended to be greater at wk 15 (89.7 vs. 92.8%; P = 0.052) for CCT. No other digestibility estimates differed. In summary, increased corn processing did not improve performance in weaned calves up to 16 wk of age despite improvements in starch digestibility 3 wk after a diet change.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82269 Watch M63 Impact of phase feeding Holstein calves in winter on growth and feed efficiency. 8 T. S. Dennis milk replacer fat feeding rate T. S. Dennis1, F. X. Suarez-Mena1, K. M. Aragona1, T. M. Hill1, J. D. Quigley1 1Nurture Research Center, Provimi, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Brookville, OH Calves require additional energy during the first 3 wk of life when ambient temperatures are low. Increasing total solids offered or increasing energy density in liquid feed can increase energy intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate feeding more milk replacer (MR) compared with feeding higher fat MR to achieve similar energy intakes in the first 3 wk of life during winter. Male Holstein calves (n = 98; 42.4 ± 4.7 kg initial BW; 2 to 3 d of age) were received in 2 blocks. Treatments were assigned to calves by BW at arrival and serum total protein. Treatments were: 681 g/d of 24% CP, 17% fat (as-fed basis) MR for 42 d (CON); 816 g/d of 24% CP, 17% fat MR for 21 d, then reduced to 681 g/d until 42 d (HIMR); or 681 g/d of 24% CP, 34% fat for 21 d, then switched to 681 g/d of 24% CP, 17% MR until 42 d (HIFAT). All calves were weaned by reducing MR by half from d 43 to 49. Calves were individually-housed in a barn with natural ventilation, straw bedding, and no added heat. Calf BW, hip width, hip height, and BCS were measured weekly. Temperatures were below 10°C for > 14 of the 21 d treatment period in both blocks. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures, block as a random effect, and calf as experimental unit. Overall ADG, starter intake, and frame growth were similar among treatments. Calves fed HIMR and HIFAT had greater feed efficiency overall compared with CON. A treatment × time effect for ADG (P = 0.02), starter intake (P < 0.01), feed efficiency (P = 0.05), and medical treatments (P = 0.09) was observed. Calves fed HIMR gained more BW and were more efficient compared with CON and HIFAT in wk 1, and HIMR and HIFAT gained more BW and were more efficient than CON in wk 2. Starter intake was greater for CON vs. HIMR and HIFAT at wk 6 and 7. Calves fed HIMR and HIFAT had a greater number of medical treatments in wk 1 (6.1 and 5.4 vs. 1.4) compared with CON and HIMR had a greater number of treatments in wk 2 (3.4 vs. 0.9) compared with CON. Feeding more MR vs. higher fat MR appears to be a more efficient method to increase growth rates early in winter, though overall performance was similar at 8 wk of age.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82311 Watch M64 Carcass characteristic of dairy bull calves fed different energy sources. 9 E. R. Q. Vieira alternative feed concentrate ruminant E. R. Q. Vieira1, D. O. Cutrim2, F. G. F. Castro3, J. N. M. Neiva1, H. P. S. L. Rocha4, R. A. Oliveira1 1Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil, 2Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Pedro Afonso, Tocantins, Brazil, 3Agrocria Animal Nutrition and Seeds, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, 4Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil The objective of this study was to evaluate different energy sources on quantitative carcass characteristics of confined dairy bull calves. Twenty-five, 2 mo old, Holstein x Zebu crossbred bull calves (mean BW 55.12 ± 2.2 kg) were slaughtered at 10 mo of age. Four experimental diets were used, a corn diet(whole grain corn plus pellet core), babassu mesocarp meal (BMM) diet (corn diet with 100.0 g/kg of BMM) millet diet (corn diet including 316.8 g/kg millet) and sorghum diet (corn diet including 316.8 g/kg whole grain sorghum). The animals were housed in individual pens and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The BMM diet provided lower (P < 0.05) consumption of DM, CP, NFC than the other diets, which did not differ from each other. The animals fed with the corn and sorghum diets had greater (P < 0.05) empty BW, and hot and cold carcass weights in relation to those fed the BMM diet, while the calves fed the millet diet did not differ in relation to the others. The animals fed with the millet diet showed lower (P < 0.05) hot carcass yield (50.2 kg/100 kg BW) and cold carcass yield (48.5kg/100 kg BW) compared with those submitted to the others diets. The content of the gastrointestinal tract was higher (P < 0.001) for those who received the diet containing millet and sorghum in relation to the diet containing BMM, while those fed the corn diet did not differ from the others. The inclusion of millet or sorghum in the form of whole grain as a source of starch in the diet for ruminants, provides carcass characteristics of the animals similar to the whole grain corn diet. The inclusion of BMM in an exclusive diet of whole grain corn reduces the development of animals and produces lighter and smaller carcasses.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82668 Watch M65 Health status blood parameters in northern Italian Holstein growing calves. 10 D. Cavallini Holstein calves blood parameters health markers M. Pollesel1, D. Cavallini1, A. Martini1, P. Parazza1, M. Dall'Olio1, S. Marchetti1, A. Formigoni1, M. Tassinari1 1Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, Italy The wellbeing of growing Holstein female calves is a crucial point in dairy farms. Set up a normal blood parameters list could be important to check young herd health. The objective of this study was to investigate in growing female Holstein calves (fHc, 7–77d of life) major blood indicators of health status and their variation during this period. Nine health fHc (7 ± 2 d of life) kept at the same conditions (individual box, winter-spring period, north Italy, Grana Padano cheese production area), were enrolled and sampled at d 7, 42, 63 (weaning time) and 77. Performance parameters and blood indicators were analyzed. Dry TMR (15CP, 2EE, 28NDF, 27starch, %) and pasteurized milk (3.6fat, 3.2prot, 5lact, %; 6L/h/d) were used for feeding. A mixed model was performed to evaluate all the parameters at the time point sampled with each fHc as the experimental unit. Results showed as ADG was 600g and ave. daily TMR intake was 700g af overall the study. Table 1 shows the most relevant parameters as LSM 95% range of variability during the period sampled (7–77 d of life). In our study, we provided a list of parameters, a range of normality to help veterinarians and farmers to interpret common analysis and suggested values of health status for fHc fed daily dry TMR and 6kg/d of pasteurized milk. Table 1. Most common parameters evaluated in young calves (7–77 d of life range of normality)
Parameter LSM 95% range
Hematocrit (%) 27–38
Erythrocytes (cells/µm3) 8.2 × 103–11.3 × 103
Leukocytes (cells/µm3) 6.9–12.2
Platelets (cells/µm3) 0.4 × 103–0.9 × 103
ALP (U/L) 160–440
BOHB (mmol/L) 0–0.4
Glucose (mg/dL) 70–130
Total proteins (g/dL) 5.5–7.0
Albumins (g/dL) 2.7–3.7
Globulins (g/dL) 2.4–4.5
Ca (mg/dL) 10.3–11.6
Na (mEq/L) 136–142
K (mEq/L) 4.3–5.9
Cl (mEq/L) 94–101
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82662 Watch M66 Evaluation of Lifeline Protect at arrival and bovine or porcine NutraPro formulated into a traditional milk program under California feeding and housing conditions during the summer season on calf growth, morbidity, and mortality. 11 M. Fringer calves spray-dried plasma calf health M. Fringer1, J. M. Campbell2, S. Williamson1, K. S. Thompson1 1California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, 2APC Inc, Ankeny, IA Past studies have evaluated spray-dried bovine plasma in calves demonstrating improved growth and survival as well as reduced fecal scores and medical treatments. Minimal research has been performed using Lifeline Protect (colostrum supplement) or bovine/porcine NutraPro (spray-dried plasma) in a California rearing program during the summer in CA. The objective was to evaluate Lifeline Protect (LP) at calf arrival and NutraPro added to the milk program during California summer heat stress and document calf growth, morbidity and mortality. Calves were fed a mixture of whole milk and milk replacer fortified to 14% solids in a step-down milk program so that by day-56 calves were completely weaned off the bottle. Holstein bull calves (n = 90) were sourced from 12 different central valley dairies and transported to Fresno State University campus on June 2019. Calves were randomized to 1 of 3 feeding treatment groups based on their serum total protein level, BW and dairy origin and they were housed in wooden, California style calf hutches. The 3 feeding groups (n = 30/group) were control, porcine NutraPro (NP), and bovine NutraPro (NB). The control group d 1 first feeding was whole milk and milk replacer mix at 14% solids. For both NutraPro groups, LP was used for the first feeding then whole milk mixed with added milk replacer and either 5% NP or 5% NB to 14% finals solids. Electrolytes were given based on an as needed basis to calves that showed dehydration. Daily health and fecal scores were recorded during the AM and PM feeding. No significant differences were noted between porcine or bovine plasma in performance, morbidity, and mortality of calves. No differences were observed in calf survival between all treatments. On d 56, calf BW (75.9, 75.3, and 74.7 kg) was numerically heavier for NB and NP compared with control, respectively. Attitude and fecal scores throughout the 56 d period were reduced (P < 0.05) in calves fed NB or NP compared with control calves.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82982 Watch M67 Effects of feeding whole milk, waste milk and pasteurized waste milk on dairy bull calf performance. 12 J. P. Campolina antimicrobial residue body measurements weighing S. F. Vieira1, H. C. Diniz Neto1, J. P. Campolina1, S. G. Coelho1, M. M. Campos2 1Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, EMBRAPA), National Center for Research on Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using whole milk (WH-M), waste milk (WA-M) and pasteurized waste milk (PW-M) on the performance of dairy bull calves. Forty-five crossbred male calves (Holstein-Gir) were used with mean birth weight of 37.67 ± 5.85 kg. Immediately after birth, calves were separated from their mothers, had their navel immersed on iodine (10%), and received 10% of their BW in colostrum (minimum 25 BRIX). In the first 3 d of life, they received transitional milk. On the fourth day, they were distributed in 3 treatments: LI control (n = 15); LD (n = 15) and LDP (n = 15). On the fourth day, they were distributed in 3 treatments: WH-M (n = 15); WA-M (n = 15) and PW-M (n = 15). Six liters of milk per treatment were offered, twice a day, as well as water and starter were provided at will until the age of 57 d. The waste milk came from cows treated with antimicrobials (clinical mastitis, retained placenta and foot disease). Fast pasteurization 72 to 74 C was used for 16 s. Weight and body measurements were performed before morning meals on d 3 after birth, and weekly. The R software was used to perform the statistical analyzes, with P < 0.05 being considered significant. There were no differences between the WH-M, WA-M and PW-M treatments (P > 0.05) for final weight (76.03; 77.43 and 74.0); average daily weight gain (0.670, 0.710 and 0.620 kg / d) and body development - withers height (84.41; 84.15 and 84.28 cm), hip height (87.19; 87.35 and 87.36 cm), hip width (24.95; 25.01 and 24.82 cm) and chest circumference (86.94; 86.16 and 86.23 cm), respectively. Differences were only observed for the evaluation week (P < 0.001), due to the growth of the animals during this period. The use of WA-D and PW-M did not affect animals' weight gain and body development. However, further research is needed to assess the effects of the use of waste milk on the health and performance of calves in the medium and long-term.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82942 Watch M68 Effects of feeding whole milk, waste milk, and pasteurized waste milk on ruminal parameters and gut weight on dairy bull calves. 13 J. P. Campolina volatile fatty acid euthanasia H. C. Diniz Neto1, S. F. Vieira1, J. P. Campolina1, S. G. Coelho1, M. M. Campos2 1Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, EMBRAPA), National Center for Research on Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of feeding whole milk (WH-M), waste milk (WA-M) and pasteurized waste milk (PW-M) on the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gut weight. Forty-five crossbred bull calves (Hostein-Gir) were used with mean birth weight of 37.67 ± 5.85 kg. Immediately after birth, calves were separated from their mothers, had their navel immersed on iodine (10%), and received 10% of their BW in colostrum (min 25 BRIX). In the first 3 d of life, they received transitional milk. On the fourth day, they were distributed in 3 treatments: WH-M (n = 15); WA-M (n = 15) and PW-M (n = 15). Six liters of milk per treatment were offered, twice a day, as well as water and starter were provided at will until the age of 57 d. The waste milk came from cows treated with antimicrobials (clinical mastitis, retained placenta and foot disease). Fast pasteurization 72 to 74 C was used for 16 s. Ruminal fluid was collected at 14, 28, 42 and 56 d of age, for the evaluation of VFA: acetate (ACE), butyrate (BUT) and propionate (PRO). At 60 d of age, all animals were euthanized and had the rumen-reticulum (RR), omasum (OMA), abomasum (ABO), small intestine (SI) and large (LI) separated and weighed empty. Organs were evaluated in proportion to empty BW (EBW). The R software was used to perform the statistical analyzes, with P < 0.05 being considered significant. The WH-M treatment showed lower concentrations of ACE and PRO (30.49 and 20.84 mmol/L) compared with PW-M (39.75 and 28.12 mmol / L), but similar to the WA-M treatment (33.08 and 22.2 mmol/L), respectively. There were no differences between the WH-M, WA-M and PW-M treatments for BUT concentration (4.98, 5.51 and 6.25 mmol/L) and ACE:PRO (1.78, 1.76 and 1.59 µmol/mL), respectively. WH-M treatment had lower rumen weight (1.06% PV), compared with WA-M (1.26% PV) and similar weight to PW-M (1.24% PV). There were no differences between treatments in the weight of OMA, ABO, SI and LI. The use of milk with antimicrobial residue affects the ACE and PRO concentrations of and the rumen weight.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82929 Watch M69 The effects of two feedings of colostrum on the pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein heifer calves. 14 Q. Zheng colostrum dairy calf management Q. Zheng1, M. Hayes1, F. Leal-Yepes1 1Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY Colostrum contains high concentrations of non-nutritive bioactive factors that may contribute to the healthy development of calves’ gastrointestinal tract after reduced permeability to immunoglobulins, leading to their better growth. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of providing an additional feeding of high quality of colostrum, corresponding to IgG ≥50mg/mL; a Brix value of ≥22.0%, 12–16 h after the first feeding on the pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) of Holstein dairy heifers. The study was conducted from August 2019 to February 2020. Singleton Holstein heifer calves (n = 164) born unassisted with a median birth weight of 38.3kg (range: 31.7–52.6kg) that had received an initial feeding of 4L of colostrum with a median Brix of 25.4% (range: 22.0– 5.8%) within 2 h of life were selected. Calves were then randomly enrolled in blocks to either the control or treatment. The control received 3L of acidified pasteurized whole milk (Brix range: 6.1–13%), and the treatment received 3L of colostrum with a median Brix median of 25.4% (range: 22.0–33.9%). All calves were group-housed, 20 calves in each pen, with free access to pasteurized acidified milk. All calves were weighed weekly until weaning around d 63. Mixed linear models were used to asses the differences in ADG, BW, and height between the treatment and control. The mean ± SE of serum Brix % during the first week of life was 9.5 ± 0.08 and 9.1 ± 0.08 for treatment and control, respectively (P = 0.0004). The growth parameters measured are summarized in Table 1. A chi-squared test was generated for mortality differences among the groups. The mortality for the treatment and control group was 3.05% and 4.27%, respectively (P = 0.54). With the current calf management and duration of the study, the results suggested that providing an extra feeding of colostrum had no effects on the growth of Holstein heifers, however, total serum Brix is higher in the treatment group. Table 1.
Measurement Control SE Treatment SE P-value
ADG, kg 0.68 0.02 0.68 0.02 0.94
Weaning BW, kg 77.15 1.12 77.05 1.11 0.62
Weaning height, cm 86.45 0.45 86.34 0.46 0.39
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82915 Watch M70 Telomere length variation and association with age and health status. 15 T. Muratori telomere health variation T. Muratori1, I. Haagen1, A. Shabtay2, M. Cohen-Zinder2, U. Lipkin3, C. Dechow1 1Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Ramat Yishay, Israel, 3The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel Telomere length (TL) is a potential health and welfare biomarker that has not been fully developed in dairy cattle. The study's aim was to examine TL variation and associations with age and the occurrence of health events. TL was available for 521 observations on 434 Holsteins that ranged from birth to 97 mo of age in 2 herds. Whole blood was collected over 2 years and stored on blood cards until DNA extraction. TL was ascertained using multi-plex quantitative PCR with primers for telomere and the reference gene (β-globin) included in the same well on 384-well plates; samples were run in quadruplicate and those with a coefficient of variation greater than 5% after removing results from one outlier well were edited from the data. The difference in the number of cycles (DCt) between detection of the TL signal and reference gene signal was analyzed with a mixed model in SAS with linear and quadratic effects of age, herd, and health status as fixed effects; health status was characterized as healthy for 467 observations not associated with a health event at the time of blood collection, diseased for 32 observations where blood was collected the week of a disease treatment, and disease follow-up for 22 observations where blood was recollected 2 weeks after the initial disease collection; diseases were analyzed as one group rather than individual diseases due to the limited number of health events. Random effects were animal and collection date within herd. The repeatability of TL was 51% when calculated as the proportion of variance associated with animal relative to total variance; the standard deviation of DCt for the random animal effect was 0.82. There was a quadratic age effect with TL increasing from birth to 3 years of age and declining thereafter. The effect of health status was significant with a DCt least-squares-means of 4.70 for the diseased group which was significantly less than both healthy (5.18) and disease follow-up (5.26) groups. In conclusion, TL is a dynamic measure that appears to vary among animals, with age, and with health status.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82780 Watch M71 Comparison of fecal bacterial populations in diarrheic and healthy Holstein dairy calves from multiple farms in southeastern Pennsylvania. 16 M. Leibstein calf diarrhea microbiome bacterial community M. Hennessy1, N. Indugu1, B. Vecchiarelli1, L. Redding1, C. Pappalardo1, M. Leibstein2, J. Toth1, S. Garapati3, D. Pitta1 1University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, 2Oceanside High School, Oceanside, NY, 3Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA A better understanding of the difference in the microbiome between diarrheic and healthy calves has the potential to lead to better treatment and prevention strategies for calf diarrhea. In this study, fecal samples were obtained from 10 pairs of Holstein dairy calves on 7 different farms. At each farm, 1–3 diarrheic calves (DC group) were selected (ages: 2–17 d old at sampling time) and then an age-matched (within 5 d) healthy calf (HC group) was selected as a control. Fecal samples were extracted for genomic DNA, PCR-amplified for the 16S rDNA bacteria gene, sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and analyzed using ­­­­QIIME2. Number of observed species and distribution of species were similar between groups, with the DC group showing a slightly lower number of observed species and a higher Shannon diversity index than the HC group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between farms but not between groups on unweighted UniFrac analysis; no difference was found on weighted UniFrac analysis between groups. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most prevalent phyla in all samples, with similar proportions in both groups; Fusobacteria were more prevalent in the DC group whereas Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more prevalent in the HC group. At the genus level, Prevotella and Faecalibacterium were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) different between the sick and healthy calves, with Prevotella being more prevalent in the DC group and Faecalibacterium being more prevalent in the HC group. Bacteroides was the most prevalent genus in both groups. The next most prevalent genera in the DC group were Clostridium, Dorea, Fusobacterium, and Ruminococcaceae while the next most prevalent genera in the HC group were Lactobacillus, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium, and Clostridium. Although differences were noted between DC and HC groups, these differences were not significant due to the differences between farms. Further studies are needed to identify differences between sick and healthy calves on individual farms.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82743 Watch M72 Pre- and post-weaning performance of calves fed milk replacer containing different sources of butyrate. 17 A. Kerr dairy calf milk replacer butyrate A. Kerr1, P. Sudhakaran2, M. Drewery1,2 1Grober Nutrition, Cambridge, ON, Canada, 2Texas State University, San Marcos, TX Butyric acid, a naturally occurring fatty acid in milk, is often lacking in milk replacer formulations. We evaluated the use of a proprietary encapsulated tributyrin (TB) product against sodium butyrate (NaB) in a milk replacer formulation. Pre-weaned dairy calves (n = 41) were assigned by BW and sex to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control (C, n = 14); tributyrin (TB, n = 14); or sodium butyrate (NaB, n = 13). Milk replacers were formulated to contain 26% protein, 18% fat, and equivalent amounts of butyric acid from NaB or TB (0.8%). Calves were housed in groups, fed via an automatic feeder, with a daily allowance of 9L/day (1.35 kg of dry matter) until weaning commenced at 53 d, and milk was removed at 63 d. Water and a pelleted starter feed were offered ad libitum. Calves were weighed weekly, health scored daily for the first 3 weeks, individual milk intakes and group solid feed refusals recorded daily. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. There were no differences in calf growth rates before wean, however calves fed NaB milk replacer grew significantly less (1.45 kg/day, P = 0.0225, vs. 1.70 kg/day for C and 1.83 kg/day for TB groups) 2 weeks post weaning. Observation of scours was numerically greater for NaB calves during the first week, and during the trial, this group received more treatments (P = 0.0593). Total milk powder intake did not vary between groups (P = 0.3846). Pellet intake varied between groups in that during wk 4 and 5, TB group tended to consume more pellet (wk 4: 0.74 kg C, 0.70 kg NaB, 1.05 kg TB, P = 0.0541; wk 5: 1.103 kg C, 1.19 kg NaB. 1.50 kg TB, P = 0.0941), and had significantly greater intake during wk 7 (2.79 kg C, 2.31 kg NaB, 3.53 kg TB, P = 0.0333). While on full milk allowance (d 1 – 53), calves fed the TB milk replacer had a numerical improvement on total pellet intake (9.62kg C, 8.42kg NaB, 12.04kg TB, P = 0.1235). The use of a proprietary encapsulated tributyrate in calf milk replacers may improve early solid feed intake, consequently improving performance parameters at weaning, when raising calves in a group.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82064 Watch M73 Water delivery methods for neonatal calves during winter. 18 F. X. Suarez-Mena water bottle bucket F. X. Suarez-Mena1, T. S. Dennis1, K. M. Aragona1, T. M. Hill1, J. D. Quigley1, R. L. Schlotterbeck1 1Nurture Research Center, Provimi, Brookville, OH Consumption of water by young calves is essential to health and growth, and is positively correlated with starter intake. However, water delivery in winter may be difficult due to freezing in some regions of the United States. Effects of water delivery method on calf intake and performance during winter was evaluated using Holstein male calves. Calves (n = 48; initially 44 ± 4.2 kg BW; 2 to 3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 2 water delivery treatments. Water treatments were either ad libitum allowance of ambient temperature water from a bucket (BUC) or 2.84 L of hot water (~38°C) offered once daily (~1200 h) for 1 h from a bottle (BOT). Water refusals from BUC were measured once daily when starter refusals were measured. Water from BOT was weighed back after the 1 h allowance period. Water treatments were applied for the first 5 wk; then all calves received ambient temperature water ad libitum from a bucket. Calves received 681 g/d of milk replacer powder (24% CP, 18% fat DM basis) split in 2 feedings for 38 d then 340 g/d for 4 d a.m. only. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12% solids and fed in 2.84 L bottles. Textured starter was offered ad libitum (21% CP, 41% starch DM). Calves were individually housed and bedded with straw. Calves were weighed initially and weekly thereafter. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures when appropriate, with calf as the experimental unit. Average temperature during the study was 3.2°C (range from −15 to 31°C). Water intake was greater (P < 0.01) for BOT vs. BUC (1.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.15 SEM kg/d). Pre-weaning starter intake was similar for BOT vs. BUC (467 vs. 424 ± 77 SEM g/d), but greater (P < 0.04) for BOT vs. BUC post-weaning (2244 vs. 2054 ± 91 SEM g/d). Average daily gain was not affected by water delivery method. Bottle feeding warm water during the first 5 wk during winter increased water consumption which could reduce dehydration and simplify management. Feeding water from a bottle had a carryover effect on starter consumption post-weaning, which should be further investigated.
Growth and Development Posters 1   Growth and Development 6/22/2020 14:00 t82065 Watch M74 Effects of milk replacer feeding rate and fat content on Jersey calves to 4 months of age. 19 F. X. Suarez-Mena feeding rate digestibility Jersey calf F. X. Suarez-Mena1, T. S. Dennis1, K. M. Aragona1, T. M. Hill1, J. D. Quigley1, R. L. Schlotterbeck1 1Nurture Research Center, Provimi, Brookville, OH This study evaluated effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding rate and fat concentration in MR on total-tract digestion (TTD) and performance in Jersey calves. Jersey heifer calves (n = 100 [2 blocks of 50]; initially 30 ± 3.0 kg BW; 4 to 11 d of age) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR feeding rate (454 g for 42 d, then 227 g for 7 d [Low]; or 454 g for 7 d, 681 g for 35 d, and 341 for 7 d [High]) and 18 or 25% fat in MR (DM basis). Milk replacers (25% CP) were reconstituted to 14% solids and fed in 2 equal feedings for 42 d and a.m. only for 7 d. Textured calf starter (CS; 21% CP, 40% starch DM) and water were offered for ad libitum consumption. From d 57–112, CS was mixed with 5% chopped grass hay. Up to d 56, calves were housed individually and from d 57–112 in groups (4–5 calves/pen). Calves were weighed weekly from 0 to 56 d and on d 84 and 112. Frame measurements were done every 2 wk from 0 to 56 d and on d 84 and 112. Estimates of TTD were measured in 5 calves/treatment (Block 1) at wk 3 using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures, block as a random effect, and calf as experimental unit up to 56 d and pen thereafter. From 0 to 56 d, CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) for Low vs. High (0.76 vs. 0.64 kg/d) and 18 vs. 25% fat (0.76 vs. 0.64 kg/d); ADG was greater for High vs Low (0.56 vs. 0.52 kg/d); and hip width change was greater for 18 vs. 25% fat (4.8 vs. 4.4 cm). Estimates of OM TTD were greater (P < 0.05) for High vs. Low (93 vs. 87%) but NDF TTD was greater for Low vs. High (37 vs. 30%) and for 18 vs. 25% fat (39 vs. 29%). From 57 to 112 d, hip height change was greater for Low vs. High (10.0 vs. 8.8 cm) and hip width change was greater for 18 vs. 25% fat (4.6 vs. 4.2 cm). In this study, feeding Jersey calves more MR improved pre-weaning ADG but had a negative impact on starter intake and likely rumen development as fiber TTD was reduced at 3 wk and frame growth was reduced from 8 to 16 wk. No benefits were observed for feeding more fat in MR as starter intake, fiber digestibility, and frame growth were reduced.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t81903 Watch M75 Sodium salicylate reduced transcript abundance of hypoxia-associated genes in MAC-T cells. 1 L. K. Mamedova hypoxia NSAID mammary gland development C. M. Ylioja1, T. H. Swartz1, L. K. Mamedova1, B. J. Bradford1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Hypoxia is an oxygen deficiency commonly found in growing tissues and is speculated to occur in the rapidly developing mammary gland in peripartum dairy cattle. Low oxygen concentrations can activate hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which increases transcription of genes involved in angiogenesis (VEGF) and glucose transport (GLUT1). The mRNA stability of these genes is positively regulated by AUF1. In our previous research, postpartum administration of sodium salicylate (SS) increased whole lactation milk yield in multiparous cows but tended to reduce milk yield in primiparous. Because rapid mammary tissue development likely occurs in cows approaching first lactation, we hypothesized that SS inhibited the activation of HIF-1α and decreased transcription of downstream targets. MAC-T cells were treated with SS (100 μM) or control media before incubation under either hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic conditions for 12 h. Additionally, cells were transfected with either HIF1α siRNA or a scrambled siRNA negative control 48 h before hypoxia treatments. HIF1α, GLUT1, VEGF, and AUF1 were quantified using the 2-ΔCt method and normalized to the internal control gene NENF. Transcript abundance was assessed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of SS, hypoxia, and siRNA and all 2- and 3-way interaction terms, and the random effect of plate nested within hypoxia. SS tended to decrease HIF1α as compared with untreated cells (P = 0.09). For GLUT1, SS treatment interacted with hypoxia (P = 0.05), as SS reduced GLUT1 when MAC-T cells were cultured in normoxic conditions (P < 0.01), however, no effect of SS was found in hypoxia-treated cells (P = 0.39). Regardless of oxygen status, SS reduced VEGF (P = 0.04) and AUF1 (P = 0.04) relative to untreated cells. Hypoxia increased GLUT1 (P = 0.01), yet no effect was identified on VEGF (P = 0.45) or AUF1 (P = 0.22). siRNA knocked down HIF1α (P < 0.01), but no effect was found on GLUT1 (P = 0.98), VEGF (P = 0.99), or AUF1 (P = 0.62). In conclusion, SS reduced transcript abundance of genes involved with mammary gland development, but generally did not interact with oxygen status.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t81615 Watch M76 Circadian PER2 gene silencing suppresses lipid synthesis partly via inhibition of PPARG and SREBF1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. 2 Y. F. Chen PER2 silencing mammary epithelial cell lipid metabolism Y. J. Jing1, Y. F. Chen1, M. Z. Wang1, L. Y. Hu1, Q. Y. Xu1, Z. N. Xi1, J. J. Loor2 1Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, 2University of Illinois, Urbana, IL In non-ruminants it is well-established that biological rhythms play a profound role in coordinating whole-body metabolism. In dairy cows there is evidence that milk yield and milk fat content have rhythmic pattern thought to be regulated by circadian rhythms. The core circadian clock gene period 2 (PER2) is associated with mammary gland development and lipid synthesis in rodents, partly via regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Whether such type of molecular link between circadian clock and lipid metabolism exists in bovine is unclear. We hypothesized that PER2 is associated with lipid metabolism in bovine mammary cells. To test this hypothesis, the bovine mammary tissue samples were obtained from 3 mid-lactation (averaged 110 d postpartum) cows and digested by collagenase to gain the primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was used to inhibit PER2 expression in primary BMECs. The primary BMECs were transfected with 3 siRNAs at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h to screen out the best siRNA and its transfection time point. The lipid droplet was measured by red oil O staining, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) content of BMEC was determined with the tissue triglyceride assay kit (APPLYGEN, China). The lipid droplet and TAG content were determined at 36 h (36 h showed the greatest PER2 gene inhibitory effect of 84.7%) after the siRNA transfection. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison were used to conduct statistical analysis by SPSS software version 22.0 (statistical significance set at P < 0.05). Silencing of PER2 led to lower concentration of cellular lipid droplets and TAG levels in BMECs (P < 0.05). In addition, PER2 silencing downregulated mRNA of ACACA, FASN, LPIN1 and SCD (P < 0.05), indicating an overall inhibition of lipogenesis and desaturation. The downregulation of PPARG and SREBF1 in response to PER2 silencing underscore the importance of circadian clock signaling and transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis. Therefore, data suggest that PER2 participates in the coordination of mammary lipid metabolism and may be a component of the control of lipid droplet and TAG synthesis in mammary cells.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t81720 Watch M77 Milk fatty acid profiles of beef cows in response to a short feed restriction during lactation. 3 I. Casasús beef cows nutritional challenge milk fatty acid profile I. Casasús1, J. R. Bertolín1, K. Orquera1, J. Ferrer1, M. Blanco1 1Ctr Invest y Tecnol Agroal Aragon (CITA), IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza), Zaragoza, Spain The relationship between energy balance and the milk fatty acid (FA) profile is well established in dairy cows but has received little attention in beef cattle. We analyzed the milk fatty acid profile of 16 Parda de Montaña beef cows 2 mo post-calving in response to a 4-d (d) dietary restriction (55% of energy requirements, 6.2 kg dry matter (DM) hay/d), as compared with a previous basal and an 8-d refeeding period (100% of requirements; 7.0 kg DM/d hay + 2.7 kg DM/d concentrate). With d0 as the start of restriction, milk was sampled on days d-2 (basal), d1, d3 (restriction) and d5, d6, d8 (refeeding). Individual FA were identified by gas chromatography, and sums of FA were calculated (saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), cis-MUFA, trans-MUFA, C4-C15 de novo synthesis FA and C16-C24 mobilization FA). These sums and the 4 major FA (C16:0, C18:1–9c, C18:0, C14:0) were analyzed using mixed models, with day as fixed and cow as random effects. All the results presented here were significant at P < 0.001. The milk FA profile responded immediately to changes in the energy balance and/or the diet. On d1 of restriction, the concentrations of SFA decreased, mainly due to a reduction in the de novo synthesis FA and C16. A concomitant increase in MUFA (associated with that of C18:1–9c, predominant in body fat) was observed. These changes, along with the increments in C16-C24 FA, indicate an enhanced fat mobilization from the adipose tissue. During the restriction, C18:0 and trans-MUFA decreased while cis-MUFA and PUFA increased, as a result of both the mobilization and the change in diet composition. The opposite occurred in the refeeding phase. On d5, MUFA decreased (due to the reduction in C18:1–9c) and SFA increased because of the rise in the de novo synthesis FAs and C16:0, reflecting the reversion of fat mobilization. At the end of refeeding (d8), the individual FA returned to basal concentrations, but the sum of C16-C24 mobilization FAs was even lower and that of C4-C15 de novo synthesis FAs was higher than basal values, indicating a possible “rebound effect” after restriction and refeeding.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82032 Watch M78 Effects of glucose and acetate infusion on mammary uptakes of essential amino acids by lactating dairy cows. 4 B. Li cow amino acid milk protein B. Li1, R. Laforest1, L. Wright1, J. Kim1, P. Kedzierski1, V. Osborne1, J. Doelman1,2, J. Cant1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Trouw nutrition, Putten, the Netherlands Previous research suggests that glucogenic energy can stimulate milk protein yield of dairy cows while lipogenic energy does not. To explore differences in mammary essential amino acid (EAA) utilization between these types of energy, 5 rumen-fistulated cows were given additional glucose or acetic acid in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Infusion treatments were: 1) 10 L/d ruminal water (CTL), 2) 1.1 kg/d (LoG) or 3) 2.2 kg/d (HiG) abomasal glucose, and 4) 1.25 kg/d (LoA) or 5) 2.5 kg/d (HiA) ruminal acetic acid. Acetic acid and glucose infusion rates were isocaloric at low and high levels, respectively. Milk yields were recorded daily and milk samples were collected on the last 3 d of each 7-d infusion period. Tail and mammary venous samples were collected on d 7 to estimate mammary uptakes. Plasma samples for each cow were pooled over time by period. Plasma AA concentrations for each time point were analyzed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography in conjunction with Empower Chromatography Data Software (Waters Corporation, Milford, MA). Linear contrasts of glucose and acetic acid dose were estimated by ANOVA assuming fixed effects of period and treatment, and random effects of cow. Glucose infusion had no effect on DMI (P = 0.97) or milk protein yield (P = 0.15) but increased lactose yield (P = 0.03) and tended to increase milk yield (P = 0.07). Acetic acid infusion dramatically decreased DMI from 18.8 kg/d on CTL to 13.8 and 14.9 kg/d on LoA and HiA respectively. Milk yield decreased 5.4 kg/d, protein yield decreased 201 g/d and lactose yield decreased 224 g/d on HiA compared with CTL (P ≤ 0.01) due to the decrease of DMI. Glucose infusion decreased arterial concentrations of all EAA (P < 0.01) except Met and Thr, but increased mammary plasma flow (MPF) rate (P < 0.01), so that mammary uptakes of EAA were not affected (P > 0.16). In contrast, acetic acid infusion increased concentrations of Ile, Leu, and Val (P < 0.08) without affecting other EAA concentrations (P > 0.20), had no effect on MPF (P = 0.70), and decreased mammary uptakes of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe (P < 0.10). Findings suggest that exogenous glucose encouraged milk protein production despite reduced plasma concentrations of some EAA, while exogenous acetic acid discouraged milk protein yield thereby increasing concentrations of some EAA.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82163 Watch M79 Effect of methionine in membrane traffic for milk secretion in the goat’s mammary epithelial cell. 5 M. Boutinaud amino acid supplementation dairy goats M. Boutinaud1, A. Leduc1, S. Lemosquet1, L. Bahloul2 1INRAE, Agrocampus Ouest, PEGASE, Saint-Gilles, France, 2Centre of Expertise and Research in Nutrition, Adisseo France S.A.S, Commentry, France Methionine (Met) supplementation increases milk, protein and fat yields in cow. We investigated whether this could be partly explained by an increasing flow of milk components in the secretory pathways of mammary epithelial cells. Multiparous Alpine goats at mid lactation (n = 48), grouped by levels of expression of the CSN1S1, were assigned to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Goats were fed a fixed amount of hay and a low (LE, 1.47 Mcal/kg DM) or adequate (AE, 1.54 Mcal/kg DM) energy concentrate combined with 2 levels of metabolizable Met: unbalanced vs. balanced using isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMBi 0.24% concentrate DM) to cover 100% of Met requirement, based on cow requirement (INRA, 2007). Treatments were: LE, LEMet (LE, balanced Met), AE and AEMet (AE, balanced Met) for 5 weeks. Goats (23) were slaughtered and mammary tissue was processed for Western blotting using secretory compartment specific markers of membrane traffic. Milk protein yield (P = 0.01) and casein content (P = 0.01) increased in goats fed the Met balanced diets. The amount of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers, Cnx and ERLIN2, decreased (20%, P ≤ 0.05) in goats fed the LE diet. Met balanced diets had the opposite effect on both markers (20%, P ≤ 0.05), as well as on protein disulfide isomerase (45%, P ≤ 0.05). These observations are in agreement with a positive effect of Met on the activity of the ER, the site where protein and lipid are synthesized. On the other hand, a specific marker of the exit site of the Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles formation (AP1) decreased with the LE diet (25%, P ≤ 0.05) and its highest level was found in goats fed Met balanced diet at AE supply. The higher ßCOP (P = 0.01), a marker of intra Golgi transport, clearly reflected a decrease in membrane transport of LE diets. These data strongly suggest that energy level has a direct impact on membrane traffic in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cell while Met improve ER activity and has the tendency to further promote intracellular transport of milk components and, ultimately, their secretion.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82307 Watch M80 Effect of heat stress during the dry period on estradiol and prolactin interactions in mammary gland gene expression of Holstein cows. 6 J. A. Negrao heat stress mammary explants culture J. A. Negrao1,2, V. Ouellet2, M. Marrero-Perez2, T. F. Fabris2, J. Laporta2, G. E. Dahl2 1University of Sao Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The dry period, a 6 to 8-week nonlactating state between lactations, is essential for maximal mammary development and lactation in dairy cows. Although late-gestation heat stress decreases estrogen (E) and increases prolactin (PRL) concentrations in blood, those impacts on mammary development remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine how late gestation heat stress-induced E and PRL alterations affect the expression of their receptors and signaling in the mammary gland at different stages of the dry period. Fourteen cows were either exposed to in vivo heat stress (HT, n = 7) or active cooling by fans and soakers (CL, n = 7) for the entire dry period (~45 d). Mammary gland biopsies were performed on d 3 (i.e., involution) and 35 (i.e., proliferation) relative to dry off and equally divided in 3 explants, that were incubated in vitro for 24h in 1 of the 3 mediums: 1- Basal (Bm no PRL or E); 2- CL mimic (Cm: basal + 20ng/mL PRL + 5.8ng/mL E; and 3- HT mimic (Hm: basal + 40 ng/mL PRL + 2.9ng/mL E). Gene expression of PRLR-SF, PRLR-LF, ESR1 and ESR2 were measured using Real Time qPCR. An ANOVA using the mixed procedure of SAS was performed to assess the impacts of in vivo (HT, CL), in vitro (Bm, Cm, Hm) treatments and their interaction on relative transcript expression. Dry cows subjected to HT had increased rectal temperature and respiration rate relative to cows subjected to CL (39.1 vs 38.8 ± 0.01°C and 65.2 vs 55.4 ± 1.2 breaths/min, respectively), which confirms cooling conditions are effective and necessary for the thermal equilibrium of the CL cows. In vivo HT increased the expression of PRLR-LF relative to CL. However, Hm in vitro treatment decreased the expression of PRLR-SF, ESR1 and ESR2 relative to Bm treatment. These results suggest that E and PRL alterations caused by heat stress exposure can modulate the expression of receptors in the mammary gland, with potential implications for normal mammary development during the dry period.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82679 Watch M82 Evaluation of breed and udder characteristics on somatic cell count and udder pathogens in lactating Holstein and Jersey cows. 7 M. W. Hollis udder measurements breed SCC B. M. Brown1, M. W. Hollis1, J. G. Carter1 1Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of physical udder characteristics and breed on hygiene scores (HS), milk yield (MY), conductivity (COND), SCC, and bacterial cultures (BC) in lactating Holstein and Jersey dairy cows housed in a compost-bedded pack barn. Lactating Holstein and Jersey (n = 10 each) cows were evaluated during a 6-wk period. Milk samples were collected as a sterile composite from all 4 quarters during one milking/wk and SCC was determined using the DeLaval Cell Counter DCC. If SCC ≥350,000 cells/mL, the sample was cultured to determine bacterial species. Milk samples were cultured using a Tri-plate agar including Factor, MacConkey, and Focus media (University of Minnesota Easy Culture). Cows were evaluated once/wk using a multi-zone hygiene scoring system for udder cleanliness (1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty; Cook, 2002). Udder measurements were taken during wk 1 and included udder depth and circumference, and teat length. Milk yield and COND were measured daily and averaged by wk using the AfiMilk parlor system (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel). Statistical analysis of MY, COND, and udder measurements were conducted using the MIXED procedure in SAS (v9.4). Analysis of HS incidence and BC species counts were evaluated using the FREQ procedure in SAS (v9.4). No differences in BC, SCC, or physical udder characteristics were observed among breeds. Holstein cows produced more milk than Jerseys (37.6 and 26.5 ± 3.01 kg/d, respectively; P = 0.0181) and had greater COND (9.70 and 8.81 ± 0.15 mS/cm, respectively; P = 0.0005). Jerseys exhibited improved udder (64.4 vs. 25.4% score 1 and 28.8 vs. 64.4% score 2, respectively; P = 0.0003) and flank (61.0 vs. 22.0% score 1; 35.6 vs. 57.6% score 2; and 3.4 vs. 18.6% score 3, respectively; P = 0.0001) HS more frequently than Holsteins, indicating that Jersey udders and flanks were overall cleaner than Holsteins. Jerseys may be better suited for compost-bedded pack barns than Holsteins based on the observed improvements in conductivity and hygiene scores.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82718 Watch M83 Relationships of somatic cell count with milk lactose and protein over the first 10 days postpartum in dairy cows. 8 H. Peterson dairy cow milk somatic cell count H. Peterson1, T. Kelley1, J. Williams1, W. Price3, E. Peterson4, M. McGuire2, M. McGuire1 1Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Margaret Ritchie School of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 3Statistical Programs, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 4Erik L. Peterson Dairy, Filer, ID There is little research examining the relationships of somatic cell count (SCC) with lactose and protein concentrations in bovine milk. Understanding these relationships may provide insight into how animal health is related to milk composition and quality. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of SCC and lactose and protein in bovine milk in the first 10 d postpartum. Quarter-milk samples were collected daily from 107 cows on 4 dairies and milk components assessed by near-infrared analysis. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear regression model with SCC (log-transformed) and day postpartum as independent variables and dairy as a random variable while assuming a compound symmetric correlation structure for the repeated measures of day within quarter of each cow. Milk type was characterized as colostrum (d0; C), transitional milk (d1-d4; TM), and mature milk (d5-d10; MM). Lactose concentrations were 3.16 ± 0.03%, 4.08 ± 0.01%, and 4.32 ± 0.01% in C, TM, and MM, respectively; protein concentrations were 9.40 ± 0.10%, 3.94 ± 0.03%, and 3.03 ± 0.01% in C, TM, and MM, respectively. The range of SCC across all samples was 1,000 to 9,999,000 cells/mL. In C, there was no relationship between SCC and lactose, but there was a negative relationship between SCC and protein (P = 0.0004). For TM and MM, there was a negative relationship between SCC and lactose that became more negative as days postpartum progressed. There was a positive relationship between SCC and protein in TM; conversely, there was a negative relationship between these variables in MM. For both TM and MM, protein decreased with increasing days postpartum. These results suggest relationships of SCC with lactose and protein exist; however, they are not consistent over time.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82937 Watch M84 Evaluation of mammary gland involution in dairy cows during the dry period using a 3-dimensional scanner. 9 J. Leite de Campos dry period udder involution 3-dimensional scanner J. Leite de Campos1, J. Strickland1, J. Gandy1, L. M. Sordillo1, C. Robison1, P. L. Ruegg1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Mammary gland involution is an important process during the dry period, and it is associated with immune defenses and the capability to prevent intramammary infection that could affect subsequent lactations. Currently methods to evaluate udder involution during the dry period are limited. The objective of this research was to compare the use of a 3D scanner and a metric tape to measure mammary gland involution in dairy cows. Clinically healthy Holstein cows (n = 15) of parity 2 through 5 were included in the study if they had a SCC < 200.000 cells/mL at the end of lactation. Mammary gland dimensions were measured at the dry off (d 0), and 2, 7, and 14 d later using both a 3D Scanner (Structure Sensor, Occipital, San Francisco) and manual measurements of marked areas between the middle rear left and right quarters and the median suspensory ligament. Data was collected from November 2019 – February 2020. Files obtained from the 3D scanning were analyzed for surface area of the rear quarters using 3- Matic software (Materialise, Belgium). Percentage change was calculated between measurements obtained at d 0, and measurements taken at d 2, 7, and 14. Analysis of variance was performed to analyze data. When measured manually using a metric tape, the width of the quarters increased and then decreased and were 117%, 101%, and 93% on d 2, 7, and 14, respectively. When measured using a 3D scanner, the surface area of the rear quarters was 125%, 100%, and 89% on d 2, 7 and 14 respectively. No significant difference in measurements was found based on method (P = 0.88). When width was measured manually, an increase in 16% and a decrease in 24% was observed from d 2 to 7 and d 2 to 14 (P < 0.01). When surface area was measured using the 3D scanner, it increased 25% and decreased 36% between d 2 to 7 and d 2 to 14, respectively (P < 0.001). No significant change in mammary gland dimensions was observed from d 7 to 14 (P > 0.08). Changes in mammary gland dimensions during the dry period were quantifiable using either manual measurements or 3-D scanning.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t82971 Watch M85 Potential of nanoparticles containing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as a dry-off enhancer: Pulling apart the effects of MMP-9 and nanoparticles. 10 A. Bach dry period inclusion body mammary gland L. Gifre-Renom1, J. V. Carratalá2, S. Parés1, L. Sanchez-Garcia2, N. Ferrer-Miralles2,3, A. Villaverde2,3, A. Bach4,1, E. Garcia-Fruitós1, A. Arís1 1Department of Ruminant Production, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA, Caldes de Montbui, Catalonia, Spain, 2Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain, 3Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain The dry period is a non-milking interval when the mammary gland involutes and regenerates to guarantee an optimal milk production in the subsequent lactation. Several bottlenecks such as the high risk of intramammary infections may hamper this process. Antibiotics have been routinely used as a preventive treatment, but the concerns about potential antibiotic resistance calls for alternative preventive strategies. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is an enzyme able to degrade the extracellular matrix, triggering the involution and immune function of the mammary gland. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine in vivo whether the involution and immune function enhancement previously observed after the administration of inclusion bodies (IB) containing MMP-9 was due to the nanoparticle format or to the inherent properties of the MMP-9 comprised in IB. Eight cows were enrolled in this study and 30 quarters of these cows were considered the experimental unit (4 quarters per cow in 7 cows, and 2 quarters in 1 cow). A dose of 1.2 mg of both active and inactive MMP-9 IB and 10 mL of saline solution were infused into 10 quarters per treatment at dry-off. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 d after protein infusions, mammary gland secretions (MGS) were obtained and analyzed for SCC, immune cell populations, BSA, lactoferrin, Na+/K+, and endogenous MMP-9. Data were analyzed using a fixed-effects model. There were only minor differences in the parameters monitored between the infusion of active or inactive rMMP-9 IB. Briefly, concentration of BSA in MGS were greater at 1 and 6 d in quarters treated with active rMMP-9 IB (P < 0.01) than those treated with inactive IB. Similarly, the Na+/K+ ratio in MGS increased at d 6 and was sustained at d 9 (P < 0.01) with the active MMP-9 IB compared with the inactive IB. Thus, the minor differences triggered by the administration of an active or an inactive form of MMP-9 led to conclude that the response observed in the bovine mammary gland was mainly due to the protein format (nanoparticle or soluble) but not to the biological activity of the MMP-9 embedded in the IB. This study provides relevant information on the future use of protein IB in the mammary gland of cows and the role of MMP-9 at dry-off.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t83054 Watch M86 Mitochondrial function in the liver and skeletal muscle of mid-lactation dairy cattle. 11 V. R. Favorit oxidative phosphorylation lactation metabolism V. R. Favorit1, A. N. Kavazis2, W. R. Hood2, P. Villamediana1, A. L. Skibiel1 1University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Auburn University, Auburn, AL Most energy produced in the cell is through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial activity changes according to cellular energy demand. At peak lactation, mammary OXPHOS machinery and ATP production are upregulated in association with increased mammary energy requirement and milk output. It is unclear if concurrent shifts occur in tissues with supporting roles in milk synthesis, such as skeletal muscle and liver. We assessed relationships between milk production and measures of mitochondrial function in these tissues at mid-lactation. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from multiparous Holstein cows (n = 11) in mid-lactation (75 ± 4 d). Milk yield was recorded daily to 80 d in milk (DIM) and milk samples collected for composition analysis (fat, protein, lactose) at 74 DIM. Mitochondria were isolated and oxygen consumption measured in a respiration chamber. Respiratory control ratio (RCR) was used as a measure of the functional and coupled state of mitochondria and calculated as the ratio of maximal ADP-stimulated respiration to basal respiration following ADP phosphorylation using either complex I (NADH-linked) or II (FADH2-linked) substrates. Mitochondrial emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also measured. Correlation analysis was used to examine relationships between mitochondrial measures and average milk yield from 40 to 80 DIM (mid-lactation) only and from 5 to 80 DIM (i.e., early-to-mid). Liver complex II RCR at mid-lactation was positively correlated with early-to-mid milk yield, signifying increased fat substrate utilization to produce ATP and minimal proton leak (r = 0.74, P = 0.01). No association was observed between milk components and mitochondrial RCR or ROS. Mid-lactation milk yield was positively correlated with skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS production (r = 0.66, P = 0.05) and tended to correlate with liver mitochondrial ROS production (r = 0.63, P = 0.1). Our results suggest that elevated energy demands associated with milk production are met with an increased efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production in liver but result in greater oxidant emission in skeletal muscle and liver.
Lactation Biology Posters 1   Lactation Biology 6/22/2020 14:00 t83104 Watch M87 An optimized laser capture microdissection protocol for intact RNA isolation from lipopolysaccharide treated mammary epithelial cells. 12 R. K. Choudhary mastitis RNA quality transcription R. K. Choudhary1, T. B. McFadden2, E. M. Shangraw2, R. O. Rodrigues2, F.-Q. Zhao1 1Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 2Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is one popular technique for isolating specific cell types from tissues. However, RNA quality, quantity and integrity in LCM samples can be greatly affected by tissue treatment, length of dissection and the total areas of cells dissected. In this study, we optimized methodology to obtain high quality RNA from mammary epithelial cells collected from bovine mammary glands treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and determined if LPS affected the quality, quantity and integrity of RNA. Ten multiparous cows were used. Five treatment (T) cows received one intramammary dose of LPS (50 µg in 10 mL saline; TL) in each of 2 ipsilateral glands while the contralateral glands received saline (10 mL; TS). Likewise, in 5 control (C) cows, saline (CS) was infused into 2 ipsilateral glands and the other glands remained uninfused (CU). Mammary tissues were collected at 0, 3 and 12 h, relative to infusions and processed for LCM. After staining, tissue sections were visualized using an epifluorescence microscope with attached computer and manually selected areas of epithelial cells were dissected using LCM. Time of dissection was kept minimal (13.6 + 0.52 min; mean + SE) to avoid RNA degradation, and areas of dissected cells were consistent across treatment groups and times. Results showed that fixation of tissue sections with chilled 70% ethanol, histogene staining (with RNase inhibitor), dehydration in absolute ethanol, and final clearing in xylene was able to preserve quality of RNA isolated from microdissected cells. Analysis of total RNA from mammary epithelial cells harvested by LCM showed RNA yield per unit area was affected by treatment, time and interaction of treatment x time, suggesting that LPS increased transcription or reduced RNA degradation in epithelial cells. In addition, RNA integrity number (RIN) was affected by treatment and time x treatment interaction (P ≤ 0.01). In summary, we developed an optimized LCM protocol to reproducibly obtain high-quality RNA and suggest that LPS treatment may affect RNA yield of mammary epithelial cells.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t83034 Watch M88 Environmental effects on teat microbial population of transition dairy cows housed in compost bedded pack barns. 1 T. L. France bacteria count mastitis T. L. France1, J. C. H. Costa1, M. C. Morgan1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY Compost bedded pack barns utilize composting methods which require microbial growth. In turn, this may increase the exposure of mastitis-causing pathogens to the teats of dairy cows. Our objective was to determine the relationship between environmental effects and cow bacteria counts over time in transition cows. Twenty-six Holstein cows (11 primiparous, 15 multiparous) were enrolled in an observational study from December 2018 to May 2019. Quarter teat skin swabs, teat end swabs and milk samples were aseptically collected from every cow 14 d before expected calving date, 3 d postpartum, and biweekly through 60 ± 7 DIM. Bedding samples were collected weekly (n = 396). Teat skin swabs, teat end swabs and bedding samples underwent microbial analysis to enumerate environmental microbes. Bedding samples were analyzed for moisture, C:N ratio and pH. Milk samples were cultured for presence or absence of bacteria. Pearson correlations determined associations among cow variables. Linear mixed models determined effect of stages in the transition period (expt week) and environmental factors on cow bacteria counts. Teat skin total bacteria count (TBC) had a moderate relationship with teat end TBC (r = 0.42; P < 0.001). Teat end TBC had a weak relationship with milk TBC (r = 0.18; P < 0.001). Expt week affected all cow bacteria counts (P < 0.05). Parity affected milk TBC and teat skin counts (P < 0.05). Teat skin coliform and Staphylococcus spp. (Staph.) counts changed (P < 0.05) from pre- to postpartum, where LS Means of coliforms increased from 2.09 to 2.75 log10 cfu/g and Staph. counts decreased from 5.67 to 4.53 log10 cfu/g. Similar results were found for teat end counts, where LS means of coliforms increased from 1.19 to 1.46 log10 cfu/g and Staph. counts decreased from 4.08 to 2.63 log10 cfu/g. Bedding moisture was the only factor that significantly affected teat skin bacteria counts. As moisture increased by 1%, teat skin TBC decreased by 1.06 (0.59; SE) log10 cfu/g. We conclude that environmental factors over time do not influence teat microbial population. Calving time may be a larger contributing factor to teat microbiome.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82537 Watch M89 Distribution of seasonality of milk yield, adjusted for parity and days in milk, according to heat stress intensity in the United States. 2 A. P. S. Franzoni seasonality dairy cow sine and cosine functions A. P. S. Franzoni1, F. C. Ferreira1, J. S. Clay2, A. De Vries3 1University of California, Davis, CA, 2Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC, 3University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of seasonality in milk yield, adjusting for parity and days in milk, under different intensities of heat stress (HS) in the United States (US). We used 2015 DHIA lactation records from 5,005 herds located in 41 states of the US. Weather data of closest station of each herd was retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration archives. Linear regression models with sine and cosine functions adjusted for days in milk and parity were used to describe seasonality in average milk production per herd, and to find the annual low (minimum) and peak (maximum) of the curves. Annual low-to-peak (LP-ADJ) ratios were measures of maximum seasonality. Sine and cosine functions were also used to model hourly and daily temperature humidity indexes (THI) for each weather station. For every herd, we calculated the average daily THI and the number of hours per day above a THI of 68. Calculated measures of HS intensity were the yearly heat load (HL), the number of days per year with average THI above 68 (DAT), and the number of hours per year above 68 (HAT). For each HS intensity measure, herds were classified as exposed to LOW (HL <73, DAT <50, HAT < 1108), MEDIUM (HL >73 and <299, DAT >50 and <86, HAT > 1108 and < 1778), and HIGH (HL > 300, DAT > 87, HAT >1779) intensity HS groups. The PROC CORR procedure (SAS 9.4) revealed correlation (<0.001) between LP-ADJ and HL (r = 0.19), DAT (r = 0.16), and HAT (r = 0.17). Distribution of seasonality (25, 50, and 75 percentiles) for LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH HS intensity were: HL (0.88; 0.92 and 0.94), (0.88; 0.92 and 0.95) and (0.85; 0.90 and 0.94); for DAT (0.89; 0.91 and 0.95), (0.89; 0.91 and 0.95) and (0.86; 0.89 and 0.94); and for HAT (0.89; 0.91 and 0.95), (0.89; 0.92 and 0.95) and (0.86; 0.90 and 0.94). Herds exposed to HIGH HS had a greater variation in their seasonality, but HS intensity was not a major effect in seasonality variation among herds. Even within herds exposed to HIGH HS, seasonality can be managed and reduced, for instance, through efficient heat abatement strategies.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82154 Watch M90 Mammary health program and subclinical mastitis in dairy farms in Córdoba, Argentina. 3 P. Turiello somatic cell count test day survey C. Vissio1,2, B. Mancilla1, P. Turiello1, A. Larriestra1 1UNRC, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina, 2IDAS UNRC-CONICET, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and the application of the main practices on the mammary health program (MHP) and their association with the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SM) in dairy farms in Córdoba, Argentina. The study was conducted among producers who had information about somatic cell count (SCC) of at least 6 official milking tests during the years 2017 and 2018. Producers were invited to answer an online survey about practices and knowledge related to MHP. Once the information was gathered, a mixed model with repeated measurements was run, considering as main predictors those MHP practices and including herd size as an adjustment factor. The response variable was SM incidence, determined as the proportion of cows whose SCC increased from <200,000 to ≥200,000 cells/mL over 2 consecutive test days. The statistical analysis was performed on STATA. Of the 83 eligible producers, 61% were willing to collaborate and 24 answered the survey. Herd size median was 255 milking cows. The survey was about pen cleanliness and comfort, milking equipment, clinical mastitis (CM) management, milking routine and dry-off therapy. The greatest knowledge was about milking equipment. The least knowledge was on the aim of the dry therapy, although the level of application was 100%. Similarly, most of the producers informed an adequate CM management. Average incidence during the studied period was 21% (SD 8%). An extra pen for cows, regular pre-dipping and CM detection through foremilking were associated with low SM herd level (Table 1). Most producers applied good practices related to CM management, dry cow therapy and milking equipment, although deficient environment and milking routine were associated with higher SM incidence. Table 1. Results of the final model on the association between practice of MHP and herd SM incidence in dairy farms of Córdoba, Argentina
Variable   Category Estimator (SE) P-value Incidence (95% CI)
Extra pen   Yes −0.09 (0.03) 0.005 0.20 (0.18-0.23)
    No     0.29 (0.24-0.35)
Pre-dipping   Yes −0.08 (0.02) 0.001 0.19 (0.17-0.22)
    No     0.27 (0.23-0.31)
Foremilk   Sporadically 0.13 (0.05) 0.013 0.09 (0.01-0.19)
    Regularly     0.22 (0.20-0.24)
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82243 Watch M91 Applying machine learning on feeding behavior data for estrus detection in dairy heifers. 4 L. G. R. Pereira artificial neural network heat detection precision livestock F. C. Cairo1, L. G. R. Pereira2, M. M. Campos2, T. R. Tomich2, S. G. Coelho3, C. F. A. Lage3, A. P. Fonseca3, A. M. Borges3, J. R. R. Dorea4 1Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Itapetinga, BA, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation – Embrapa, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, 3Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 4University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI The recent advances of sensor technology have allowed accurate estrus prediction using animal behavior information. The variables generated by Electronic feed and water bins have not been explored as predictive attributes for the development of models for estrus detection. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the effect of estrus on feed intake and animal behavior (feeding and drinking); and (2) to develop and evaluate predictive approaches to detect estrus using electronic feed and water bins data. Feed intake, animal behavior, and estrus events (n = 99) were measured in 57 Holstein × Gyr heifers (374 ± 21.2 kg). Previous to each estrus event, the total feed intake (as-fed basis), number of feed bins visits, number of water bins visits, time spent eating and time spent drinking water were computed. Three predictive approaches were evaluated: logistic regression (LR); artificial neural network (ANN); and random forest (RF). Twelve covariate sets were established to (ii.a) evaluate the prediction quality for estrus detection when long (0 to −174 h) or short (0 to −24 h) time series were used as predictors; (ii.b) to evaluate the ability of models to predict estrus 6 and 12 h in advance; and (ii.c) to evaluate the predictive quality for estrus detection when only feeding and drinking behavior data (without intake variables) were included as predictors. All variables obtained by electronic bins change on estrus day compared with previous days. All predictive approaches analyzed with and without the feed intake variable were accurate for estrus detection. The short time series (24h) before estrus is satisfactory for estrus detection. The prediction of estrus in advance with 6 and 12 h reduced the accuracy and stability of the models. ANN models, RF and LR showed an accuracy of over 80%, indicating the possibility of predicting estrus at 06 h in advance. The exclusion of feed intake data does not reduce the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of models for estrus detection, indicating the possibility of developing new sensor-based devices that allow estrus detection.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82282 Watch M92 A field case study: Body condition change and metabolic status of transition cows in a small dairy farm. 5 M. Rosales Gallardo small farm body condition transition cows M. Rosales Gallardo1, A. A. Barragan2 1The Pennsylvania State University, Penn State Extension, Lancaster, PA, 2Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA Feeding lactating ration leftovers to dry cows or partially using lactating rations to feed dry cows is a common practice often implemented by small-size dairy farmers. These practices could be associated, at least in part, to over conditioning of transition cows. The objective of this case study was to assess the effects of feeding lactating ration leftovers on body condition score (BCS) changes and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations during the transition period in dairy cows. This field case study was conducted in a 60-cow dairy farm in Lancaster County in Pennsylvania, which fed lactating rations to their dry cows during the case study length. Eleven dairy cows were enrolled at 35 ± 3 d before calving and followed for 63 ± 3 d after calving. BCS was recorded weekly by the same person during the study period. Blood samples for assessment of BHB were collected at 0 ± 3, 7 ± 3, 14 ± 3, 21 ± 3, 28 ± 3 and 35 ± 3 d after calving. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The average BCS of this group of cows at calving (0 ± 3 DIM) was 3.72 ± 0.16 pts. This condition rapidly decreased to 3.29 ± 0.15 pts. on d 7 ± 3 after calving and to 3.14 ± 0.14 pts. at d 14 ± 3 after calving. BCS reached the lowest point at 21 ± 3 d (3.04 ± 0.14 pts.) after calving. Even though a drop in BCS is expected after calving, the study animals lost condition in a rapid and exacerbated manner. The BHB concentration at calving was 0.99 ± 0.20 mmol/L and, only second lactation cows had higher BHB concentrations at 14 ± 3, 21 ± 3 DIM compared with their BHB concentration at calving. Furthermore, in this group of cows, there were 2 subclinical ketosis cases (i.e., BHB >1.2 mmol/L). The results from this field case study suggest that a common dry cow feeding practice in small farms may generate a rapid and exacerbated fat mobilization in the early lactation period, which in turns may increase the risk of infectious and metabolic diseases, impairing the welfare and performance of dairy cows.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82397 Watch M93 Immunoglobulin G and serum total protein concentration assessment in dairy calves over the first 2 weeks of age. 6 A. Correa calf immunoglobulin total protein A. Correa1, A. Villadecabres1, N. Silva-del-Río1 1Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Centre, University of California-Davis, Tulare, CA The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate changes of serum IgG (SIgG) and serum total protein (STP) concentration of dairy calves during the first 16 d of life, and (2) investigate if predictive models for SIgG concentration based on STP could be improved when adjusted by hematocrit (Hct). Enrolled calves (24 Jersey, 41 Holstein) arrived at a commercial raising operation from 2 source dairies. Prior arrival, calves were bottle fed 3 meals of pasteurized colostrum (2 L per meal) at (mean ± SD) 38 ± 26 min, 7 h 19 min ± 1 h 5 min, and 7 h 45 min ± 1h after birth. Concentration of SIgG (single radial immunodiffusion), STP (BRIX refractometer), and blood Hct (centrifugation), were determined in blood samples collected from calves immediately after arrival at the calf operation (1 d) and 4, 8, 12 and 16 d of life. The MIXED procedures of SAS were used to evaluate changes over time of SIgG and STP as well as the predictive value of STP corrected by Hct. At 1 d, SIgG ranged from 252 and 10,619 mg/dL (mean: 2,124 mg/dL), STP from 3.6 to 9.3 g/dL (mean: 6.0 g/dL) and Hct from 18 to 44% (mean: 30%). During the study period, on 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 d, calves had SIgG <1,500 mg/dL (n = 11, 20, 28, 36 and 45 respectively) and serum TP <5.5 g/dL (n = 15, 26, 31, 47 and 63 respectively). Relative to 1 d, SIgG tended to decrease at 4 d (205 mg/dL), and it was significantly lower at 8 d (343 mg/dL), 12 d (583 mg/dL) and 16 d (747 mg/dL). Relative to 1 d, STP concentration significantly decrease with time at 4 d (0,344 g/dl), 8 d (0.470 g/dl), 12 d (0.704 g/dl) and 16 d (1.107 g/dl). There was a moderate correlation between SIgG at 1 d with STP at 1 d (r = 0.66), 4 d (r = 0.61, 8 d (r = 0.63), 12 d (r = 0.54), and 16 d (r = 0.66). The model fit for SIgG prediction did not improve when STP was adjusted by Hct. In summary, our results indicate that SIgG and STP declined during the first 2 weeks of life. Further studies should determine the specificity and sensitivity of SIgG and STP during the first 2 weeks of life as diagnostic tools for failure of passive transfer of colostrum.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t81595 Watch M94 Preparation and evaluation of a film-forming teat dip containing chitosan for the prevention of mastitis. 7 H. Zhang bovine mastitis chitosan film-forming teat dip H. Zhang1, H. Jiang1, Z. Han1, Y. Mao1, Z. Yang1 1College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China Postmilking teat dip is an effective procedure for prevention of mastitis in dairy cows during lactation. Film-forming teat dip was developed to improve the effectiveness of postmilking disinfection by leaving a germicidal film on the teats to against mastitis pathogens. Chitosan is a nontoxic and biodegradable polysaccharide that has received attention due to its great film-forming capacity and antibacterial effect. Aim of the trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a film-forming teat dip containing chitosan in preventing mastitis of dairy cows. In vitro antibacterial test, the film-forming teat dip agent (FFTDA), with 1.0% 50 kDa chitosan and 4% povidone iodine, showed better antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Bacillus cereus than the agent with no chitosan (P < 0.05). Then the efficacy of FFTDA was compared with a conventional iodine postmilking teat dip on 48 healthy Chinese Holstein dairy cows. The right mammary gland half was assigned to receive FFTDA (treated group), the other side was dipped into conventional iodine bath (control group). Treatments were applied for 4 weeks, for 3 milkings per day. Milk samples were collected from each quarter at 0, 2, 4 weeks and analyzed for nutrients composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS). Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed by LMT test every week. After clinical trial of 4 weeks, there were no significant differences in milk fat content, protein content, lactose content, total solids content, SCC and SCS between treated group and control group. In the end of the trial, the incidence of subclinical mastitis teat of treated group and control group were 9.38% and14.58%, respectively. SCS was significantly lower than the beginning of the trial in the treated group (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the control group. The results indicated that this film-forming teat dip containing chitosan can effectively reduce SCS, and it has a good effect on the control of subclinical mastitis in dairy cow.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82014 Watch M95 Association of subclinical hypocalcemia at calving with productive outcomes in multiparous Jersey cows. 8 A. Valldecabres dairy cow hypocalcemia transition cow A. Valldecabres1, N. Silva-del-Río1 1Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, University of California-Davis, Tulare, CA The most appropriate blood calcium (Ca) threshold to define subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) is still under study. Currently, there is a wide range of suggested definitions, and variability on its reported associations with productive outcomes, which have not been described in Jersey cows. Our aim was to evaluate the association of SCH at calving with subsequent lactation milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, fat% and protein%, in 609 multiparous Jersey cows from 2 commercial herds fed acidifying prepartum diet. Blood samples for total serum Ca concentration determination were collected from the coccygeal vessels at 3 h 10 min (±2 h 17 min) after calving. Monthly test milk yield, fat% and protein% information up to the 10th test was obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. Milk yield, ECM, fat% and protein% were analyzed with SAS (version 9.4); with multiple linear regression, using a 2-piece linear function for days in milk and cow as the subject in the repeated statement. Considered covariates for all outcomes were: parity, herd, previous lactation length and 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, dry period length, calving body condition and locomotion scores, calving easiness, oral Ca supplementation, and somatic cell linear score at test. Milk yield was also considered in the fat% and protein% models. Serum Ca thresholds among 1.80 and 2.20 mmol/L at 0.02 mmol/L intervals were used to define SCH. The Ca threshold significant for the type 3 test of fixed effects, and leading to the smallest P-value and most extreme β coefficient for the solution for fixed effects, was chosen to define SCH. Subclinical hypocalcemia (Ca ≤ 2.18 mmol/L) was associated with 1.52 and 1.88 kg/d more of milk and ECM, respectively (P < 0.001). For milk fat%, SCH (Ca ≤ 1.96 mmol/L) was associated with 0.12 units of milk fat%/d more (P = 0.01); and SCH (Ca ≤ 1.80 mmol/L), with 0.06 units of milk protein%/d less (P = 0.03). Similar effects were observed for additional thresholds evaluated. Further studies are needed to elucidate the applicability of a SCH definition.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82695 Watch M96 Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) harvested using two different strategies in lactating dairy cow rations. 9 B. Lemay switchgrass milk production harvest strategy B. Lemay1, R. Nagle1, A. J. Carpenter1, T. J. DeVries1, P. H. Luimes1, M. Thimmanagari2, J. DeBruyn2, A. Heeg2 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2OMAFRA, Ontario, Canada Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native tall grass that has been researched as a novel species in the biomass industry and as a promising crop for livestock feed. Two harvesting strategies are employed for switchgrass hay: switchgrass is 1) cut and baled in the fall, or 2) left to over-winter in the field, and cut and baled in the spring. This study aimed to compare switchgrass harvested by either of these 2 methods to use of wheat straw in lactating dairy cow rations. Holstein cows (n = 12, DIM = 158 ± 48.4; parity = 1.6 ± 0.67) were exposed to each of 3 treatments in a 3 × 3 LSD with 14-d periods (10d of adaptation and 4d of sampling). Treatments consisted of TMR containing equal amounts of: 1) wheat straw (CON), 2) spring-baled switchgrass (SSG), or 3) fall-baled switchgrass (FSG) at 0.5% inclusion, on a DM basis. Milk samples were collected twice daily at each milking, and feed and blood samples were collected before the morning feeding. Feed refusal samples were taken and subjected to particle size analysis to determine feed sorting. All statistical analyses were conducted using a repeated measures mixed-effect linear regression model with the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of cow and day. Analysis of feed samples indicated no differences between treatments for NDF, ADF, CP, or TDN (P ≥ 0.60). DMI was consistent between treatments (SSG = 23.5, FSG = 24.8, CON = 24.1 kg/d; SE = 1.35; P ≥ 0.63), as was milk yield (FSG = 27.6, SSG = 28.0, CON = 27.8.7 kg/d; SE = 1.37; P ≥ 0.93). Milk fat was greater (SE = 0.015; P = 0.01) for cows fed a TMR containing CON (4.5%) vs. SSG (4.2%), but neither treatment differed from FSG (4.4%; P ≥ 0.23). Milk protein was greater for cows fed SSG (3.44%) or CON (3.44%) compared with cows fed FSG (3.40%; SE = 0.05; P = 0.01), but did not differ between CON and SSG (P = 0.99). Blood metabolites (BHBA, NEFA, and glucose) did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.32). No differences in sorting of the treatment TMRs were observed (P ≥ 0.18). Results suggest that feeding switchgrass can successfully replace wheat straw in lactating rations and that switchgrass harvested strategy may influence milk components in dairy cows.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t83043 Watch M97 Simultaneous minimization of diet costs and phosphorus excretion on dairy farms. 10 A. F. White   A. F. White1, L. E. Moraes1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH The study objective was to develop a mathematical programming model capable of simultaneously optimizing diets with different weights for least cost (LC) and least on farm P-balance (LP). The ration ingredients, herd composition, and animal categories were designed to represent the Jersey herd of the Ohio State University Waterman Dairy Center. The model constraints were set to meet the current recommendations of the NRC (2001), and additional constraints based on industry recommended practices were specified to limit the inclusion of specific feeds in the diet. Using OpenSolver (v.2.9.0, opensolver.org), 3 objective functions were individually optimized to (1) minimize the diet cost; (2) minimize the excess of P balance in the system, computed as the difference between P excreted and P uptake by forage production on-farm; and (3) minimize the weighted deviations from the values of the 2 previously optimized objective functions. A grid of 100 potential weights were used that varied the size of the effect of each deviation from the given optimization model on the current optimized objective. The LC and LP scenarios had whole farm feed costs of $2,285 and $2,719 (19% increase with respect to the LC diet), respectively; the farm P balance was 10.1 kg/d and 3.3 kg/d (67% decrease). Thus, at the extreme points of the weight grid, a substantial decrease in P balance was obtained; however, at a substantial increase in diet costs. The trade-offs between the 2 goals set by the weighting scheme, however, allowed the identification of a set of diets that all met the NRC (2001) requirements while having different costs and determining different P balances on the farm. For example, the weighted goal programming model identified a diet that allowed a 37% reduction of P balance occurring with a 0.4% increase in cost (with respect to LC). These initial reductions in P were generally accompanied by increased forage fed, increase of on-farm corn silage production, and increased purchase of hay. These optimizations suggest a potential use of weighted goal programming as a technique to identify diets that allow a reduction in on-farm P balance with limited effect on whole-farm feed cost.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82875 Watch M98 Effects of heat stress on rumination activity and ruminal in situ degradability in dairy cows. 11 L. G. R. Pereira climate chamber precision dairy farming sensors G. G. Maia1, L. G. B. Siqueira2, C. O. P. Vasconcelos1, T. R. Tomich2, L. S. A. Camargo2, J. P. P. Rodrigues3, R. A. Menezes4, L. C. Gonçalves4, B. F. Teixeira5, R. O. Grando5, L. A. G. Nogueira1, L. G. R. Pereira2 1Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, 2Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, 3Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, Xinguara, PA, Brazil, 4Universidade Federal de Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 5Instituto de Desenvolvimento do Alto Uruguai, Getúlio Vargas, RS, Brazil The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) on (1) time and daily pattern of rumination, and (2) in situ degradability in Holstein-Gyr crossbred dry cows. Nine cows, weighing 556.2 ± 97.1 kg were housed in a climate chamber (average THI = 83.1) or a freestall barn (average THI = 66.5) randomly assigned to treatments in a crossover design. For each animal, there were 25 d of data collection in each treatment. Rumination and intake patterns at different days or 2-h periods were evaluated using the MIXED procedure. Cows were fed corn silage ad libitum and 1 kg of concentrate as a maintenance diet. To measure rumination, we used a sensor attached to a collar. The in situ ruminal degradability was evaluated by incubation of concentrate, silage, and diet samples into the rumen of one fistulated cow for 6, 24, 48 and 96 h when this cow was under HS (climate chamber) and at the freestall (control) after 21 d of the starting of the treatment. The ruminal degradability kinetics were estimated using a uni-compartmental model with the Marquardt algorithm to fit nonlinear regression. The RT was affected by HS (P < 0.001) and time of the day (P < 0.001). The rumination pattern for control and HS cows had a first peak at approximately 04:00h and the magnitude of this peak in HS was 22.9% less than controls. The second RT peak occurred in the evening (~20:00h), when RT in HS was 27.8% less compared with controls. We observed a reduction in dry matter digestibility (DMD) of concentrate (85.1% vs 77.8%, control and HS, respectively; P < 0,05) and also in the slow-degradable fraction of concentrate (93.9% vs 85.1%, respectively; P < 0,05). Finally, DMD of the diet reduced from 73% to 70% for animals exposed to HS compared with controls. In conclusion, HS negatively affected the rumination time and in situ ruminal degradability in dry dairy cows.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t83036 Watch M99 Differences in total mixed ration dry matter percentage affect the feed intake and the milk yield of Holstein cows. 12 V. S. Izquierdo compost barn intake measurement dairy cows V. S. Izquierdo1, C. Pizoni1, J. P. Noschang1, M. F. B. Savela1, E. G. Malaguez1, J. Halfen1, E. Schmitt1, B. S. Menezes1, E. G. Xavier1, A. A. Barbosa1, C. C. Brauner1, J. O. Feijó1, V. R. Rabassa1, F. A. B. Del Pino1, M. N. Corrêa1 1Núcleo de Pesquisa, Ensino e Extensão em Pecuária (NUPEEC), Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil The high yielding cows need a balanced diet to keep the equilibrium between feed intake and productivity, any difference in diet qualities can impact directly the livestock’s production, mainly on confinement systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the changes in the percentage of dry matter could negatively affect the feed intake and milk yield of Holstein cows. This study was performed on a commercial dairy farm in the south of Brazil, during the months of May to November of 2019. All the cows enrolled in this study were multiparous, housed in a compost barn and belonging from the highest milk production group (n = 120). For this study was used the database registered for a subset of cows during the period of 66 d totaling 617 observations of DMI from feeders that measure the intake. For the milk yield database was used the overall mean of milk production of the same group of cows during the same period. To measure the dry matter percentage, samples of TMR was collected and classified as ideal (between 45% and 60%, n = 45) and not ideal (<45% or > 60%, n = 21). The diet composition was based in water (15,87%), ground corn (1,98%), soybean meal (5,75%), soybean residue (5,16%), rice bran (3,77%), wet maize silage (3,97%), corn silage (53,56%), rice residue (1,98%) and pre-dried ryegrass (3,97%). The data were analyzed using the ANOVA one-way of the SAS program. The DMI was greater in the ideal group (P < 0.01) when compared with the not ideal group (19.77 ± 6.00 Kg vs. 16.63 ± 7.47 Kg of DMI). The milk yield showed a trend (P = 0.07) to be higher on the ideal group when compared with the not ideal (36.99 ± 3.06 vs. 35.48 ± 3.30 L/milk/day). These results suggest that cows feeding not ideal concentration of dry matter may reduce the DMI and tend to be less productive than those with ideal concentration.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t83032 Watch M100 Effects of dietary organic acid and plant botanical supplementation on growth performance in Holstein calves challenged by heat stress. 13 A. B. P. Fontoura calf heat stress organic acid A. B. P. Fontoura1, V. Sáinz de la Maza-Escolà1,2, B. N. Tate1, J. T. Siegel Nieves1, A. T. Richards1, F. Wang1,3, L. F. Wang1,4, M. E. Van Amburgh1, E. Grilli2,5, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 3China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 4Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China, 5VetAgro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and dietary organic acid and plant botanical (OA/PB) supplementation on growth in calves. In a completely randomized design, 62 bull and heifer calves were assigned to 1 of 5 groups (n = 12–13/group): thermoneutral conditions (TN-Con), HS conditions (HS-Con), thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS-Con (TN-PF), HS with low-dose OA/PB (75 mg/kg of BW; 25% citric acid, 16.7% sorbic acid, 1.7% thymol, 1.0% vanillin, and 55.6% triglyceride; AviPlus R; Vetagro, Italy; HS-Low), or HS with high-dose OA/PB (150 mg/kg of BW; AviPlus R; HS-High). Supplements were delivered as a twice daily bolus via the esophagus wk 1 through 13 of life; all calves received boluses equivalent for triglyceride. Post weaning, calves (62 ± 2 d; 91 ± 10.9 kg) remained in thermoneutral conditions (temperature-humidity index [THI]: 60 to 69) for a 7-d covariate period. Thereafter, calves remained in TN conditions or were moved to HS conditions (THI: 75 to 83) for 19 d. Clinical assessments and BW were recorded, and blood was sampled. Organs from HS-Con and TN-Con were harvested at trial completion. The mixed model included fixed effects of BW at birth, treatment, time, and their interaction. Rectal and skin temperatures, and respiration rates were greater in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P < 0.01). Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were lower in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P < 0.01). Comparing HS-Con and PF-Con, ADG and gain:feed were similar. Plasma fatty acids were elevated in TN-PF versus all other groups (P = 0.04; not observed for HS-Con). Liver and small intestine weights were lower in HS-Con, relative to TN-Con (P = 0.03 and 0.15, respectively). DMI was greater with HS-Low, relative to HS-Con (P < 0.01). ADG for HS-Low and HS-High were not different from HS-Con or TN-Con (i.e., effect was intermediate). Compared with HS-Con, calves fed OA/PB tended have greater gain:feed (P = 0.08). We conclude that reductions in DMI account for losses in growth during HS and dietary OA/PB supplementation enhances HS resilience in calves.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t81694 Watch M101 Effect of rearing conditions of primiparous cow prior to weaning on their performance and behavior after calving. 14 J. Broucek rearing growth milk J. Broucek1, M. Uhrincat1, P. Kisac1, A. Hanus1 1National Agricultural and Food Centre, Luzianky, Slovakia The objective was to find whether cow growth, milk performance, and behavior are affected by their rearing to weaning in 84 d. Thirty-five Holstein heifers were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: SM, n = 13, pen with mother (milked from d 2) to d 21, suck a mother’s udder 3 times per d, then group pen (6 kg milk per d, bucket with nipple); SN, n = 9, after 3 d with own mother in pen with nursing cow, calves could drink at any time, usually 3–5 times per d, number of calves per nursing cow determined according to milk yield (6 kg milk per d and calf); H, n = 13, after having nursed their dams in individual pen for 24 h in hutches from d 2 to 56 (bucket with nipple, milk replacer, 6 kg per d), then loose housing pen to weaning (bucket with nipple, milk replacer, 6 kg per d). Group SM allowed 21 d suckle, 63 d bucket fed; SN allowed 84 d suckle; H allowed 1 d suckle, 83 d bucket fed. All calves were weaned at d 84. After weaning from milk feeding, all heifers were kept in age-balanced groups in bedded pens with the same ration to the calving. During the lactation, live body weight (LBW) was measured each month and milk yield (MY) each d. Cows were milked in the parlor from d 4. Learning was evaluated at the 5th month. Cows solved 6 tasks during 3 d. The data were analyzed using a General Linear Model ANOVA. At the 30th d, the LBW tended to be the highest in SN (SM 528 ± 11 kg, SN 572 ± 15 kg, H 533 ± 12 kg). On the lactation end, the highest LBW was in SN and the lowest in H (SN 623 ± 16 kg, SM 613 ± 12 kg, H 570 ± 13 kg, P < 0.05). The SN tended to the highest production of milk (SM 7144 ± 241 kg, SN 7345 ± 319 kg, H 7147 ± 234 kg), and the SM for FCM (SM 6521 ± 203 kg, SN 6278 ± 268 kg, H 6340 ± 197 kg) for 305-d lactation. Group SN crossed the maze fastest (SM 1141 ± 120 s, SN 810 ± 160 s, H 1121 ± 119 s). The number of vocalizations differed significantly (SM 32 ± 6, SN 21 ± 4, H 10 ± 3, P < 0.01). The results indicated that the rearing method to weaning may have an impact on dairy cow performance and behavior.
Production, Management, and the Environment Posters 1   Production, Management and the Environment 6/22/2020 14:00 t82824 Watch M102 Relationships between longissimus dorsi muscle depth, body weight, and parity during the first five months of lactation. 15 C. J. McCabe ultrasound muscle depth parity C. J. McCabe1, J. P. Boerman1 1Purdue University, Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN Due to insufficient dry matter intake and heightened nutrient demands in the first weeks of lactation, cows mobilize their own muscle and adipose tissue to bridge these nutrient gaps. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in muscle depth and BW in primiparous and multiparous animals from early through mid-lactation. Holstein dairy cows (n = 38; 1st lactation n = 14, 2nd+ lactation n = 24) were weighed and their muscle depth was measured 1x per month following the morning milking for 5 mo to quantify BW and muscle depth changes from early through mid-lactation. We captured muscle depth images from the right side of each cow from the 12th intercostal space of the longissimus dorsi muscle using an ALOKA SSD-500 ultrasound with a linear transducer. At each time point, 3 images were captured, and an average was quantified using ImageJ software (NIH; Bethesda, MD). There were no differences in longissimus dorsi muscle depth between primiparous and multiparous cows (P = 0.77). However, BW was higher for multiparous dairy cows (577 vs. 691 kg; P < 0.0001) compared with primiparous cows. Muscle depth was lower for the second month of lactation (4.07 cm) compared with the fourth month of lactation (4.42 cm; P < 0.05). Measurements taken over the study for muscle depth and BW were positively correlated (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001). Change in BW and change in muscle depth in the first month were positively correlated (r = 0.83; P < 0.0001). Extent of both BW and muscle depth loss in the first month was negatively correlated with BW change in the second month (r = −0.66 and r = −0.59; P < 0.05, respectively). Likewise, muscle depth change from in the second month of lactation was negatively correlated with muscle depth change in the third month (r = −0.88; P < 0.0003). A considerable amount of BW, specifically muscle, is mobilized during the first 2 mo of lactation with more accretion of muscle starting in the third month of lactation. Understanding the timing and extent of muscle mobilization and accretion will allow us to meet nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81765 Watch M103 Supplement protein level affects performance and reproduction of grazing heifers. 1 M. I. Marcondes supplementation oocyte quality embryo production A. F. Machado1, V. C. L. Moraes1, D. L. Souza Netto1, P. V. F. Correa1, S. E. F. Guimaraes1, G. M. Santos2, M. I. Marcondes1 1Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil, 2Univicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil Evaluations of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction of dairy heifers grazing intensively managed pasture are scarce. Thus, we aimed to evaluate performance, muscle development, oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production of grazing crossbred heifers fed increasing CP levels in the supplement. Eighteen pubertal crossbred heifers (Holstein x Gyr; initial BW of 350 ± 8.0 kg) were used in a 90-d trial. Two supplements (12 and 24% CP, S12CP and S24CP) and control treatment (mineral mixture, MM) were randomly assigned to the heifers. Three ovarium pic-up were performed. DMI and CP intake were greater for supplemented (SUP) compared with MM. SUP heifers had greater ADG (P = 0.003) and rib eye area (P = 0.04) than MM, and carcass ultrasonography indicated a trend for greater rib eye area for S24CP comparing with S12CP (Table 1). Viable oocytes were not affected by supplementation strategy. However, cleavage and blastocyst rates were negatively affected by SUP (P < 0.05), and S12CP had lower blastocyst rate than S24CP (P = 0.012; Table 1). In summary, supplementation with concentrate containing 24% CP might be an appropriate strategy for satisfactory performance during the rainy season in tropical climates. In contrast, the in vitro embryo production was impaired with supplementation. Table 1. Performance and reproductive parameters of Holstein × Gyr heifers not supplemented (MM) or supplemented with concentrate containing 12% CP (S12CP) or 24% CP (S24CP) in a rotational grazing system
Item MM Supplement SEM P-value1
S12CP S24CP MM×SUP S12CP× S24CP PER
DMI, kg/d 7.36 8.04 8.58 0.307 0.014 0.220 0.091
CPI,2 kg/d 1.28 1.30 1.63 0.053 0.008 0.001 0.327
ADG, kg/d 0.39 0.60 0.69 0.059 0.003 0.381
Ribeye area, cm2 53.32 56.00 61.56 1.983 0.040 0.070
Viable oocytes, no 6.07 5.39 7.25 1.572 0.926 0.420 0.007
Cleavage rate, % 41.17 23.92 36.71 5.716 0.017 0.102 0.676
Blastocyst rate, % 27.91 3.02 17.23 3.924 0.001 0.012 0.816
1SUP×MM = supplementation effect; S12CP×S24CP = effect of supplement protein level; PER = period effect.We observed no TR×PER interaction (P > 0.05). 2CPI = crude protein intake.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81795 Watch M104 Performance of calves fed starter and grower diets formulated with inorganic, organic, or organic trace minerals with additives from birth to 6 months of age. 2 E. Dufour calf performance trace minerals calf starter D. Ziegler1, H. Chester-Jones1, B. Ziegler2, A. Manthey2, E. Dufour2, K. Mjoun3 1University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN, 2Hubbard Feeds, Mankato, MN, 3Alltech, Nicholasville, KY One-hundred six (2 to 5 d old) Holstein heifer calves (40.0 ± 0.57 kg) from 2 commercial dairies were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 calf starter (CS) treatments formulated with different trace minerals (TM) and additives to evaluate performance and health during the 56-d nursery phase (NP) and the 112-d grower phase (GP). All calves were fed a non-medicated 20% CP: 20% Fat milk replacer (all-milk protein) fed at 0.28 kg in 2 L of water 2× daily from d 1 to 35 and 1x daily from d 36 to weaning at d 42. Calves were fed a medicated (Decoquinate at 45.4 g/ton) 18% CP texturized CS free choice in the NP. Treatments were as follows: 1) CS formulated with inorganic TM (INORG); 2) CS formulated with organic TM (ORG); 3) CS formulated with organic TM and an additive containing yeast products, DFM’s and other additives (ORGAD). In the GP, calves were fed by treatment in group pens and offered 2.73 kg of grain mix medicated with Monensin at 39 g/ton supplemented as in NP and fed hay free choice daily. Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS and repeated measures analyses applied where appropriate. There was a trend (P = 0.08) for increased ADG in the NP for calves fed ORGAD compared with ORG with INORG being intermediate, averaging 0.70, 0.64 and 0.66 kg/d, respectively. Total CS intake in NP was lower (P < 0.05) for calves fed ORG compared with INORG and ORGAD averaging 44.7, 50.0 and 51.6 kg, respectively. Health costs trended higher (P = 0.09) in the NP for calves fed INORG compared with ORG and ORGAD averaging 0.75, 0.22 and 0.17 $/d, respectively. In the GP, there was a trend (P = 0.07) for increased ADG for calves fed ORGAD compared with calves fed INORG with ORG being intermediate averaging 1.02, 0.98 and 0.99 kg/d, respectively. In the GP there was no difference (P > 0.05) in total DMI/d or gain:feed averaging 3.91 kg/d and 0.27, respectively. Under conditions of this study there was no measured benefit to feeding an organic compared with an inorganic TM in the NP or GP. The addition of additives to an organic TM mix may improve calf health and performance.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81897 Watch M105 Use of sensory additives to mask bitter taste in calf milk replacers. 3 M. Terré aversion test calf sensory additive M. Terré1, M. Verdú2, A. Frongia2, R. Cresci2, M. Blanch3 1IRTA, Caldes de Montbui, Spain, 2bonÀrea Agrupa, Guissona, Spain, 3Lucta S.A, Bellaterra, Spain There are several feed additives used for dairy calves that cause palatability problems. A model to cause milk replacer (MR) aversion to dairy calves was developed. The model consisted on adding 30 g/kg of a mix of commercial products with bitter taste (Bittermix) to the MR, and animals who received Bittermix (BM) had more MR refusals, and a decrease in the MR intake rate. To evaluate the potential of 2 sensory additives differing in the sweet fraction to mask BM aversion in the MR, 37 Holstein male calves (6.5 ± 0.93 d of age and 40.2 ± 1.40 kg of BW) were raised under the same conditions following a common MR (25.3% CP, 21.1% fat) feeding program. When calves (38.5 ± 1.12 d of age and 57.7 ± 1.70 kg of BW)were able to consume 8 L/d at 12.5% DM concentration in 2 feedings, the aversion test was performed adding one of the following products to the MR: no supplementation (CTRL; n = 9); BM at the dose of 30 g of BM/kg of MR; (BM; n = 9); BM plus sensory additive 1 at the dose of 2 g/kg of MR (SA1; n = 10); and BM plus sensory additive 2 at the dose of 2 g/kg of MR (SA2; n = 9). The aversion test lasted 7 d, and MR intake and time devoted to consume the MR were recorded at each feeding throughout the aversion week. Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects model accounting the fixed effects of MR supplementation, feeding during the aversion week, and their interaction, and calf as random effect. The incidence of MR refusals was analyzed with a generalized mixed model considering treatment as fixed effect. The incidence of refusals and time devoted to consume the MR were similar in all 4 treatments. However, the eating rate of calves supplemented with SA2 was similar to CTRL calves, in contrast to calves supplemented with SA1 that had similar eating rate to BM calves. Sensory additive 2was able to revert the aversion effects of BM exhibiting a similar MR eating rate than CTRL calves.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81912 Watch M106 Effects of a blend of essential oils in milk replacer on blood parameters of dairy heifers. 4 M. M. Campos blood metabolites erythrogram health J. P. Campolina1, S. G. Coelho1, A. L. Belli1, L. G. R. Pereira2, T. R. Tomich2, W. A. Carvalho2, M. M. Campos2 1Department of Animal Science, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, EMBRAPA), National Center for Research on Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil The rise of organic dairy farms increased demands for natural alternatives to improve animals’ development and health. The objective of this study was to characterize the hematological and biochemical responses of dairy heifers supplemented with of a commercial blend of essential oils (Apex calf, Adisseo, China) in milk replacer (MR) and its carryover effects for 30 d after weaning. Twenty-nine newborn Holstein x Gyr crossbred dairy heifers were randomly distributed among 2 treatments: Control (CON), no essential oils, n = 15 and blend of essential oil added to milk replacer (MR) (BEO), 1 g/calf/d, n = 14. Heifers received 5 L of MR with 15% of total solids, divided in 2 daily meals until 60 d of age, when they were weaned. Water and calf starter were offered in buckets for ad libitum intake. Jugular blood samples were collected every 7 d, 3 h after morning feeding, for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea and glucose concentrations, every 14 d for IGF-1 concentrations, and on d 0, 30 and 60 for erythrogram and leukogram analysis. Data were analyzed using R (R Core Team, 2019), as a randomized block model with repeated measures, using the linear mixed model. All blood metabolites were not altered by BEO supplementation. Urea and BHB concentrations increased with age (P ≤ 0.05). IGF-1 concentrations increased with age on the preweaning phase (P ≤ 0.05). Glucose did not change during preweaning period. These changes are directly correlated gut and calf development. There were no differences in erythrogram parameters between BEO and CON. Leukogram parameters showed decreased counts of basophil and platelet cells in BEO treatment (P ≤ 0.05). An interesting interaction effect was found also for lymphocytes, where values of d 30 and 60 were different from d 1. The lower counts of basophil and platelets on BEO treatment may influence and modulate inflammatory response by secretion of immune modulators, growth factors or chemotaxis on variety of white blood cells. Feeding BEO to preweaned heifers on MR did not affect blood metabolites or IGF-1 concentration. However, it showed signs of immunity improvement.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81917 Watch M107 Effects of a blend of essential oils in milk replacer on gut weight and histology of dairy calves. 5 M. M. Campos gut development preweaning phase rumen-reticulum J. P. Campolina1, S. G. Coelho1, A. L. Belli1, F. S. Machado2, L. G. R. Pereira2, T. R. Tomich2, S. F. Costa3, M. M. Campos2 1Department of Animal Science, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, EMBRAPA), National Center for Research on Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil Calves are born functionally non-ruminant. Therefore, the use of additives that helps its digestive system and other organs development are used in dairy farm to optimize the preweaning phase. The objective of this study was to characterize changes on the gut development of calves supplemented with of a commercial blend of essential oils (Apex calf, Adisseo, China) on milk replacer. Sixteen newborn Holstein x Gyr crossbred bull calves were randomly distributed among 2 treatments: Control (CON), no essential oils, n = 8; and blend of essential oil added to milk replacer (MR) (BEO), 1 g/calf/d, n = 8. They received 5 L of MR with 15% of total solids, divided in 2 daily meals until 60 ± 1 d, when they were euthanized to compare internal organs development. Water and calf starter were offered in buckets for ad libitum intake. Weights of spleen, bladder, liver, pancreas, kidney, rumen-reticulum, omasum, abomasum, small and large intestine, tongue, heart and respiratory tract were compared with percentage of empty BW. For comparative histology samples were collected from rumen ventral sac, rumen dorsal sac, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum and colon. For each sample papilla`s or villi area, height and mitotic index (MI) of epithelium basal layer were analyzed. For MI determination, 2000 cells of the basal layer were counted using a light microscope. Estimation considered the ration between number of cells in mitotic division and total counted cell number. Data were analyzed using R (R Core Team, 2019), as a randomized block model with repeated measures, using the linear mixed model. Most of the organs compared presented similar weights among treatments. However, differences were found for pancreas, respiratory tract and small intestine, were BEO calves presented heavier organs (P ≤ 0.05). For cellular development BEO calves presented a higher ilium villi height (P ≤ 0.05). Since internal organs have a higher metabolic rate, and responds to alterations in feeding patterns, the BEO could be an option for increasing gut development during the preweaning period.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81931 Watch M108 Pre- and postweaning performance of calves fed milk replacer formulated with different levels of sodium butyrate. 6 A. Manthey calf performance sodium butyrate milk replacer D. Ziegler1, H. Chester-Jones2, B. Ziegler2, A. Manthey2, E. Dufour2, K. Mjoun3 1University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN, 2Hubbard Feeds, Mankato, MN, 3Alltech, Nicholasville, KY One-hundred eight (2 to 5 d old) Holstein heifer calves (39.1 ± 0.69 kg) from 2 commercial dairies were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 milk replacer (MR) treatments formulated with different levels of Viligen, a blend of short chain fatty acids and prebiotic components, sodium butyrate (SB) to evaluate pre- (d 1 to 42) and post-weaning (d 43 to 56) calf performance and health. The study was conducted between August and December, 2018. All calves were fed a non-medicated 20% CP:20% Fat milk replacer (all-milk protein) fed at 0.28 kg in 2 L of water 2× daily from d 1 to 35 and 1× daily from d 36 to weaning at d 42; supplemented (d 1 to 14) with neomycin sulfate and oxytetracycline at 22 mg/kg BW/d. All calves were fed a medicated (Decoquinate at 45.4 g/ton) texturized calf starter (CS; 18% CP as fed). Milk replacer treatments were as follows: 1) MR without added SB, (CON); 2) MR formulated with 0.24% SB, (SB24); 3) MR formulated with 0.48% SB, (SB48); and 4) MR formulated with 0.72% SB, (SB72). Water and CS were offered free choice from d 1 to 56. Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS and repeated measures analyses applied where appropriate. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in preweaning, postweaning, or total gains (d 1 to 56) averaging 0.56, 1.12 and 0.70 kg/d, respectively. There was a trend (P = 0.08) of a linear decrease in overall (d 1 to 56) hip height and hip height gain with increasing levels of sodium butyrate fed in the MR. Pre- and post-weaning CS intake was similar (P > 0.05) across treatments averaging 18.1 and 31.2 kg, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in preweaning, postweaning or overall (d 1 to 56) feed efficiency across treatments averaging 0.61, 0.51 and 0.56, respectively. There were no differences in overall (d 1 to 56) health costs or fecal scores (1 to 4; where 1 = normal, 4 = watery), across treatments, averaging 90 cents and 1.27. Under conditions of this study calves fed a MR formulated with different levels of SB did not affect ADG, gain:feed or health of calves pre- or postweaning.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81936 Watch M109 Performance and health of dairy calves fed milk replacers formulated with different levels of coconut oil as a partial replacement of animal fat in two feeding rates. 7 D. Ziegler calf performance milk replacer animal fat D. Ziegler1, H. Chester-Jones1, B. Ziegler2, A. Manthey2, E. Dufour2 1University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN, 2Hubbard Feeds, Mankato, MN One-hundred six (2 to 5 d old) Holstein heifer calves (39.7 ± 0.63 kg) from 2 commercial dairies were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 milk replacer (MR) treatments, formulated with animal fat (AF) or a blend of coconut oil (CO) and AF (FB) to evaluate calf performance and health. The study was conducted between November 2018 and February, 2019. All calves were fed a medicated (Decoquinate at 45.4 g/ton) texturized calf starter (CS; 18% CP as fed). Water and CS were offered free choice from d 1 to 56. All MR were formulated with all-milk protein and Bio-Mos. All calves were supplemented (d 1 to 14) with neomycin sulfate and oxytetracycline at 22 mg/kg BW/d. Treatments were as follows: 1) 24% CP:20% Fat MR, (AF) fed at 0.28 kg in 2.00 L of water 2× daily from d 1 to 35 and 1× daily from d 36 to weaning at d 42 (AFL); 2) 24% CP:24% Fat MR formulated with a FB of 85% AF,15% CO; fed as in TRT 1, (LCOL); 3) 24% CP:24% Fat MR formulated with a FB of 75% AF, 25% CO fed as in TRT 1, (HCOL); 4) MR as in TRT 2, fed at 0.43 kg in 2.98 L of water 2× daily from d 1 to 42 and 1× daily from d 43 to weaning at d 49, (LCOH); 5) MR as in TRT 3, fed as in TRT 4; (HCOH). Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS and repeated measures analyses applied where appropriate. There were no differences in ADG (P > 0.05) d 1 to 56, d 57 to 84 or d 1 to 84 averaging 0.79, 0.90 and 0.83 kg/d, respectively. Hip height gain d 1 to 56 was greater (P < 0.05) for high compared with low MR feeding rates averaging 13.10 and 11.75 cm, respectively. Total (d 1 to 56) CS intake, DMI and gain:feed ratio was higher (P < 0.05) for AFL, LCOL and HCOL compared with LCOH and HCOH averaging 56.8, 77.9 kg, 0.58 and 34.8, 71.8, 0.65 respectively. There were no differences in health costs or scouring days (1 to 4; where 1 = normal, 4 = watery), d 1 to 56 averaging 50 cents and 1.82 d, respectively. Under conditions of this study there was no difference in performance or calf health when feeding a 24% CP:24% Fat MR formulated with 2 different levels of CO.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81937 Watch M110 Pre- and postweaning performance and health of dairy calves fed milk replacers supplemented with a direct-fed microbial and/or brewery yeast cell wall. 8 D. Ziegler calf performance milk replacer direct-fed microbial D. Ziegler1, H. Chester-Jones1, T. Marubashi2 1University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN, 2Calpis America Inc, Peachtree City, GA One-hundred seven (2 to 5 d old) individually fed Holstein heifer calves (39.9 ± 0.66 kg) from 2 commercial dairies were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 milk replacer treatments (MR) supplemented with an organic direct-fed microbial (DFM) and/or brewery yeast cell wall (BYCW) to evaluate pre- (d 1 to 42) and postweaning (d 43 to 56) calf performance and health. The study was conducted between April and July, 2019. Treatments included: 1) all-milk protein, non-medicated MR 20% CP:20% Fat fed at 0.28 kg in 2 L of water 2× daily from d 1 to d 35 and 1× daily from d 36 to weaning at d 42, (CON); 2) MR as in CON supplemented with (BYCW) at a rate of 7.5 g daily, (BYCW); 3) MR as in CON supplemented with 5 g daily of a DFM containing Bacillus subtilis strain C-3102 (3.0 × 109 cfu/calf, d 1 to 42 ; DFM); 4) MR as in CON supplemented with 5 g daily of DFM and 7.5 g daily of BYCW, (DFMBYCW). All calves were offered a (18% CP as fed) medicated calf starter (Decoquinate at 45.4 g/ton) and water free choice from d 1 to 56. Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS and repeated measures analyses applied where appropriate. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in pre- (d 1 to 42), post weaning (d 43 to 56), or overall (d 1 to 56) gains averaging 0.56, 1.07, 0.68 kg/d, respectively. Pre- (d 1 to 42) and post weaning (d 43 to 56) calf starter intake was similar across treatments averaging 18.1 and 31.6 kg total intake, respectively. There was a difference (P < 0.05) in number of days fecal score = 4 (d 1 to 42; where 1 = normal, 4 = watery), for calves fed CON averaging 0.58 d compared with 0.18 and 0.22 d respectively for BYCW and DFMBYCM with DFM being intermediate at 0.35 d. Health costs were similar across treatments. Under conditions of this study calves fed a MR supplemented with a DFM, BYCW or combination of DFM and BYCW did not affect growth or performance compared with calves fed a non-medicated MR.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t81988 Watch M111 Effects of beta-glucans addition on milk replacer for Holstein dairy calves. 9 M. E. Reis Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth diarrhea M. E. Reis1, A. F. Toledo1, A. P. Silva1, A. M. Cezar1, E. A. Fioruci1, R. C. Silva1, S. C. Dondé1, L. Greco2, C. M. M. Bittar1 1Dept. Of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2Kemin Animal Nutrition & Health Division South America, Valinhos, Sao Paulo, Brazil The study aimed to investigate how addition of β-glucans can affect calf’s growth performance, health, and fecal score. Holstein calves (n = 32) were individually housed in tropical shelters and blocked according to sex, date and weight at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of the treatments: (1) Control: milk replacer (14% solids, 24% CP, 18.5% Fat); (2) Aleta: milk replacer supplemented with β-glucans (Aleta, 2 g/d). All calves were bucket fed 6L/d of milk replacer and received water and starter concentrate ad libitum starting on d 2. Feed intake, health score and fecal score were recorded daily. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using PROC Mixed of SAS.There was no difference on concentrate intake and ADG between treatments (P > 0.05). Feed efficiency was affected by treatment and age interaction (P = 0.04), with higher FE for β-glucans supplemented animals only in the third and fifth week of age. Supplemented calves presented lower fecal score (P = 0.01), decreased days with diarrhea (P = 0.01) and higher final BW (P = 0.05; Table 1). Overall, β-glucans supplementation may improve feed efficiency, final BW and fecal score during the preweaning phase. Table 1. Performance of calves supplemented or not with beta-glucans
Item Treatment P-value1
Control β-glucan EPM T A T×A
Concentrate intake, g DM/d 251.86 311.13 31.11 0.17 <0.01 0.40
ADG, kg 0.276 0.328 0.04 0.10 <0.01 0.06
FE 0.238 0.290 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.04
Birth BW 36.17 36.60 1.33 0.52 - -
Final BW, 8 wk 51.53 56.35 2.17 0.05 - -
Average BW, kg 42.76 44.86 1.58 0.13 <0.01 0.08
Fecal score 1.46 1.06 0.09 0.01 <0.01 0.10
Days with diarrhea 25.73 14.67 2.96 0.01 - -
1T = treatment effect; A = age effect; T×A = treatment vs. age effect.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t82826 Watch M112 Effects of dietary organic acid and plant botanical supplementation on growth and hematological profile in Holstein calves transitioning from milk replacer to starter. 10 B. N. Tate dairy calf organic acid weaning B. N. Tate1, A. B. P. Fontoura1, V. Sáinz de la Maza-Escolà1,2, J. T. Siegel Nieves1, F. Wang1,3, L. F. Wang1,4, M. E. Van Amburgh1, E. Grilli2,5, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 3China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 4Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China, 5VetAgro S.p.A, Reggio Emilia, Italy Dietary organic acid and plant botanical (OA/PB) supplementation reduces gut membrane permeability and enhances growth performance in weaning piglets; however, the effects of OA/PB feeding in healthy young ruminants required investigation. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of dietary OA/PB supplementation on early life growth performance in calves. In a completely randomized design, 36 bull and heifer calves were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 12/group): control, low-dose OA/PB (75 mg/kg of BW); 25% citric acid, 16.7% sorbic acid, 1.7% thymol, 1.0% vanillin, and 55.6% triglyceride; AviPlus R; Vetagro, Italy), or high-dose OA/PB (150 mg/kg of BW; AviPlus R). Supplements were delivered as a twice daily bolus via the esophagus wk 1 through 8 of life. All calves received boluses equivalent for triglyceride. Calves were fed milk replacer (26% CP, 20% fat) at 1.7% of BW per day (dry matter basis) divided across twice daily feedings. Milk replacer intake was reduced by half at d 42 of age and terminated at d 49 of age. Starter (22% CP) and water were provided ad libitum for the duration of the trial. Body measurements were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected before morning feeding for white blood cell and hematocrit analysis. The mixed model included the fixed effects of BW at birth, time, treatment, and their interactions with random effect of calf nested within treatment. Significance was declared at P > 0.05. Calves did not develop clinical disease and were deemed healthy. Hip height, BW, and average daily gain were not modified by treatment. Dry matter and metabolizable energy intake, and gain:feed were also similar across treatment groups. Dietary OA/PB supplementation did not alter total white blood cell counts; however, hematocrit scores were greater in calves fed high-dose OA/PB, relative to other groups (P < 0.05). We conclude that dietary OA/PB supplementation does not modify growth performance or alter white blood cell populations in healthy Holstein calves.
Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers Posters   Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/22/2020 14:00 t82887 Watch M113 Clinical evaluation of diarrhea calves submitted to therapeutic protocols containing sulfonamides with different routes of administration. 11 E. Schmitt antimicrobial Escherichia coli growth performance R. Klaus1, L. V. Vieira1, A. D. C. de Matos1, U. S. Londero1, J. Halfen1, V. R. Rabassa1, E. Schmitt1, R. A. Pereira2, M. N. Corrêa1, A. A. Barbosa1, F. A. B. Del Pino1, J. Feijó1, C. C. Brauner1 1Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2Laboratory Ibasa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Neonatal diarrhea is 1 of the most important diseases in the dairy calve production system, mostly by affecting negatively the growth and performance of young calve, which may be associated with low treatment effectiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, hematological and growth performance of calves diagnosed with diarrhea against 3 treatments using sulfonamides. Fourteen Holstein calves were divided into 3 groups according to the administration route: oral (ORAL, n = 5); injectable (INJ, n = 4), and oral plus injectable (ORAL + INJ, n = 5). Clinical evaluations and fecal scores were performed on d 0, 3, 5 and 7 in relation to the day of diarrhea diagnosis. Fecal samples were collected on d 0 and 7, to identify the bacterial agent, performed by PCR, antibiogram and coproparasitological exams. Measurements of chest perimeter, withers height, and croup width were performed weekly until 30 d of age, while weight up to 60 d. The INJ group presented better (P < 0,05) growth performance and a trend (P = 0,06) to lower fibrinogen when compared with the others. Escherichia coli was identified in 100% (n = 17) of collected samples and the virulence genes, identified by PCR: hlyA, stx1, estIa, and eae, that are characteristic of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) a producer of shiga toxin, enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC), respectively. Of all samples collected, 82.35% (n = 14/17) were sensitive to the sulfonamides and 17.65% (n = 3/17) resistant through in vitro sensitivity test. An association was observed between sensitive samples and the stx1 gene. In this sense, the results suggest a greater prevalence of genes related to hemolysin. All treatments seem to be efficient by controlling body temperature and decrease the fecal scores of the treated calves. However, the INJ treatment seems to have a less inflammatory response and improvements on growth performance, being the better treatment for diarrhea caused by E. coli.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82628 Watch M138 Feed efficiency indexes in crossbred Holstein × Gyr heifers and its effects on energy and nitrogen partitioning, blood metabolic variables and gas exchanges. 1 J. P. Sacramento digestibility methane residual feed intake D. C. Silva1, J. P. Sacramento4, L. G. R. Pereira2, J. A. M. Lima3, F. S. Machado2, A. L. Ferreira3, T. R. Tomich2, S. G. Coelho3, R. M. Mauricio4, M. M. Campos2 1State University of Southwestern Bahia, Itapetinga, Bahia, Brazil, 2Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation EMBRAPA Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, 3Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 4Federal University of São João del Rei, São João del Rei, MG, Brazil The effects of divergent phenotypic classification in Holstein × Gyr (F1) heifers for residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in relation to digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production were evaluated in this study. Thirty-five heifers were ranked into 2 RFI, RG and FCE groups: high efficiency (HE) and low efficiency (LE). The animals were housed in a tie-stall facility and received TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate, 175 CP/kg, 4084 kcal/kg GE and 422 g/kg NDF in DM). Digestibility was evaluated during 5-d of total collection of feces and 2-d of urine. Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) were obtained in open-circuit respirometry chambers. A completely randomized design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. The comparison of means between the divergent groups was performed by Fisher's test. High efficiency animals for RFI consumed less O2 (P = 00.4) and produced less CO2 (P = 0.05). Heat production (HP) was lower for HE-RFI animals (171 vs 178 kcal/d/BW0.75; P = 0.05). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI, (P = 00.3). The HE-RG had higher O2 consumption (2562 vs 2425 L/d; P = 00.2) and higher CO2 production (2689 vs 2562 L/d, (P = 00.4) in relation to LE-RG. The HE-FCE, had greater NFC digestibility (P = 00.1), higher positive energy balance (P = 00.4), and excreted (12.3 g/d), less N in urine (P = 00.2). HE-RFI animals had lower β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (0.80 vs 0.88 mmol/L; P = 00.2) and HE-FCE had higher concentrations glucose (5.24 vs 4.92 mmol/L; P = 00.1) in relation to LE-FCE. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals (P = 00.1 and P = 00.4) respectively. The differences in performance, nutritional and metabolic parameters between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/22/2020 14:00 t81732 Watch M139 Meta-analysis of the effects of linoleic fatty acid intake on lactating dairy cow performance. 2 F. Díaz fatty acids dairy cow meta-analysis F. Díaz1, J. Sánchez-Duarte1, A. Garcia1 1Dairy Research Center, dellait, Brookings, SD Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in dairy ration feed ingredients that may inhibit milk fat synthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary C18:2 intake on lactating dairy cow performance. Sixteen trials that added corn (0.7–2.8% of DM) or soybean oil (0.5–7.4% DM) to the diet in 14 published articles (2000–2019) were included. A mixed model meta-analysis was conducted using the random effect of study weighing by the inverse of the standard error of the means squared. Intakes of oleic (C18:1), linolenic (C18:3), rumen unsaturated fatty acids load (RUFAL), and all possible 2-way interactions and quadratic effects were included in the models. Multicollinearity was quantified with the variance inflation factor (VIF). The best-fit model was chosen based on the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) and root mean square error (RMSE). Residual vs. fitted values and Q-Q plots were used to identify the heteroscedasticity and normality of the final models, respectively. Marginal and conditional R2 explained the variance of the final models. No interactions, but high multicollinearity (VIF ≥3), were observed between dietary C18:2 intake and intakes of C18:1, C18:3, and RUFAL. Therefore, intakes of C18:1, C18:3, and RUFAL were removed from the models. Increasing dietary C18:2 intake from 143 to 760 g/d linearly decreased DM intake, 4% FCM, milk fat concentration, and milk fat yield (Table 1). Milk protein concentration and yield, however, were not affected by increasing dietary C18:2 intake. Results of this meta-analysis show that ingredients containing high concentrations of linoleic acid should be limited in lactating cow diets when the objective is to maximize milk production performance. Table 1.
Item n Coefficient SE P-value RMSE AIC
DMI, kg/d 51 −0.00303 0.00138 0.03 0.06 230.4
4% FCM, kg/d 51 −0.00974 0.00349 0.009 0.08 308.0
Milk fat, % 51 −0.00181 0.00031 0.0001 0.16 63.9
Milk fat yield (kg/d) 51 −0.00054 0.00015 0.001 0.11 3.7
Milk protein, % 45 −0.00020 0.00014 0.15 0.07 −29.2
Milk protein yield (kg/d) 47 −0.00006 0.00006 0.38 0.04 −63.54
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 14:00 t82089 Watch M114 Is dietary selenite transformed into elemental selenium by rumen micro-organisms? Comparison of mineral and organic selenium forms in cows. 3 M. A. Hachemi elemental selenium selenomethionine cows M. A. Hachemi1, E. Pinloche1, M. De Marco1, S. Fredin2, M. Briens1 1Adisseo France SAS, Commentry, France, 2Adisseo USA Inc, Alpharetta, GA The lower efficacy of mineral selenium (Se) forms for status improvement compared with organic ones is largely described. However, limited results indicate it could be related to the formation of elemental Se (Se (0)) by rumen microorganisms (RMO). To test this hypothesis, we fed several forms of Se and measured the whole total Se (Tot-Se) as well as the speciation of Se (0) in rumen fluid and plasma of cows. Eleven ruminally cannulated nonlactating Prim Holstein cows were divided into 4 groups and fed for 23 d either a control diet (hay and protein-energy concentrate) (CON; n = 2), or the same control diet supplemented with 10 mg of Se top-dressed as sodium selenite (SS; n = 3), zinc-L-selenomethionine (Zn-SeMet; n = 3 or hydroxy-selenomethionine (Selisseo 2% Se; OH-SeMet; n = 3)). Rumen fluid (RF) was collected on d 22 and 23 and blood for plasma was collected from the tail vein on d 22, both 4 h after morning feeding. Plasma and freeze-dried RF were used for Tot-Se and Se (0) measurement by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Data were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Results of plasma Tot-Se were CON: 32; SS: 94; Zn-SeMet: 127; OH-SeMet: 147 µg Se/kg of fresh material with significant differences within groups (P < 0.05) except between CON and SS groups (P > 0.05). The concentration of Tot-Se in RF was not different between the 2 sampling days. The concentration of Se in RF was positively correlated with the concentration of Se in plasma (R2 = 0.96) and followed the same hierarchy. Se (0) was measured in RF but was not detected in any group except the SS group. The proportion of Tot-Se present as Se (0) in the SS treatment was 42%. We conclude that plasma Tot-Se is representative of rumen Se level and confirmed the higher bioavailability of organic Se forms, particularly OH-SeMet. Those results also confirm a transformation of SS into elemental Se, which could explain the lower bioavailability for SS.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81730 Watch M115 Effects of Lactobacillus, cellulase, and molasses on fermented sugarcane bagasse ruminal fermentation and in vitro digestibility. 4 S. So additives protozoa population gas production S. So1, A. Cherdthong1, A. P. Faciola2 1Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of lactobacillus, cellulase, and molasses when added to a 30-d fermented sugarcane bagasse on ruminal gas kinetics, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa population, and fermentation patterns using an in vitro gas production system. A 2 × 2 × 2 (+1) factorial arrangement in a complete randomized design was performed in this experiment. The (+1) treatment referred to fermented rice straw without additives (RS), as a negative control. The 3 factors of interest were: (A) levels of Lactobacillus casei TH14 at 0 and 0.05 g/kg of fresh matter, (B) levels of cellulase at 0 and 0.02 g/kg of fresh matter, and (C) levels of molasses at 0 and 0.05 g/100 mL of distilled water. Data were analyzed using the Proc GLM procedure of SAS, and the response effects comparison of each factor were evaluated using orthogonal contrast. Compared with RS and fermented sugarcane bagasse, gas kinetics and cumulative gas were increased by additives (P < 0.05). Additives enhanced in vitro DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility compared with the control treatments (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were not significantly affected compared with the control treatments (P > 0.05). The molar proportion of acetate decreased while propionate molar proportion increased by additives (P < 0.05). Estimated methane production was reduced by additives (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fermented sugarcane bagasse with Lactobacillus and additives had greater in vitro digestibility and improved ruminal fermentation patterns when compared with fermented rice straw and fermented sugarcane bagasse.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81792 Watch M116 Effect of nitrate and hydrogen addition on methane production in vitro. 5 M. E. Rendon nitrate hydrogen methane production M. E. Rendon1, S. L. Ratiff1, J. McDermott1, J. Scott1, R. Rha1, R. Kohn1 1University of Maryland, College Park, MD It is theorized that nitrate (NO3) decreases production of enteric methane (CH4) by using hydrogen (H2), a substrate for methanogenesis. We hypothesized that adding gaseous hydrogen (H2(g)) with NO3- would reverse NO3 inhibition of CH4 in vitro. The effect of NO3 and H2(g) on CH4 and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was analyzed in 2 runs of in vitro fermentation of corn grain and timothy hay. The treatments with corn were control (C), C + NO3 (CN) and C + NO3 + H2(g) (CNH); and for timothy hay were control (T), T + NO3 (TN) and T + NO3 + H2(g) (TNH). Nitrate was included in the flask at 3% of DM. The 2 runs differed in where the H2(g) (60 mL) was placed. In run one, the H2(g) was placed in a balloon attached to the top of flask; and in run 2, H2(g) was incorporated directly into the headspace of the flask. The effect of additive on total CH4 production and VFA concentration were evaluated with a mixed model using JMP Pro 14.1 (SAS Institute Inc.). In run one, CH4 production (mL) in C was 4.94 but was lower (P < 0.03) in CN (2.81) and CNH (1.61). In the same way, CH4 production (mL) in T was 4.04 but was lower (P < 0.0001) in CN (0.71) and CNH (0.76). In run 2, both NO3 and H2(g) negatively affected (P < 0.006) the production of CH4 for C, CN and CNH (5.67, 2.81, 1.48 mL). The CH4 production differed (P < 0.0005) in timothy hay treatments with highest in T (2.96) and lowest in TN (0.49) and TNH between the 2 (1.54). In the first run, for both corn and timothy hay, VFA production (% of total VFA) was not affected (P > 0.05). In the second run, production of acetic (3.88, 3.37, and 2.59%) and propionic (1.59, 1.35, and 1.03%) acids in C, CN, and CNH, respectively, decreased (P < 0.001) with inclusion of NO3 and decreased more with H2(g). With timothy hay, acetic acid production decreased (P < 0.02) only for TN compared with T and TNH (2.92, 2.36, 3.08% for T, TN, TNH, respectively). Effects of NO3 and H2(g) on VFA production were inconsistent. Addition of NO3 decreased methane production in vitro, and the effect was sometimes reversed by adding H2(g).
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81878 Watch M117 Milk production and nitrogen efficiency in Holstein cows supplemented with a natural additive, ValKalor, in a low protein content diet. 6 J. Ferguson production milk protein N efficiency J. Ferguson1, L. Baker1, J. Bender1, J.-P. Ricaud2, M. Aoun2, D. Pitta1 1University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, 2Idena Inc, Sautron, Pays de la Loire, France Forty Holstein cows [mean milk production (SD) and DIM, 40.8 kg/d (8.3) and 96.7 d (25.3), respectively] were randomly assigned to 4 treatment pens (3 primiparous and 7 multiparous/pen). The experiment was a switchback design, 2 dietary treatments offered to 2 pens for two 3-wk periods, separated by a 2-wk washout period. The basal TMR consisted of corn and sorghum silages, ground corn, and a 36% protein mineral mix. The TMR included 13 ppm monensin. Treatment was 200 g (20 g/cow/d) of ValKalor (Hibiscus sabdariffa, blend of essential oils, Idena) in 4.5 kg of ground corn top dressed on the TMR. The control diet was 4.5 kg of ground corn top dressed on the TMR. Daily feed samples and weigh backs were collected by pen and composited by period for chemical analysis. Pen TMR and weigh back amounts and DMs were measured daily. Daily milk per cow was recorded at am and pm milkings and summed for volume over the experimental periods. Individual cow milk samples were collected in the third week (Tuesday p.m. and Wednesday a.m.) of each experimental period, composited and analyzed for milk fat, protein, urea nitrogen, and somatic cell content. Nutrient content (% DM) of the control and treatment TMR, respectively was (%, SD): CP, 14.8 (0.7), 14.1 (1.3); NDF, 32.4 (2.0), 33.5 (3.0); starch, 27.8 (1.7), 27.0 (2.3); fat, 3.9 (0.3), 3.6 (0.4). Table 1. Production results
Item Control SEM ValKalor SEM P <
Treat Lact T x L
Milk, kg/d 35.02 0.87 34.58 0.87 0.0037 0.0001 0.0591
ECM, kg/d 37.64 1.92 39.22 1.92 0.2062 0.0001 0.7024
Milk Pro, % 3.27 0.05 3.32 0.05 0.2549 0.1708 0.4811
Milk Fat, % 4.18 0.15 4.24 0.15 0.7517 0.7967 0.8190
Prot. yield, g/d 1,097.8 23.6 1,148.4 23.6 0.0869 0.0001 0.3962
Fat yield, g/d 1,402.4 48.2 1,465.4 48.2 0.3587 0.0004 0.9087
SCC, x1000 40.6 0.2 31.6 0.2 0.0447 0.9185 0.5359
MUN, mg/dL 11.4 0.3 11.3 0.2 0.7132 0.3314 0.5727
DMI, kg/cow 25.4 0.5 24.9 0.5 0.0445 NA NA
N intake, g/d 598.9 25.7 561.9 60.4 0.0355 NA NA
Milk N, g/d 194.7 1.7 195.0 6.1 0.5508 NA NA
N efficiency 0.33 0.01 0.35 0.03 0.0240 NA NA
ECM/DMI 1.54 0.05 1.58 0.08 0.2879 NA NA
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81898 Watch M118 Effectiveness of precision feeding in reducing N excretion in dairy cattle. 7 M. Terré efficiency environment nutrition M. Terré1,3, L. Morey2, D. Sabrià3, A. Bach4,1 1Ruminant Department, IRTA, Caldes de Montbui, Spain, 2GIRO, IRTA, Caldes de Montbui, Spain, 3EVAM, IRTA, Monells, Spain, 4ICREA, Barcelona, Spain Eleven primiparous and 17 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (723 ± 3.1 kg of BW; 34.5 ± 1.69 kg/d of milk;159 ± 17.7 DIM) were blocked by parity and DIM, and randomly assigned to a conventional (CONV) feeding scheme based on a unique TMR or to a precision feeding scheme (PREC) for a 21-d period. The CONV group was offered a TMR (1.63 Mcal/kg DM, 16.5% CP), and PREC cows were fed a partial mixed ration (PMR; 1.59 Mcal/kg DM, 13.5% CP) and a concentrate feed supplement, which contained different proportions of soybean meal, corn, and wheat middlings according to animal estimated needs above the PMR consumption twice daily in the milking parlor. Daily needs were calculated using NRC equations (2001) with a rolling average of performance data (milk yield and quality, and BW) from 10 preceding days, and subtracting the nutrients consumed from the PMR computed also using a rolling average from 10 preceding days. Daily TMR and PMR intake, milk yield and quality were daily recorded, and a N balance using spot sampling during the last 3 d of the study was performed. Animals following both feeding systems had similar milk yield, milk fat and protein content, and total DMI. However, CP intake was greater (P < 0.05) in CONV than in PREC cows (4.26 vs 3.70 ± 0.170, respectively, kg/d), and improvements (P < 0.05) in feed efficiency (1.47 vs 1.39 ± 0.170, respectively) and efficiency of N utilization (0.32 vs 0.29 ± 0.005, respectively) were observed in PREC compared with CONV fed cows. Total daily N urine excretion (197 vs 142 ± 11.7, respectively, g/d) and milk urea concentration (130 vs 77 ± 14.5, respectively, mg/dL) were greater in CONV than in PREC fed cows. Feeding cows using a precision feeding system based on daily milk yield and composition can reduce environment N excretion without impairing performance.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81942 Watch M119 Direct effect of lipopolysaccharide and histamine on permeability barrier of rumen epithelium. 8 D. P. Bu lipopolysaccharide histamine barrier function S. T. Gao1, L. Ma1, A. L. T. Zhu La1, W. H. Liu1, D. P. Bu1 1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China Disruption of rumen epithelium (RE) barrier is very common during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine (HIS) increased in the rumen. However, the individual roles of LPS and HIS in the process of RE barriers disruption are not clear. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the direct effect of LPS and HIS on barrier function of RE using the Ussing chamber system. Rumen tissues (n = 8) obtained from slaughtered feedlot steers were tested for changes in permeability to fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC) with LPS (1 mg/mL) and HIS (20 mmol/mL). The FITC was added at 8 mL (final concentration: 0.2 mmol/mL) in the mucosal side of the Ussing chambers to detect changes in permeability of RE, and 8 samples were collected at 20, 40, 60, and 80 min from the serosal side (2 samples in each time, one for FITC detection, the other one for LPS and HIS detection). At the end of the experiment, the tissues mounted in the chambers were collected and separated into 2 parts, one for morphological analysis and the other one for detections of mRNA abundance related to tight junction. The transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (Gt) were recorded continuously. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using MIXED PROC in SAS 9.4, with time, treatment, and the interaction between treatment and time as fixed effects and period as repeated effect. Compared with CON, HIS increased the Isc (88.2%, P < 0.05), Gt (29.7%, P < 0.1#), and the permeability to FITC (1.23-fold, P < 0.05) of RE. The apparent permeability of LPS was 2.8-fold higher than HIS (P < 0.01). The structures of the stratum granulosum, the stratum spinosum, and the stratum basale of histamine treated RE were severely damaged. The mRNA abundance of OCLN in RE was decreased by HIS (2.13-fold, P < 0.05). As such, the results of the present study suggested a direct role of HIS in the processing of the disruption of RE barrier function even without the cooperation of acidification.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81946 Watch M120 Effect of leaves of six forest plants on rumen microbiota and fermentation characteristics in vitro. 9 D. P. Bu anaerobic culture nitrogen efficiency Calotropis procera A. Ayemele Gnetegha1, L. Ma1, T. Park2, J. C. Xu1,3, Z. T. Yu2, D. P. Bu1,4 1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, 2Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3World Agroforestry Center, East and Central Asia, Kunming, China, 4CAASICRAF Joint Lab on Agroforestry and Sustainable Animal Husbandry, World Agroforestry Centre, East and Central Asia, Beijing, China This study screened the leaves of 6 forest plants (Brassica rapa chinensis, Kalimeris indica, Calotropis procera, Portulara oleracea, Flemingia macrophylla, and Adansonia digitata) at 4 different doses (0, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 mg/mL) for their ability to inhibit rumen protozoa in vitro. Rumen fluid was collected from 3 different dairy cows and cultured anaerobically for 24 h incubation in the presence of ground leaves of each plant and then counted under a light microscope. The protozoal cells were examined using scanning electron microscopy for potential changes in cell surface morphology. Total bacteria and total archaea were quantified as copies of 16S rRNA genes per mL culture samples using qPCR. The VFA and ammonia concentration were determined using gas chromatography and colorimetry respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.4. Out of the 6 tested plants, only Calotropis procera inhibited the genus Entodinium, which is the main culprit of intraruminal microbial protein cycling, and decreased ammonia nitrogen production (P < 0.05), while not suppressing the cellulolytic genera Orphryoscolex or Eudiplodinium (P > 0.05). The leaves of C. Procera damaged the Entodinium extracellular structure in a dose-dependent manner. Total bacterial and archaeal populations were not decreased (P > 0.05). Except for butyrate which increased (P < 0.05), the molar proportion of VFAs and total VFAs production were not altered (P > 0.05). Chemical extraction and analysis of the C. procera leaves revealed phenolics (48.98 ± 1.89 mg/g of dry extract), flavonoids (8.93 ± 0.89 mg/g), and alkaloids (3.61 ± 0.75 mg/g) as the major secondary metabolites. Future research is warranted to identify the specific secondary metabolite(s) that are responsible for the specific inhibition of Entodinium and the underpinning inhibition mechanisms.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81992 Watch M121 Prediction of dry matter intake using linear regression of sensor, blood metabolite, and performance variables in mid-lactation cows. 10 M. J. Martin predictive model feed efficiency M. J. Martin1, R. S. Pralle1, R. L. Wallace2, M. R. Borchers2, S. R. DeNise2, K. A. Weigel1, H. M. White1 1University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 2Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI Development of useful predictions of dry matter intake (DMI) for individual cows on farms could allow for the assessment of the impact of nutritional interventions on feed efficiency and facilitate the inclusion of thousands of additional cows in genomic reference populations for feed efficiency. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate DMI prediction models using cow performance, blood metabolite, and sensor data. Mid-lactation primi- and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 62/replicate) fitted with SMARTBOW eartags were housed in a freestall pen with Insentec feeders (2 replications; 45d). Sensor data collected via SMARTBOW included time spent lying (LT), ruminating (RT), and standing at the feedbunk (FT), as well as activity classified as high-active, active, and inactive. Other data collected included metabolic body weight (MBW), BCS, milk yield (MY), milk energy yield (MilkE), as well as plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutrate, and triglycerides (TG). All variables were scaled using the full data set and used as predictors of scaled DMI in multiple linear regression models. A model search was performed via the dredge function of MuMIN in R (v. 3.6.2). A 5-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate prospective models based on RMSE, r2, and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Variables selected by all top performing models included BCS, MBW, and MilkE. The best performing model included BCS, MBW, MilkE, RT, active time, and NEFA (RMSE = 0.49; r2 = 0.85; CCC = 0.87). Models excluding metabolites included BCS, MBW, MilkE, RT, and active time variables and achieved similar performance (RMSE = 0.49; r2 = 0.84; CCC = 0.87). Performance was slightly poorer for models excluding metabolites and milk composition data; the selected model included BCS, MBW, MY, RT, and active time (RMSE = 0.52; r2 = 0.82; CCC = 0.85). Models using only sensor and MilkE data included MilkE, FT, and LT (RMSE = 0.68; r2 = 0.57; CCC = 0.71). In conclusion, DMI can be reasonably predicted using sensor and performance variables with or without the use of blood metabolites.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81993 Watch M122 Fatty acid metabolism may vary in dairy cows with high and low residual feed intake. 11 M. J. Martin acylcarnitine feed efficiency arterial-venous difference M. J. Martin1, R. S. Pralle1, K. A. Weigel1, Z. Zhou2, H. M. White1 1University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 2Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Mammary uptake and sequestration of triglycerides has been demonstrated to be greater in cows with lower residual feed intake (RFI). The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in blood metabolites and markers of hepatic function between multiparous cows with high and low RFI as determined during 7-wk feed efficiency studies (n = 3). Calculated RFI was determined by regressing energy intake on milk energy output, median DIM, metabolic BW, and ΔBW (PROC MIXED, SAS 9.4). Cows were ranked by RFI and the top (HighRFI; feed inefficient) and bottom (LowRFI; feed efficient) 15% of phenotypic RFI (n = 18/group) were selected. Plasma and serum samples were taken concurrently from the tail vessel (TV) and the subcutaneous abdominal vein (MV). TV samples were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and albumin. TV and MV samples were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, lactate, carnitine, and acylcarnitines. Mammary arterial-venous difference (AVdiff) was calculated and variables were transformed as needed. The effect of RFI group was determined using PROC GLIMMIX with fixed effect of group and accounted for heterogeneity of variance. Data are presented as (mean [95%CI]). LowRFI cows had lower (P = 0.01) TV concentrations of C3-carnitine (0.86 µM [0.69,1.06] vs 1.31 µM [1.04,1.64]) and C4-carnitine (0.25 µM [0.22,0.28] vs 0.33 µM [0.29,0.37]), while TV C18:1-carnitine tended (P = 0.08) to be greater in LowRFI cows. Concentrations of C4-OH-carnitine were greater (P = 0.01) and C18:1-carnitine tended to be greater (P = 0.10) in the MV of LowRFI cows. Interestingly, AVdiff of C4-OH-carnitine was lower (P = 0.01) and C3-carnitine and C4-carnitine tended (P < 0.10) to be lower in LowRFI cows. There were no differences in concentration or AVdiff of other markers quantified. Although acylcarnitine exchange across mitochondrial membranes and between tissues is not fully understood, acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid oxidation and may serve as markers of metabolism. Differences in circulating acylcarnitine concentrations suggest potential differences in fatty acid metabolism between high and low RFI cows.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t81996 Watch M123 Biotin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 supplements: Their effects on glucose tolerance in early lactation. 12 C. L. Girard biotin folates cyanocobalamin M. Duplessis1, C. L. Girard1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada This study aims to evaluate glucose and insulin metabolism of early lactating multiparous cows receiving biotin (B8), folic acid (B9), and vitamin B12 (B12) supplements. Cows (n = 32) were assigned to either 1 of the 4 treatments from −3 to 3 wk relative to the calving: 1) no vitamin (B8-B9B12-); 2) 20 mg/d of dietary B8 (B8+B9B12-); 3) 2.6 g/d of dietary B9 and weekly intramuscular injections of 10 mg of B12 (B8-B9B12+); 4) B8 with B9B12 (B8+B9B12+). An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at 25 (SD: 2) days in milk after a fasting period of 12 h. Glucose (0.3 g of dextrose/kg of BW) was administered in 7.6 min; blood samples were taken −20, −10, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min post-infusion. Positive incremental method was used to calculate area under the curve (AUC). Data were analyzed with Proc MIXED (SAS) according to a factorial arrangement 2x2 and log-transformed when needed. Basal glucose, nonesterified fatty acid and glucagon plasma concentrations did not differ among treatments (P > 0.16) and averaged 2.96, SE: 0.15 mmol/L, 1,392, SE: 109 µmol/L, and 113, SE: 8 pg/mL, respectively. Supplementary B8 had no effect on basal insulin concentration in B9B12- cows but increased it when B9B12 was given, 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89–1.29 and 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30–1.91 mU/L for B8-B9B12+ and B8+B9B12+, respectively (B8xB9B12 interaction, P = 0.05). Glucose AUC (274, SE: 22 mmol·120 min/L), clearance rate (1.99, SD: 0.2%/min) and time to half-maximal concentration (35.1 SE: 1.0 min) did not differ among treatments (P > 0.57). B8 had no effect on glucose peak height in B9B12- cows but increased it in B9B12+ cows, 12.7, CI: 12.2–13.3 and 13.8, CI: 13.3–14.4 mmol/L for B8+B9B12- and B8+B9B12+, respectively (B8xB9B12 interaction, P = 0.05). Insulin AUC was greater for cows receiving B8 (1,950, SE: 110 mIU·120 min/L) than cows who did not (1,120, SE: 106 mIU·120 min/L; P < 0.0001). Peak insulin concentration was also greater for B8 cows (P = 0.03). The greater insulin release with the B8 supplement suggests that this supplement reduced insulin sensitivity.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82113 Watch M124 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha pathway in dairy cows in a TMR vs. a pasture-based system. 13 M. Garcia-Roche   M. Garcia-Roche1,2, G. Cañibe1, M. Ceriani1, A. Jasinsky1, A. Casal1, D. A. Mattiauda1, A. Cassina2, C. Quijano2, M. Carriquiry1 1Departamento de Producción Animal y Pasturas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Uruguay, 2Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas-Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay To assess the effect of feeding strategy on the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARA) pathway, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24, 664 ± 65 kg BW, 3.0 ± 0.4 BCS, spring calving) were assigned in a randomized block design to a total mixed ration (TMR) fed ad libitum (70% forage: 30% concentrate) (G0) or grazing plus supplementation (G1) from 0 to 180 d postpartum (DPP). The G1 cows grazed Festuca arundinacea or Medicago sativa in 2 (18 h) or one session (10 h) depending on heat stress (30 or 20 kgDM/d) and were supplemented with 5.4 kgDM/d of a commercial concentrate or offered TMR (50% of G0 offer). From 180 to 250 DPP, all cows grazed Festuca arundinacea (10 h; 30 kgDM/d) and were offered TMR (50% of G0 offer). Liver biopsies were collected at 35, 110 and 250 DPP and mRNA abundance of PPARA and downstream genes: liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) were studied using real time PCR. Data were analyzed using a mixed model that included DPP, treatment and their interaction as fixed effects. Energy-corrected milk yield decreased (P < 0.01) by 12 kg/d at 250 DPP. Expression of PPARA mRNA decreased (P < 0.05) 30% at 110 DPP, but was not affected by feeding strategy. However, FABP mRNA was 1.5-fold greater for G0 than G1 cows. Alongside, HMGCS2 mRNA tended to be 1.6-fold greater for G1 than G0 cows, no differences due to DPP were observed. Hepatic FABP mRNA decreased at 250 DPP (0.78 and 0.71 vs. 0.47 ± 0.19 for 35, 110 and 250 DPP, P = 0.07), while CPT1 mRNA was reduced at 110 DPP (0.77, 0.42 and 0.71 ± 0.30 for 35, 110 and 250 DPP, P < 0.01). No differences were observed for ACC1 mRNA. Expression of PPARA mRNA correlated positively (r ≥ 0.4, P < 0.01), with CPT1, HMGCS2 and ACC1 mRNA consistent with its regulatory role in the expression of these genes. We conclude that increased PPARA, CPT1 and FABP expression may be attributed to increased lipid mobilization, alongside FABP overexpression in G0 could be linked to enhanced fatty acid transport while HMGCS2 overexpression in G1 could represent incomplete oxidation of fatty acids.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82151 Watch M125 Effect of inoculant dose and time of ensiling on the fermentation and aerobic stability of snaplage. 14 C. A. Mellinger snaplage microbial inoculant aerobic stability C. A. Mellinger1, X. J. Liu1, J. D. Stypinski1, N. A. Moyer1, L. Kung Jr.1 1University of Delaware, Newark, DE We evaluated the effect of a microbial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of snaplage. Snaplage was harvested (19-mm chop length) in 2 years (different hybrids and different farms) at 62% and 63% DM, respectively. For each year, snaplage was untreated (CTRL) or treated with a low level of SilageProB (SP) (SP-L; American Farm Products, Saline, MI; application rate: 200,000 cfu of /g of L. buchneri (LB)/ g of fresh weight and 50,000 cfu of Pediococcus pentosaceus, 50,000 cfu of P. acidilactici and isolated enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis) or a high level of SP (SP-H; differing from SP-L in that the application rate for LB was 400,000 cfu/g).Treatments were applied as individual replicates in quintuplicate and ensiled in 7.5L bucket silos (density of 240 kg of DM/m3) at 21? for 30 and 90 d. Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of treatments (2 d of ensiling × 3 inoculation levels × 2 years) using JMP with significance declared at P < 0.05. Inoculation had no effect of numbers of lactic acid bacteria at 30 d but it was increased by both levels after 90 d. Inoculation did not affect the concentration of lactic acid or ethanol. There was a 3-way interaction on the concentration of acetic acid. Inoculation had no effect on the concentration of acetic acid at 30 d but at 90 d, SP-H increased acetic acid compared with CTRL, but only in 1 of the 2 yr. Inoculation numerically, but not statistically, decreased numbers of yeasts in silage (CTRL = 4.42, SP-L = 4.35, SP-H = 4.06 log cfu/g fresh weight). There was a day × inoculation effect on aerobic stability as there was no difference in stability of silages at 30 d (67, 70, and 74 h for CTRL, SP-L, and SP-H, respectively). However, at 90 d stability was higher for SP-H (102 h) than CTRL (69 h) but it was similar to SP-L (82 h). These data show that for the strain of LB used in SP, improvements in aerobic stability were not observed after 30 d and a high dose of LB was required to show efficacy at 90 d.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82171 Watch M126 Evaluation of gluconeogenic substances in fresh cows. 15 G. Desrousseaux Holstein fresh cows glucose precursor milk performance M. Norouzi1, G. Desrousseaux2, B. Médina3, A. Kalantari4, J.-F. Gabarrou2 1Razavi Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran, 2Phodé, Terssac, France, 3Probiotech International Inc, Ste-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada, 4Kimia Darou Mehr, Tehran, Iran This study evaluated the effect of feeding glucose precursors to fresh dairy cows on body condition score (BCS), milk production and composition, metabolic and physiological status. Thirty-two dairy cows were randomly assigned to treatments in complete block design for 42 d post-calving. Treatments (300g/hd/d each) were: (1) Control (ground corn), (2) dry USP-grade glycerol powder, (3) a glycerol/glycol-based product, and (4) glycol added to daily diet. A mixed model (GLM) with repeated measurements was used to analyze the treatments effects on BCS, BW, milk composition and yield, and blood metabolites. Significant results were defined at P < 0.05 and tendency at P < 0.1 (SAS, 1998). The results showed that mean BW was not affected by treatments although group 2 mean BW was greater in wk 6 than in Control group (698.7 ± 14 vs. 659 ± 15 kg; P < 0.05). Body condition score and chest circumference did not differ between treatments even BCS was lower in Control group. Average milk yield was numerically higher in Group 2 than in other groups (42.2 vs. (1) 40.9, (3) 36.2 and (4) 40.2 kg/d). All supplements made milk protein yield increase compared with Control group (P < 0.05). It was numerically higher in group 2 (3.14% vs. (1) 2.99, (3) 3.01 and (4) 3.07). Data analysis showed plasma glucose concentration to be higher in Group 2 (P < 0.05) than in Control group and tended to be higher than those measured in the Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.1). Blood urea was not affected by treatments. NEFA concentrations in Groups 2 and 4 were lower than those in Control group (0.340 and 0.384 vs. 0.578 mmol/L respectively; P < 0.05). Similar results were found for BHBA concentrations (0.441 and 0.440 vs. 0.75 mmol/L respectively; P < 0.05). Immune cell concentrations in blood were significantly lower in Group 2 (white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) compared with Groups 3 and 4. The overall results suggest that feeding USP-grade glycerol supplement (300 g/hd/d) in fresh dairy cows may help to combine good metabolic status and performance. Further research is needed with more numerous animals including intake measurements.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82174 Watch M127 The effect of different milk feeding levels on starter intake and subsequent performance and health of calves pre- and postweaning. 16 D. Ziegler calf performance calf starter milk replacer D. Ziegler1, H. Chester-Jones1, B. Heinz2 1University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN, 2University of Minnesota, Morris, MN One-hundred eleven (2 to 5 d old) Holstein heifer calves (39.2 ± 0.61 kg) from 2 commercial dairies were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacer (MR) treatments to evaluate the effect of different milk feeding rates on calf starter intake, performance and health pre- and post weaning from d 1 to 84. The study was conducted between September 2019 and January, 2020. All calves were fed a medicated (Decoquinate at 45.4 g/ton) texturized calf starter (CS; 18% CP as fed). Water and CS were offered free choice from d 1 to 56. All MR were formulated with all-milk protein and fed at a solids content of 13.5%. Treatments were as follows: (1) 20% CP:20% Fat non medicated MR, fed at 10.75% of BW 2× daily from d 1 to 35 and 1× daily from d 36 to weaning at d 42, (CON); (2) 28% CP:18% Fat MR formulated with Bio-Mos fed at 17.0% of BW 2× daily from d 1 to 21 and then switched to MR as in CON at 10.75% of d 1 BW 2× daily from d 22 to 35 and 1× daily from d 36 to weaning at 42 d, (MOD); (3) 28% CP:18% Fat MR as in MOD, fed at 17% of BW 2× daily from d 1 to d 42, then 1× daily from d 43 to weaning at d 49 (HI). Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS and repeated measures analyses applied where appropriate. Total MR and CS intake were different (P < 0.05) across treatments 20.8, 57.5 kg for CON 27.1, 48.2 kg for MOD and 38.5, 38.4 kg for HI, respectively. Total DMI was not different (P > 0.05) averaging 35.1 kg intake. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in ADG d 1 to 56 and d 1 to 84 for HI compared with CON and MOD, averaging 0.85, 0.85; 0.75, 0.79; and 0.77, 0.79 kg/d, respectively. Average fecal scores d 1 to 56 were greater (P < 0.05) for HI and MOD compared with CON, (1 to 4; where 1 = normal, 4 = watery), averaging 1.42 compared with 1.33, respectively. The earlier weaning of calves fed MOD compared with HI MR feeding program resulted in greater CS intake for MOD, however they had similar performance (d 1 to 56) to CON fed calves negating early performance advantages.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82182 Watch M128 Maintenance energy requirements of two Holstein genotypes managed under pasture-based system. 17 D. Talmón indirect calorimetry grazing D. Talmón1, M. Garcia-Roche1, A. Mendoza2, M. Carriquiry1 1Departamento de Producción Animal y Pasturas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, Colonia, Uruguay Milk production from grazing cows is often lower than that observed in different feeding systems due to their greater maintenance energy requirements (MEm). Twenty-eight multiparous fall calving Holstein dairy cows of New Zealand (NZH; 547 ± 67 kg BW and 3.27 ± 0.20 BCS at calving; n = 14) and North American (NAH; 589 ± 43 kg BW and 2.95 ± 0.23 BCS at calving; n = 14) origin were used to estimate MEm in each genotype. Cows grazed a Dactylis glomerata and Medicago sativa mixed pasture with 15.1 ± 5.8 kg DM/cow/day of herbage allowance, above 5 cm of ground level, and were supplemented individually to supply 33% of the estimated daily dry matter intake as concentrate. Heat production (HP) was measured, at 115 and 192 ± 19 DIM, using the heart rate-O2 pulse technique and retained energy (RE) in milk and tissue were estimated according to NRC using milk yield and composition and changes in BW and BCS, respectively. Metabolizable energy intake (MEI) was calculated as HP + RE. Data were expressed as kJ/kgBW0.75/d. Linear regressions of dependency of HP on MEI (HP = b × MEI + a) and fasting HP (FHP; regression intercept, a), heat increment (regression slope, b), energy efficiency (k; 1 − regression slope, 1 − b) and MEm (FHP/k) were calculated for each Holstein genotype. Considering the complete data set (n = 1), total RE, HP and MEI ranged from 664 to 966 kJ/kgBW0.75/d, 885 to 1167kJ/kgBW0.75/d, and 1549 to 2133 kJ/kgBW0.75/d, respectively. Regressions of HP on MEI were significant (P < 0.05) for both genotypes (Table 1). The MEm was 17% greater for NAH than NZH cows which may partially explain the lack of difference in milk-solid yield observed frequently between genotypes when both are managed under a pasture-based system. Moreover, average MEm of both genotypes was 46% above the proposed by the NRC model (540 kJ/kgBW0.75/d) probably associated with grazing activity and the high proportion of herbage in the diet. Table 1. Relationship of heat production (HP; kJ/kg of BW0.75/d) to ME intake (MEI; kJ/kg of BW0.75/d) and calculated maintenance energy (MEm)
Genetics r2 FHP(a) Slope(b) km(1 − b) MEm(FHP/km)
North American 0.41 569 0.33 0.67 853
New Zealand 0.57 463 0.37 0.63 729
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82203 Watch M129 Evaluating different doses of probiotics on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and methane production using batch fermentation assay. 18 L. P. Marroquin corn silage in vitro fermentation probiotic L. P. Marroquin1, K. G. Arriola1, P. Tian1, F. X. Amaro1, C. A. Nino de Guzman1, I. Fernandez1, P. Schmidt1, A. Oyebade1, H. Sultana1, S. Lee1, E. J. C. Duvalsaint1, M. M. C. N. Agarussi1, D. Vyas1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of probiotic on in vitro rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and methane emissions using TMR or corn silage as substrates. Two probiotics (A: mixture of Lactobacillus animalis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii; and B: mixture of Lactobacillus animalis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis) were applied at doses 0 (Control), 1.63 (Low), 3.25 (Medium), and 4.87 mg/mL (High) with substrate (TMR or corn silage; 0.5 g; 1 mm) in triplicates for each run for a total of 3 runs in experiment. Rumen fluid was collected and pooled from 3 ruminally-cannulated lactating dairy cows 2 h after morning feeding. Buffered rumen fluid (52 mL) along with substrate and probiotics were incubated for 24 h at 39°C. Gas production was measured at 0, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h and methane concentration was measured after 24 h of incubation. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Dose of each probiotic was used as fixed effect while run was used as random factor in the model. Linear and quadratic contrasts were tested, and significance was declared at P < 0.05, while tendency was declared at 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10. No effects were observed with Probiotic A on dry matter digestibility (DMD), gas production or methane concentration, compared with Control. However, NDF digestibility (NDFD) tended to increase in corn silage with Probiotic A, compared with Control (30.9 vs. 24.6%; P = 0.06) while no effects were observed with TMR. No effects were observed with Probiotic B on DMD, gas production or methane concentration, regardless of substrate used; however, NDFD tended to increase in TMR, compared with Control (56.5 vs. 55.3%; P = 0.05) while no effect was observed with corn silage. In conclusion, regardless of the dose used, probiotics tended to improve NDFD; however, responses were substrate specific.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82212 Watch M130 In vitro evaluation of two additives with different mode of action on rumen protein degradability. 19 C. Cajarville Rusitec nitrogen disappearance rumen fermentation A. Alvarado1, A. Britos1, A. Pérez-Ruchel1, F. Gadeyne2, C. Cajarville1 1Departamento de Producción Animal (IPAV), Facultad de Veterinaria, UdelaR, San José, Uruguay, 2Royal Agrifirm Group, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands This work aimed to evaluate the effects of including 2 additives with differing modes of action to a dairy cow diet on ruminal fermentation and protein degradability. Comparison was made with a diet containing a processed protein source. In a Rusitec system (6 fermentation units) 4 diets were evaluated: C: control (30% corn silage, 30% grass silage, 11.5% soybean meal and 28.5% corn; 17% CP, 30.5% NDF), M: positive control (Mervobest replacing regular soybean meal), Phy (1% DM of a phytogenetic mixture added to C) and ABC (1% DM of Aromabiotic Cattle added to C). A balanced incomplete block design was used, and 4 runs were performed with 3 diets in duplicate incubated at a time. Each run lasted 14d (7d adaptation period plus 7d of sampling). Ten grams of DM was incubated in nylon bags. Inoculum was obtained from 3 rumen fistulated cows fed grass silage ad libitum, 1.5 kg DM/d of corn grain and 1.5 kg DM/d of soybean meal. McDougall artificial saliva was infused at 3%/h. Samples were taken from the fermentation unit at the same time as the bags were changed. Gas production, pH, N-NH3 concentration and disappearance of DM, CP and non-protein compounds (NCP) were determined. Mervobest usage and Phy inclusion decreased N-NH3 concentrations (P < 0.001) and DMd (P = 0.004). The CPd was highest for C, followed by ABC diet, Phy diet and M showed the lowest CPd (P < 0.001). The NCPd was similar between M, Phy and ABC diets, while C diet showed the highest value (P < 0.001). Results indicate that Phy inclusion at 1% decreased in vitro rumen protein degradation similar to Mervobest use and more effectively than ABC. Table 1. In vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and DM, CP, NCP disappearances (d) of the diets1
Item C M Phy ABC SEM P-value
T D T × D
pH 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.1 0.01 0.139 <0.001 0.791
Gas (mL/d) 678 701 693 675 48.4 0.686 0.04 0.849
N-NH3 (mg/dL) 8.4a 6.8b 6.5b 8.3a 0.54 <0.001 <0.001 0.805
DMd (%) 45.0a 42.5b 42.9b 44.4a 1.15 0.004 0.364 0.777
CPd (%) 50.3a 41.6d 45.4c 47.8b 1.03 <0.001 0.017 0.473
NCPd (%) 40.2a 35.9b 37.1b 36.7b 0.66 <0.001 0.002 0.176
1C = control; M = Mervobest; Phy = 1% DM phytogenetic mixture added to C; ABC = 1% DM AromabioticCattle added to C; T = treatment; D = day.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82219 Watch M131 Effects of pH and temperature on amylase and glucosidase activity of exogenous enzymes. 20 F. X. Amaro amylase glucosidase F. X. Amaro1, H. Warman1, K. G. Arriola1, A. T. Adesogan1, D. Vyas1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The objective was to evaluate the effects of different pH and temperature levels on amylase and glucosidase activity of 10 exogenous enzyme preparations (E1-E3; α-amylase, E4-E7; glucoamylase, E8-E9; mix of α-amylase, glucoamylase and fungal protease, E10; α-glucosidase). Two independent 10 × 4 factorial experiments were carried out to evaluate the activities of enzymes at different pH (4, 5, 6 and 7; Exp. 1) or temperature levels (20, 30, 40 and 50°C; Exp. 2). Potato starch (1% wt/vol) was used as substrate and glucose was used as standard. For amylase activity, enzymes (diluted in citrate-phosphate buffer) were incubated in triplicate with 1 mL of substrate in a temperature-controlled water bath for 5 min, reaction was terminated by adding 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid, sample absorbance was read at 540 nm. For glucosidase activity, enzymes were incubated under similar conditions for 45 min; however, reaction was terminated by adding glucose oxidase and absorbance was measured at 500 nm. Glucose release (µmol /mL enzyme/min) was calculated for both amylase and glucosidase activity. Data were log normalized and GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used to test for main effects of enzyme, pH (Exp. 1) or temperature (Exp. 2) and their interaction. In Exp. 1, an interaction effect (enzyme × pH; P < 0.05) was observed for amylase activity with maximum activity for E3 observed at pH 6.0 while pH 4.0 induced lowest activity for E10. For glucosidase activity E1, E2 and E10 showed no activity at pH levels tested; however, E4 had greatest activity at pH 5.0. In Exp. 2, an interaction between enzymes and temperature levels was observed (P < 0.01). Enzyme E3 had maximum amylase activity at 50°C while E10 had lowest activity at 20°C. Similarly, for glucosidase activity, interaction was observed for enzyme and temperature levels as E1, E2 and E10 had no activity while E7 showed maximum activity at 50°C. In conclusion, the present study confirms pH and temperature effects on amylase and glucosidase activity of exogenous enzymes. Hence, it is recommended to determine optimum pH and temperature of exogenous enzymes before inclusion in livestock diets.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82253 Watch M132 Effect of direct-fed microbial on commercial dairy drylot. 21 J. Lefler microbial supplement Clostridium Pichia J. Lefler1, S. Minini1, A. Morandi2, M. Embree1 1Ascus Biosciences, San Diego, CA, 2Independent Nutritional Advisor, Argentina The rumen microbiome plays a key role in the digestion of feed components, allowing the dairy cow access to nutrients and compounds that are crucial for milk production and health. As such, optimizing the productivity of the rumen microbiome is an overlooked strategy for increasing the performance of the animal. This study evaluated the efficacy of an orally administered, daily microbial feed supplement (MFS; Galaxis, Ascus Biosciences, San Diego, California) on a commercial dairy. One-hundred and 40 one, multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 23 +/− 15) were split into 2 groups, 1 of which was fed an MFS containing 2 native rumen microbes (Clostridium beijerinckii and Pichia kudriavzevii) mixed daily with a TMR ration (30% Corn silage, 11% soy flour, 23% ground corn, 8% mineral premix, 2% wheat straw, 8% cottonseed, 6% ground soybean shell, 5% alfalfa hay, 7% alfalfa silage). The MFS was administered daily for 216 d on farm. The cows were milked 3 times a day and milk components were measured monthly. Mixed effects model analysis was conducted with cow ID specified as the subject and an imposed autoregressive covariance via the R package “nlme.” Estimated marginal means were subsequently generated to compare the difference in response between treatment and control across weeks of trial via the R package “emmeans.” The treatment by week interaction was significant (P < 0.001) for daily milk yield, which exhibited a 2.8 L (7.9%) increase in milk yield across the entire trial period. Milk components showed small changes in yield (kg) between treatment and control – most of which were non-significant except for milk fat (P = 0.01), which showed a roughly 2.3% decrease across the entire trial period. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) increased roughly 1.4% across the entire trial period (P = 0.4). These findings demonstrate the promise of using microbial based feed supplements in the improvement of herd production.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82256 Watch M133 Supplementation with sunflower or soybean oil: Ruminal fluid fatty acid profile in a Rusitec system. 22 C. Cajarville rumen fermentation lipids fatty acid G. Casarotto1, A. Britos1, S. Carro2, I. Vieitez3, C. Dauber3, C. Cajarville1 1Departamento de Producción Animal (IPAV), Facultad de Veterinaria, UdelaR, San José, Uruguay, 2Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay, 3Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (CYTAL), Facultad de Química, UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay The aim was to evaluate the effect of including 2 levels of sunflower or soybean oil to a forage-based diet on the rumen fluid fatty acid (FA) profile. In a Rusitec system 5 diets were evaluated: C (control, 65% alfalfa hay and 35% concentrate; 16% CP, 33% NDF, 3.4% EE), SF6 (C + sunflower oil added until reaching 6% EE of diet DM), SF7.5 (C + sunflower oil added until reaching 7.5% EE of diet DM), SB6 (C + soybean oil added until reaching 6% EE of diet DM) and SB7.5 (C + soybean oil added until reaching 7.5% EE of diet DM), incubating 8g of DM in Nylon bags. Inoculum was obtained from 2 rumen fistulated cows fed with the C diet and McDougall artificial saliva was infused at 3%/h. Three runs of 10 d (5-d adaptation period plus 5 d of sampling) were performed. Samples were taken from fermentation units at the same time as the bags were changed. Ruminal fluid FA profile was determined by GC. Data were analyzed according to a repeated measures model and means separated by LSMEANS. Sunflower and soybean oils inclusion resulted in a decrease of C16:0 (P = 0.003) and increased levels of C18:1 t11 (trans-vaccenic acid, TVA; P < 0.001). Diets SF7.5, SB6 and SB7.5 decreased the concentration of saturated FA with respect to control (P = 0.041; Table 1). Results indicated that adding sunflower or soybean oils up to 7.5% EE of total DM in the diet, did not increase C18:2 c9 t11 (CLA) levels, but increased its precursor TVA and may decrease saturation process. Table 1. Rumen fluid FA profile (g/100 g of FA)
Fatty acid C SF6 SF7.5 SB6 SB7.5 SEM P-value
T D T × D
C16:0 12.12a 9.75b 9.10b 9.08b 9.25b 0.826 0.003 0.643 0.990
C18:0 3.75 3.51 2.87 2.58 3.14 0.666 0.261 0.908 0.669
C18:1 t11 0.51b 0.75a 0.75a 0.73a 0.75a 0.040 <.001 0.545 0.877
C18:1 c9 40.69 43.05 44.42 44.97 44.55 1.794 0.067 0.773 0.713
C18:2 c9,c12 30.07 30.94 28.87 28.20 28.80 0.846 0.125 0.181 0.981
C18:3n-3 0.48 0.36 0.24 0.32 0.21 0.093 0.268 0.572 0.786
C18:2 c9,t11 0.41 0.12 0.17 0.33 0.19 0.107 0.357 0.475 0.730
SFA 20.21a 18.85ab 17.66b 17.77b 18.31b 1.166 0.041 0.689 0.579
MUFA 40.74 43.13 44.48 45.01 44.61 1.824 0.067 0.775 0.718
PUFA 30.55 31.30 29.11 28.51 29.01 0.885 0.112 0.214 0.988
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition 6/22/2020 14:00 t82318 Watch M134 Influence of substrates on efficacy of exogenous glucoamylase on in vitro dry matter digestibility, pH, and gas production. 23 D. Vyas amylase in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) gas production L. Mu1, K. G. Arriola1, G. Hao1, H. Sultana1, A. Oyebade1, F. X. Amaro1, K. Almeida1, C. Heinzen1, J. O. Gusmao1, C. A. Nino de Guzman1, I. Fernandez1, W. Li2, S. Yu3, D. Vyas1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2DuPont Nutrition & Biosciences, Wilmington, DE, 3DuPont Nutrition & Biosciences, Aarhus, Denmark The objective was to evaluate the effect of exogenous glucoamylase supplementation on ruminal in vitro dry matter (IVDMD), pH, and gas production of different cereal grains used for livestock production. Five substrates (4 mm; 0.5 g per F57 bag) including sorghum (micronized and whole), barley (whole and steam-flaked), and corn (steam-flaked); were incubated with exogenous glucoamylase (from Trichoderma reesei; 0.25 mg/g substrate DM) and buffered rumen fluid for 7 h in 6 replicates per run in 3 independent runs per experiment. Gas production was measured at 0, 2, 4, and 7 h while DMD, and pH was measured after 7 h of incubation. Rumen fluid was collected from 3 rumen-cannulated lactating dairy cows fed corn silage-based diet formulated based on NRC (2001) guidelines. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Treatments and sampling time (for gas production) were used as fixed effects while run was considered random factor. Exogenous glucoamylase had no effect on DMD of micronized sorghum (P = 0.21); however, DMD was increased by 10, 32, 19, and 59% with whole sorghum (P = 0.03), whole barley (P = 0.04), steam-flaked barley (P = 0.05), and steam-flaked corn (P = 0.04). Cumulative gas production was increased with glucoamylase when whole (P < 0.01) and steam-flaked barely (P = 0.03) while tendency was observed with steam-flaked corn (P = 0.07). No treatment effects were observed on pH values except with steam-flaked corn where pH was reduced with glucoamylase supplementation (6.65 vs 6.81; P = 0.03). The interaction between glucoamylase and sampling time resulted in greater gas production with amylase treated whole and steam-flaked barley after 4 and 7 h of incubation (P = 0.03). Similarly, the interaction effect tended to increase gas production for amylase treated steam-flaked corn after 4 and 7 h of incubation. In conclusion, IVDMD was increased with exogenous glucoamylase supplementation when whole sorghum, whole and steam-flaked barley, and steam-flaked corn was used as substrate.
Ruminant Nutrition Posters: General 1   Ruminant Nutrition: General 6/22/2020 14:00 t82142 Watch M135 Effects of calcium carbonate supplementation rate on metabolic acid-base status and feed intake of cows with compensated metabolic acidosis. 24 H. Fujan DCAD bone anionic H. Fujan1, T. Brown2, L. K. Mamedova1, B. J. Bradford1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Landus Cooperative, Ames, IA Controversy exists regarding the amount of calcium (Ca) to feed with anionic diets. Potential negative impacts of high Ca diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and diminishment of induced acidosis are 2 areas of interest. In this study, 21 pregnant, nonlactating cows (57.4 ± 13.9 d prepartum) completing at least 1 lactation were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. All cows were fed a diet providing a DCAD of −6.0 mEq/100 g of DM. Treatments were a) no supplemental Ca carbonate (LOW; 0.6% DM Ca), b) a moderate level of Ca carbonate (MOD; 1.2% DM Ca), or c) a high level of Ca carbonate (HIGH; 1.8% DM Ca). Daily DMI and water intake were recorded. Urine and blood samples were collected 6 h post-feeding. Urine samples were analyzed for pH and concentrations of creatinine, ionized Ca (iCa), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Blood samples were analyzed for metabolic indicators of acid-base status (pH, partial pressure of CO2, oxygen saturation, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate (HCO3), and base excess) as well as iCa, Na, and K using a hand-held biochemical analyzer. Data were analyzed to assess fixed effects of treatment and period and the random effect of cow. There was no effect of treatment on DMI (P = 0.21) or water intake (P = 0.28). Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing Ca carbonate (P = 0.009; 6.41, 6.62 and 6.73 ± 0.12 for LOW, MOD and HIGH, respectively). Treatment did not alter urinary Ca excretion (4.75, 5.20 and 5.24 ± 0.63 g/d for LOW, MOD and HIGH, respectively; P = 0.67) or DPD (P = 0.45) and had no effect on measures of acid-base status or minerals in blood. DMI was greater in Period 3 vs. 1 (P < 0.01), associated with a decreased urinary pH in Period 3 vs. 1 (P < 0.01). Urinary pH was greater (P = 0.03) for cows on HIGH vs. LOW treatment with no difference in Ca excretion, suggesting dietary carbonate rather than Ca as the influencing factor. When feeding high levels of Ca carbonate to moderately acidified cows, urine pH may not accurately reflect systemic acid-base status. This could compel producers to feed more anionic supplement to maintain a urinary pH target.
Small Ruminant Posters 1   Small Ruminant 6/22/2020 14:00 t82524 Watch M136 Effects of condensed tannins from sainfoin on the milk fatty acid profile of ewes. 1 I. Casasús polyethylene glycol (PEG) milk fatty acid evolution suckling period C. Baila1, S. Lobón1, M. Blanco1, I. Casasús1, J. Bertolín1, M. Joy1 1Ctr Invest y Tecnol Agroal Aragon (CITA), IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza), Zaragoza, Spain There is an increased interest in using local fodder legumes to improve the self-sufficiency of feed for livestock. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a typical high-quality crop of Mediterranean areas with a medium-high content of condensed tannins (CT), however their effects on milk composition are not well known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of CT from fresh sainfoin on milk production, chemical composition, and fatty acids during 4 wk of lactation. Twenty pairs dam-lamb were individually fed fresh sainfoin ad libitum plus 200 g/d of barley. The distribution of pairs dam-lamb were done according to ewe’s BW (60.7 ± 6.15 kg BW) and BCS (3.3 ± 0.57), lambing date (06/04/2019 ± 0.95) and lamb weight at birth (4.1 ± 0.64 kg BW). Half of the ewes were daily orally dosed 100 g of PEG 4000/200 mL water per ewe as a tannin-binding agent (SF+PEG) and the other half received only water (SF). Once a week, ewes were milked and samples of sainfoin and milk were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition and individual fatty acids (FAs). The total saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), PUFA n-3 and PUFA n-6 were calculated. The sums and the major FA were analyzed using mixed models, with week of lactation as fixed and ewe as random effects using the SAS statistical software (SAS v.9.3). Milk yield was affected by the interaction between treatment and week of lactation (P < 0.001). The SF ewes peaked at wk 2 and SF+PEG ewes peaked at wk 4. The chemical composition of milk was only affected by the week of lactation (P < 0.001). The contents of FA in fresh sainfoin were similar through lactation, except for the PUFA, which had the greatest content on the first week (P < 0.05). The SF had greater C18:0 (13.6 ± 0.36 vs. 11.8 ± 0.37), C18:2 n-6 (2.10 ± 0.05 vs. 1.70 ± 0.05), C18:3 n-3 (1.75 ± 0.06 vs. 1.22 ± 0.06), C20:5 n-3(0.11 ± 0.005 vs. 0.09 ± 0.005) and PUFA (6.49 ± 0.104 vs. 5.94 ± 0.109) and lower C16:0 (22.4 ± 0.25 vs. 23.4 ± 0.26), conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 ± 0.028 vs. 0.88 ± 0.031) and n-6:n-3 ratio (1.11 ± 0.038 vs. 1.34 ± 0.04) than SF+PEG. The differences between treatments smoothed as the lactation advanced, mainly in CLA and n-6/n-3. In conclusion, the CT affected the milk FA profile especially in the first week of lactation and their effect decreased along lactation.
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82215 Watch 153 Assessing the use of public weather station data to investigate the effects of heat stress on milk production in Canadian Holstein cattle. 1 I. Campos dairy cow heat stress temperature-humidity index I. Campos1, C. Baes1, A. Canovas1, F. Schenkel1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada The objectives of this study were to identify the temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds where heat load starts to affect production traits (milk, fat, and protein yield) in the first 3 lactations of Holstein cows, and to assess potential differences in heat stress in Quebec and Ontario. A total of 2.1 million test-day records from 167,620 Ontario cows and 3.1 million records from 225,104 Quebec cows spanning an 11-yr period (2008 – 2018) were used. The climatic data consisted of hourly measurements of ambient temperature and relative humidity. In total 58 weather stations were located within a maximum distance of 20km from each herd. A k-means cluster analysis was performed within each THI >75 to exclude herds that may have some type of cooling system. A linear model was fitted to adjust the phenotypes, which were then plotted against the THI levels for each parity. To identify the THI threshold at which milk production starts to decline, a segmented polynomial was used to describe the shape of the curve of the relationship between production and THI values. During the summer, the average THI was 69 and 68 in Ontario and Quebec, respectively. Two heat stress thresholds were identified for milk yield and protein yield, one being associated with a low decline in the yield and the other one associated with sharper decline. For both provinces, the second threshold was reached at about THI = 79 for both milk and protein yields, while the first threshold was reached at about a THI = 64 – 72 for milk yield and THI = 57 – 64 for protein yield, depending on the province and parity. The expected reduction in milk yield after a THI ~79 was −0.40 kg/d and −0.19kg/d in Ontario and Quebec, respectively. The same features for protein yield were −16.2 g/d and −9.7 g/d. For fat yield, the expected reduction in yield after a THI ~57 was −3.3g/d and −2.6g/d for Ontario and Quebec, respectively. Therefore, the estimated rate decline differed between the 2 provinces, which may be related to the higher percentage of tie stall barns in Quebec (92%) compared with Ontario (<70%).
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82894 Watch 154 Estimation of genetic parameters for stayability in organic Holsteins. 2 L. C. Hardie organic herd-life heritability L. C. Hardie1, B. J. Heins2, C. D. Dechow1 1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 2University of Minnesota, West Central and Outreach Center, Morris, MN The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for stayability of organic Holsteins and determine genetic relationships with other traits. Stayability (1 = remained in herd to a given parity, 0 = left) was generated for parity 1 through 5 for cows from 16 USDA certified organic farms. Animals with a Holstein sire and no other breed for 3 generations were included. All models included fixed herd-year-season of birth and pedigree completeness and the random effect of animal. Heritabilities for parity 1 (n = 27,630 with 66% staying in the herd from birth to parity 1), 2 (82% staying from parity 1 to 2; n = 12,766) and 3 (78% staying from parity 2 to 3; n = 6,978) were estimated using univariate threshold models. Genetic correlations among them were estimated with bivariate linear models. An across-parity analysis used records (n = 101,201 from 27,630 animals) for individual parities up to 5; the fixed effect of parity and random effect of permanent environment were added. Approximate genetic correlations between stayability and nationally evaluated traits were extrapolated from PTA correlations for bulls with accuracy of PTA stayability greater than 0.35. Heritability estimates for stayability to first, second, and third parities were 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.02, and 0.07 ± 0.03, respectively. The across-parity heritability estimate was 0.12 ± 0.01 and repeatability was 0.61 ± 0.004. The genetic correlations for stayability to parity 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 were 0.80 ± 0.08, 0.60 ± 0.22, and 0.81 ± 0.19, respectively. Genetic correlations between stayability and most key traits were positive, but less so for heifers (Table 1). In conclusion, there is a genetic component to stayability that remains consistent across parities such that it can serve to mitigate selection bias in genetic analyses with sparse recording of production traits. Table 1. Approximate genetic correlations with stayability
Trait All parities To parity 1 Parity 1 to 2
Productive Life 0.54* 0.33* 0.73*
Livability 0.45* 0.44* 0.64*
Milk Yield 0.29* 0.06 0.26*
Daughter Pregnancy Rate 0.12* −0.10 0.30*
Heifer Conception Rate 0.16* 0.12 0.17
Early First Calving 0.21* −0.23* 0.42*
*Differs from 0, P < 0.05.
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82109 Watch 155 Genomic evaluation of heifer livability. 3 M. Neupane heifer livability genomic evaluation animal welfare M. Neupane1, C. P. Van Tassell1, P. M. VanRaden1 1Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD, Differences in breeds and sire lines suggest the presence of a genetic component for heifer livability (HLIV). Genomic evaluation of this trait can increase profitability and improve animal health and welfare. Evaluations for HLIV were examined from 3,360,847 calf data records for heifers of all breeds born from the year 2009–2016. Data were obtained from the national cooperator database maintained by the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, USA. The total number of deaths reported was 134,804 (4.01%), which includes the herds with death loss between 1 and 25%. Total death rate from >2 d of age until the heifer left the herd or until a maximum of 18 mo of age was evaluated, but records were not included until 3 years after the birthdate so that live status of contemporaries could be confirmed by a calving date. Deaths observed until 2 d after birth were included in stillbirth rather than HLIV. The scale used for analysis of HLIV was 0 (died) or 100 (live) and the heritability estimate was 0.4% based on sire model REML. Genomic predicted transmitting abilities (GPTA) for Holstein range from −1.5% to +1.5% with a standard deviation of 0.5% and GPTAs for Jersey range from −0.8% to +0.8% with SD of 0.2% compared with means of about 4% death loss. Reliabilities of genomic predictions for young animals averaged 46% for Holsteins and 30% for Jerseys while corresponding traditional parent average reliabilities averaged 16% and 12%. Correlations of HLIV were 0.44 with productive life, 0.34 to 0.36 with yield traits, 0.37 with calving trait dollars, and 0.36 with early first calving on proven Holstein bulls. The HLIV trait had a favorable genetic trend in recent years, likely because of selection for the correlated traits. The trait HLIV could get 1% of emphasis on net merit index making economic progress of $0.05 million per year. By encouraging more recordings on calf mortality, the reliabilities of evaluations can increase significantly.
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82057 Watch 156 Genomic evaluation for abortions and twinning in dairy cattle. 4 N. Vukasinovic abortion twinning genomic evaluation N. Vukasinovic1, D. Gonzalez-Pena1, J. Brooker1, C. Przybyla1, S. DeNise1 1Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI Abortions and twinning are undesirable reproductive outcomes in dairy herds. Both traits are believed to be largely caused by environmental factors. However, studies have shown that there is a substantial genetic component to these conditions. The objective of this study was to develop genetic and genomic evaluation for abortions and twinning in Holstein cattle using single-step genomic BLUP (gBLUP) methodology. Production, reproduction, and pedigree data recorded on farms using herd management software were available for this study. Abortions (ABRT) were defined as a recorded abortion event between 42 and 260 d after the successful breeding. Twinning (TWIN) was defined as a pregnancy resulting in birth or abortion of twin calves (alive or dead). The traits were analyzed using the univariate threshold animal model with repeated observations. The model included the fixed effect of parity (1–5) and the random effects of animal, herd x year x season of calving, and permanent environment. In addition, the model for ABRT included the fixed effect of the breed composition of the embryo (purebred vs. crossbred), the random effect of service sire, and the covariates of milk yield and days open. The data consisted of 3,848,620 and 5,338,162 records with an overall incidence of 11.0% and 3.0% for ABRT and TWIN, respectively. Genotypes were available on 978,368 animals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.077 and 0.089 for ABRT and TWIN, respectively. Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) were expressed in percent points as deviations from the average estimated probability of a disorder in the base population, which was defined as all animals with phenotypes born in 2015. The PTA ranged from −8.72 to 12.92 and from −6.98 to 20.39 for ABRT and TWIN, respectively, with higher values representing higher risk of having a disorder. The reliabilities of PTA for young genotyped animals without own phenotypes were on average 0.36 and 0.39 for ABRT and TWIN, respectively. Genetic and genomic selection of animals less prone to abortions and twinning could be a useful tool for improving reproductive performance in dairy herds.
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82321 Watch 157 A feasibility study to implement genetic and genomic evaluations for twinning in Holstein cattle. 5 A. Sewalem twinning genetic and genomic evaluations A. Sewalem1, M. McClure1, K. Olson1 1ABS Global, DeForest, WI Twin births are detrimental for dairy producers due to their association with several unfavorable effects, including increased reproductive disorder, culling risk, abortions, and calving interval. The aims of this study were to (A) assess the incidence of twinning and evaluate its risk factors; (B) examine this trait’s association with other traits of economic importance; (C) to develop genetic and genomic evaluations for twinning. The data included Holstein calving records from 2000 to 2019, comprising 1,804 herds with 14M calving records from 25,868 AI sires. The 2018 overall twinning rate was 4.2% which represented a 9.94% increase from 2010. Twinning rate increased with parity with rates of 1.16%, 4.73%, and 7.86% for parities 1, 2, and 3+, respectively, and AI sires’ overall twinning rate ranged from 0 to 13.89%. A genetic evaluation of twinning was carried out using a single-trait linear sire model which included the fixed effects of parity and herd-year-season with random effects of sire and the residual. The sire evaluation results were expressed as an estimated transmitting ability (ETA) representing the expected twinning rate differences among daughters with the average ETA set to 100 and std of 5. The ETAs had a normal distribution ranging from 75 to 115. Traditional evaluation results for twinning were de-regressed and used as pseudo-phenotypes to predict the direct genomic values for animals with 43K SNP genotypes. No markers with large effects were observed. Twinning had statistically significant but low correlations with numerous production and fertility traits which indicate that a direct twinning breeding value is needed to make any significant impact on the trait. In conclusion, this study showed large variation in the predicted twinning breeding values indicating that the implementation of genetic and genomic evaluation for twining will help producers make breeding decisions to reduce their herd’s economic risk from twin births.
Breeding and Genetics (T1)   Breeding and Genetics 6/23/2020 12:00 t82298 Watch 158 Identification and validation of candidate genes for heat tolerance in Australian Holstein dairy cattle. 6 E. K. Cheruiyot heat tolerance dairy cattle whole-genome sequences (WGS) E. K. Cheruiyot1,2, M. Haile-Mariam1, B. G. Cocks1,2, I. MacLeod1, J. E. Pryce1,2 1Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Melbourne, Australia, 2School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia Heat tolerance is the ability of an animal to maintain production and reproduction levels under hot conditions and is now a trait of economic relevance in dairy systems worldwide. Understanding the genetic basis for heat tolerance is an important part of the strategy to breed for cattle adapted to warmer environments. We sought to identify and validate candidate genes involved in heat tolerance in Australian Holstein cattle using 50K SNP chip and imputed whole-genome sequences (WGS) in 2 data sets: cows (n = 20,623) and bulls (n = 1,622). The WGS was imputed using Run 7 of the 1000 Bull Genome Project based on the ARS-UCD1.2 reference genome. After quality checks, approximately 45K and 15 million SNPs remained for analysis from the 50K chip and the WGS, respectively. The heat tolerance phenotypes that were used for this study were derived from test-day milk, protein and fat yield data of cows that calved between 2003 to 2017 and represent the response of cows to heat stress. For the 3 milk traits, the slope which measures change in milk yield due to variability in temperature-humidity index from reaction norm models calculated for individual animals after accounting for known fixed effect was used as phenotype in association analysis using GCTA software. We used cows for discovery and bulls that were not sires of the cows for validation. Our results point to the polygenic nature of heat tolerance, with no variants surpassing a significance threshold of P < 1.0 × 10–6 for 50K SNP data. While we detected some associations when the threshold was set at P < 1.0 × 10–3, there were high false discovery rates. In contrast, we detected multiple variants with P < 1.0 × 10–6 across the genome using WGS, suggesting greater power compared with 50K SNP data. Across our cow and bull validation set, we confirmed several candidate genes, including some that have been reported previously. Our results are preliminary and could be useful to enhance the reliability of heat tolerance genomic breeding values of Australian Holstein cattle which is currently about 38%. This will be investigated in a further study.
Dairy Foods: Dairy Products T1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/23/2020 12:00 t82564 Watch 159 Rheological, texture, structural, and functional properties of Greek-style yogurt fortified with cheese whey-spent coffee ground powder. 1 S. Martinez-Monteagudo rheological properties texture fortification J. Osorio-Arias1, A. Pérez-Martínez2, O. Vega-Castro2, S. Martinez-Monteagudo3 1Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Food Science, Medellin, Colombia, 2Aoxlab S.A.A, Medellin, Colombia, 3Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, South Dakota, Brookings, SD The present study evaluated the feasibility of the fortification of Greek-style yogurt with a newly developed ingredient consisting of cheese whey-spend coffee ground (CW-SCG) powder. The yogurts were analyzed using a battery of tests, including whey production, water holding capacity, firmness, rheological properties, protein content, available lysine, and antioxidant activity. The milk base was fortified to 15% dry matter with different skim milk powder to CW-SCG ratios (100/0, 75/25, 25/75, and 0/100 wt./wt.). The addition of CW-SCG up to 75% did not significantly change the acidification curve when comparing with the control sample (P > 0.05), reaching the target pH 4.7 after 270–300 min. The available lysine decreased with the addition of CW-SCG, yielding values of 78.55 ± 1.56, 28.89 ± 2.45, 23.61 ± 4.42, 20.03 ± 2.71 mg per 100 g for 0-, 25-, 75-, and 100-CW-SCG, respectively. The highest value of whey production was obtained in those samples fortified with 100-CW-SCG (6.33 ± 0.35%), followed by 75- and 25-CW-SCG (5.17 ± 0.99 and 3.01 ± 0.81%, respectively). The antioxidant capacity increased proportionally to the added CW-SCG powder, yielding values of 68.41 ± 2.78, 80.71 ± 2.54, 100.51 ± 3.44, and 120.21 ± 3.18 μmol TEs per 100 g for 0-, 25-, 75-, and 100-CW-SCG, respectively. Fortification of the yogurt with CW-SCG decreased the water holding capacity by 13 to 25%, depending on the level of fortification. Similarly, the addition of CW-SCG significantly decreased the hardness of the yogurts from 76.57 ± 1.18 to 30.27 ± 1.73 N s (P < 0.05). Additionally, fortified yogurts with CW-SCG yielded a product with less shear-thinning behavior as compared with control. The scanning electron images of the fortified yogurts revealed the incorporation of spent coffee ground particles within the protein network. Polyphenol-Protein associations may explain the texture and rheological behavior of the yogurts. The fortification of the yogurt up to 25% of CW-SCG yielded comparable properties than the control. The industrial development of fortification of yogurt with small amounts of CW-SCG will require further studies to evaluate consumer acceptance and storage stability.
Dairy Foods: Dairy Products T1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/23/2020 12:00 t83147 Watch 160 Valorization of Greek yogurt acid whey using filtration and acid-catalyzed lactose hydrolysis. 2 M. Lindsay waste reduction catalysis filtration M. Lindsay1, M. Molitor3, K. Huang1, C. Maravelias1, J. Dumesic1, S. Rankin2, G. Huber1 1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 2Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 3Center for Dairy Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI This study uses a novel, catalytic approach to convert Greek yogurt acid whey (GAW) into 3 different products: 1) whey protein, 2) milk minerals, and 3) glucose-galactose syrup. Milk minerals, a high-value calcium supplement, is produced at higher yields in GAW compared to sweet whey due to the higher soluble calcium in GAW. Glucose-galactose syrup is a sweetener syrup which could replace other sweeteners such as high fructose corn syrup. The process to produce these products involves various filtration methods to separate the protein, salt, and other non-lactose components from the GAW, followed by acid-catalyzed lactose hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed product undergoes neutralization, filtration by anion exchange resin and activated carbon, and evaporation to produce a sweet brown syrup with similar composition and sweetness to high fructose corn syrup. A full kinetic model was developed on acid-catalyzed lactose hydrolysis to allow for design and optimization of industrial hydrolysis reactors. We have demonstrated this technology at the pilot scale (>100 gallons/hr) at the Center for Dairy Research at Babcock Hall in UW-Madison. An economic analysis was conducted to determine the potential economic viability of the technology. The results of the economic analysis indicate that Greek yogurt producers could have an additional revenue of over $11 million per year with a 26% rate of return by applying this technology.
Dairy Foods: Dairy Products T1   Dairy Foods: Dairy Products 6/23/2020 12:00 t81852 Watch 161 Effect of nanopowdered eggshell on the characteristics of probiotic yogurt. 3 D. G. Kamel nanopowdered eggshell functional yogurt shelf life D. G. Kamel1 1Dairy Science Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Eggshell (ES) is a waste product of the food industry that could increase environmental pollution. ES is an alternative, cheap, and bioavailable source of dietary calcium (Ca) that can be utilized to fortify the Ca content of probiotic yogurt using nanotechnology. The calcium content of commercial yogurt is limited to 190.0 mg 100g−1. The objective of this study was to produce probiotic yogurt (5.0–7.0 log cfu g−1) with high Ca content by fortification with nano-sized (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg mL−1) ES powder (ESP). Nano-sized ESP was prepared by milling pre-boiled dried ES using mortar grinder Fritsch Pulverisette 2. The size of the milled powder was measured using PW 1700 X-ray diffractometer to ensure that the diameter of the nano-sized is 25 ± 1.7 nm. Yogurt was manufactured by dividing the pasteurized milk into 4 aliquots portions to make the yogurt. The first portion (T1), second (T2), third (T3), and fourth (T4) portions were inoculated with 1% Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb), 1% Streptococcus thermophilus (St), and 15% Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bb). T1 was considered as control while 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg mL−1 of nano-sized ESP were added to T2, T3, and T4, respectively. All treatments were inoculated at 40°C until a pH of 4.6 was reached. Subsequently, the yogurt was cooled and stored at 4°C for 16 d. The acidity, Ca, sensory properties, Bb count, total bacterial count (TBC), yeast and mold counts were examined. This experiment was repeated 3 times using 3 different batches of raw milk. The addition of nano-sized ESP decreased acid development significantly (P < 0.05). The TBC significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 6.1 log cfu g−1 as the concentration of nano-sized ESP increased to 0.06 mg mL−1. The addition of 0.06 mg mL−1 nano-sized ESP produced a high Ca (705.4 mg 100g−1) yogurt with an acceptable composition and quality as compared with control (197.6 mg 100g−1). All sensory evaluation showed that the addition of nano-sized ESP improved taste, appearance, body and texture of probiotic yogurt. Moreover, the addition of nano-sized ESP increased the shelf-life of probiotic yogurt as compared with control. The impact of nano-sized ESP in probiotic yogurt during storage on the nutritional benefits will be evaluated in subsequent studies.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t82905 Watch 162 Meta-analysis of the effects of preservatives on hay spoilage II: Microbial inoculants. 1 M. Killerby hay inoculants meta-analysis M. Killerby1, R. White2, D. C. Reyes1, A. Y. Leon-Tinoco1, S. Rivera1, H. Paz3, J. A. Jendza4, J. J. Romero1 1Animal and Veterinary Sciences, School of Food and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 2Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 3Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, 4BASF, Florham Park, NJ Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of preservatives on hay spoilage during storage. A literature search was conducted using the ISI Web of Science database. Microbial inoculants (82 treatments from 21 articles) were analyzed as a separate subset from chemical preservatives due to incompatibilities in application rate units (log cfu/fresh g vs. %, respectively). The metafor package of R statistical software was used to fit a multilevel linear mixed-effects model with response variables calculated as standardized mean differences (SMD) between treated and untreated samples within an experiment, within a study. Responses included DM loss, sugars, visual relative moldiness (MP) and hay maximum temperature (MT). Experiment and study were random effects. Moderators included forage type (FT: grass, legume, or mix); moisture class [MC: < 20% (low moisture) or > 20% (high moisture)] and application rate (AR). The 2- and 3-way interactions among moderators were also tested. Final models were selected using a backward selection procedure where non-significant variables were removed iteratively. In low moisture hay, predicted DM losses increased by 2.61% units for each 2 log cfu/fresh hay g increase in AR but no changes were observed in high moisture hay (P = 0.005), which had an overall greater predicted DM losses relative to low moisture hay (7.25 vs. 2.57%; P < 0.001). Sugar concentration was higher in treated grasses compared with legumes (SMD = 7.78 vs −1.10; P < 0.001). Furthermore, predicted sugar concentration increased by 1.32% DM units in high moisture hay and decreased by 0.387 in low moisture hay for each 2 log cfu/g increase in AR (P < 0.001). Predicted MP increased by 17.1% units for each 2 log cfu/g increase in AR across both moisture classes (P < 0.001) and a higher MP was observed in high vs. low moisture hay (41.2 vs. 14.0%; P < 0.001). In high moisture hay, legumes had a higher predicted MT than grasses (47.0 vs. 39.3°C) but in low moisture hay an opposite trend was observed (26.7 vs. 33.8; P = 0.001). High moisture legume hay is more susceptible to spoilage than grasses and inoculants evaluated failed to prevent spoilage.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t81866 Watch 163 The use of a silage inoculant for sustainable milk production. 2 I. Eisner silage inoculant concentrate intake milk production I. Eisner1, K. Witt1, L. Vandaele2, J. De Boever2, G. Copani1 1Chr. Hansen Animal Health and Nutrition, Hørsholm, Denmark, 2Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Melle, Belgium Optimal use of roughages on dairy farms can save concentrates, improve farm nutrient balance, increase dairy profitability and contribute to the global sustainable milk production. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a concentrate reduction in combination with inoculated roughages on feed intake and milk production. Grass silages from 1st and 2nd cut and whole plant maize silage were prepared in side by side bunkers. Control (CON) silages were ensiled without inoculant. Experimental silages were inoculated with SiloSolve FC (FC) containing 50:50 of Lactobacillus buchneri (DSM22501) and Lactococcus lactis (DSM11037) at 1.5 × 105 cfu/g of fresh forage. A crossover feeding trial (2 periods x 4 weeks) with 32 mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (balanced randomization procedure) investigated the impact on feed intake and milk production. The data were analyzed using a GLM (period * treatment + DIM + (1|cow)). The basal ration of the CON group consisted, on dry matter (DM) basis, of 40% CON maize silage, 40% CON grass silage, 9% sugar beet pulp silage and 11% of a barley/corn mixture. The cows were individually supplemented with concentrates in the feeding stations according to their stage of lactation and milk production. Cows in the FC group were fed the same basal ration but including FC silages and 0.5 kg/head (0.4 kg DM) less concentrate in the feeding stations. The FC cows completely compensated the lower concentrate intake by a 0.4 kg higher roughage DM intake and tended to produce 0.3 kg more milk (34.0 vs 33.7, P = 0.099) with a 0.1% lower fat content (4.21 vs 4.31, P < 0.05), so that the production of fat and protein corrected milk was unaffected. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of the inoculant treated maize and grass silages in the diet of dairy cows allowed for a reduction of daily concentrate intake by 0.4 kg DM without negatively affecting fat and protein corrected milk yield.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t82492 Watch 164 Fermentation parameters and microbiome dynamic of whole-plant corn silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri or in combination with Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus. 3 R. Scuderi microbiome silage bacterial additives P. Drouin1, R. Scuderi1, E. Apper2 1Lallemand Specialties, Milwaukee, WI, 2Lallemand SAS, Blagnac, France Aerobic deterioration is a key concern in silage of sugar-rich forage having low buffering capacity, as it can cause low quality or important losses during feed-out. Inoculation of silage with several microbial additives can result not only in limiting the aerobic deterioration but also in reducing losses. The objective of the trial was to evaluate inoculant usage on fermentation losses, fermentation parameters and aerobic stability (AS) of the silage. An ensiling trial (7-L mini-silos) was performed using a conventional hybrid corn silage. The treatments consisted of tap-water (Control), L. buchneri (LB)(Lalsil Fresh HC), and a combination of 2 heterofermentative strains, L. buchneri, L. hilgardii, and the homofermentative P. pentosaceus (Combo)(Lallemand Magniva Platinum 3). Openings were at 30, 60, and 180 d. Fermentation parameters, organic volatile compounds, AS, and nutritional parameters were evaluated. Bacterial composition was also determined using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Design was a randomized complete block, blocked by repetition. One-way ANOVA was performed for each opening. At all 3 openings, lactic acid concentration was similar for Combo and Control silages and lower in LB silage. Lactate/acetate ratio was higher for Combo compared with Control silage. Results obtained with the Combo were indicative of homofermentation. AS was over 240 h by first opening for LB and Combo silages, lower in the control group at 30 and 60 d opening (P < 0.001). 1,2-Propanediol was highest in LB, and lowest in Control silage (P < 0.001). Propionic acid was below detection level. Compared with LB, the Combo significantly decreased losses of fresh matter for all 3 openings (P < 0.001 each openings). Dry matter recovery follows the same trend (P = 0.009). Mean NDF of fresh forage was of 38.8% DM (P = 0.858), but down to 32.5% 30.4% for Control and Combo (P = 0.197). The results will be compared with the bacterial microbiome, which was dominated by Lactobacillaceae. This trial confirmed the use of different bacterial strains improves AS by limiting fermentation losses.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t81865 Watch 165 Effect of microbial inoculation on fermentation profile and aerobic stability of rye silage harvested at different stages of maturity. 4 I. Eisner aerobic stability silage inoculant rye I. Eisner1, K. Witt1, V. Vrotniakiene2, J. Jatkauskas2, G. Copani1 1Chr. Hansen Animal Health and Nutrition, Hørsholm, Denmark, 2Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Baisogala, Lithuania The possibility to harvest a rye crop at a boot stage before corn planting may increase the total forage yield per hectare. If the crop is used for biogas production, harvest can take place at other stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a microbial inoculant on fermentation parameters and aerobic stability of rye silage. Rye was harvested at 4 stages of maturity. The crop was ensiled immediately at the flowering; milk; and soft-dough stage. At boot stage, rye was ensiled immediately (BW) or after 24 h of field wilting phase (BD). Five mini-silos (3 l volume) for each treatment were filled with crop (193 kg DM/m3). Control forage (CON), with no inoculant, and experimental treatment (SSFC), inoculated with SiloSolve FC (150,000 total cfu/g of forage), containing 50:50 of Lactobacillus buchneri (DSM22501) and Lactococcus lactis (DSM11037), were stored for 60 d at 20°C. After fermentation, each mini-silo followed an aerobic stability (AS) test by monitoring the temperature increase inside the mini-silos (duration: until they reached +3°C above T ambient, varying from 7 to 30 d depending on crop stage). Data were analyzed in a randomized block design using the GLM procedure (SAS, 9.4) with inoculum as a fixed effect for each maturity stage separately. The use of SSFC significantly enhanced the acetate levels at all maturity stages (P < 0.05). The concentration of butyric acid in SSFC silage was 2.0; 1.4; 0.4; 1.6; 0.7 vs. 9.4; 7.0; 5.6; 11.0; and 6.9 g/kg DM in CON silage for BW, BD, flowering, milk, and soft-dough stage respectively. The observed differences were significant at all stages of maturity (P < 0.01). AS was significantly improved in SSFC silage at all stages of maturity (P < 0.05). The numerically biggest difference in AS was achieved at BD phase (688 vs.120 h for SSFC and CON respectively; P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that SiloSolve FC was beneficial for both fermentation and aerobic stability, providing a flexible solution to direct ensiling of rye from boot till soft-dough maturity stage.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t82528 Watch 166 Artificial wilting in a forced-air oven has minimal effects on silage fermentation and quality in both inoculated and untreated vacuum-bag mini-silos. 5 A. Wilder artificial wilting silage fermentation silage inoculant A. Wilder1, S. Bosworth1 1University of Vermont, Burlington, VT The dry matter content of forage material at ensiling is known to have substantial effects on silage fermentation and quality and is difficult to control when different forages are ensiled for comparison. Conventional wilting practices are unpredictable due to weather variability and a method for consistently wilting forages artificially could be beneficial for fermentation experiments utilizing multiple forage types and sources. We hypothesize that forage material may be wilted in a controlled manner in a forced-air oven at 55°C with little effect on silage fermentation and quality. To this end, 2 experiments were conducted comparing field wilting and oven wilting using alfalfa and red clover forage material. Silage inoculation was also evaluated to determine if the artificial wilting temperature increased the necessity of inoculation before ensiling. Replicated vacuum-bag mini-silos were used and samples were taken after 60 d to determine the fermentation profile and NIR forage quality of the ensiled forage material. Results were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA model. Artificial wilting only resulted in minor differences in silage fermentation and quality and, although inoculation consistently reduced silage pH, the lack of interactions with wilting method suggests that the inoculant functioned similarly in both cases. Table 1. Measures of silage fermentation and quality (g kg−1 DM unless otherwise noted)
Measure Field Wilted Oven Wilted SE Probability > F
Inoc. Ctrl. Inoc. Ctrl. Wilting Inoc. Wilting × Inoc.
1st-Cut Alfalfa                
 DM content (g kg−1 silage) 462 444 445 434 6.6 0.0426 0.0255 NS
 Silage pH 4.52 5.13 4.56 4.99 0.05 NS <.0001 NS
 Lactic acid 69 71 74 75 1.9 NS NS NS
 Acetic acid 11 15 15 26 2.2 0.0015 0.0021 NS
 Ammonia 19 23 22 25 1.8 0.0218 0.0051 NS
 Total VFA 80 86 89 100 2.9 0.0002 0.0015 NS
2nd-cut red clover               NS
 DM content (g kg−1 silage) 463 459 436 435 9.7 NS NS NS
 Silage pH 4.36 4.53 4.32 4.46 0.04 0.0475 0.0001 NS
 Lactic acid 54 36 60 39 3.1 NS 0.0001 NS
 Acetic acid 16 24 17 27 1.8 NS 0.001 NS
 Ammonia 10 12 9 11 0.6 0.0162 0.0063 NS
 Total VFA 70.0 59.8 77.2 65.3 4.09 NS 0.0146 NS
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t81867 Watch 167 The effects of a silage inoculant on fermentation parameters in big bales and mini-silos. 6 I. Eisner big bales mini-silo silage inoculant I. Eisner1, K. Witt1, V. Vrotniakiene2, J. Jatkauskas2, G. Copani1 1Chr. Hansen Animal Health and Nutrition, Hørsholm, Denmark, 2Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Baisogala, Lithuania Mini-silos are widely used for testing the effectiveness of silage inoculants in the laboratory conditions with the assumption that similar effects are observed in the field. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an inoculant on fermentation characteristics in whole plant corn silage prepared in mini-silos and in round big bales. Crop was harvested at 35% dry matter (DM), inoculated with distilled water (C) or Biomax (BM) containing 50:50 of Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM26571) and Enterococcus faecium (DSM22502) (150,000 total cfu/g of fresh forage). Five round big bales (BB) (800 kg/bale) and 5 mini-silos (MS) (3 l of volume; 200 kg DM/m3) for each treatment were prepared. All silages were stored for 120 d. Big bales were stored outside (−3°C till 14°C) and mini-silos at room temperature (20°C). The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using PROC GLM of SAS 9.3 (fixed effects: inoculum, method and their main interaction). BM significantly increased lactic acid (64 vs. 47 g/kg DM; P < 0.001), decreased butyric acid (0.02 vs. 0.76 g/kg DM; P < 0.001) and pH (3.87 vs. 4.01; P < 0.001). Method had a significant effect on total acids, alcohols and DM loss (P < 0.05). Compared with C, BM increased total acids in BB (74 vs. 63 g/kg DM; P < 0.002) and in MS (85 vs. 69 g/kg DM; P < 0.001). Alcohols were lower in BM silage in BB (7.1 vs. 11.1 g/kg DM; P < 0.001) and in MS (8.0 vs. 12.4 g/kg DM; P < 0.001). BM reduced dry matter loss in BB (57 vs. 91 g DM; P < 0.001) and in MS (40 vs. 69 g/DM). An interaction between treatment and method was found for acetic acid (P < 0.001) and ammonia-N (P = 0.023). BM reduced acetic acid in BB (11 vs. 16 g/kg DM; P < 0.001), but not in MS. Ammonia-N was lower in BM silage in BB (3.8 vs. 5.7% total N; P < 0.001) and in MS (3.4 vs. 4.6% total N; P < 0.001). Although the values for some fermentation parameters varied with the ensiling method (BB/MS), inoculation had positive effects on fermentation and dry matter preservation in both methods. The mini-silo technique can be used to predict the effect of a silage inoculant under field conditions.
Forages and Pastures (T1)   Forages and Pastures 6/23/2020 12:00 t82046 Watch 168 Effect of lignosulfonates on the dry matter loss, nutritional composition, and microbial counts of high-moisture alfalfa silage. 7 A. Y. Leon-Tinoco alfalfa silage lignosulfonates A. Y. Leon-Tinoco1, B. C. Guimarães2, S. T. R. Almeida2, D. C. Reyes1, S. Rivera1, R. Hollandsworth1, M. Killerby1, Z. X. Ma3, B. Perkins1, S. L. Annis1, C. Wu4, C. Knight1, A. Lichtenwalner1, D. Skonberg1, J. J. Romero1 1University of Maine, Orono, ME, 2University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 3University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 4University of Delaware, Newark, DE Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 technical lignins, sodium and magnesium lignosulfonate (NaL and MgL, respectively) and an inoculant mixture (INO) on high moisture alfalfa silage spoilage. Treatments were untreated (0%), NaL and MgL applied independently at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 (% wt/wt, fresh basis) and INO (Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus plantarum; 5 and 4 log cfu/fresh alfalfa g, respectively). An alfalfa field was divided into 5 plots (blocks), and unwilted alfalfa was chopped, treated (randomly within block), and ensiled for 229 d in mini-silos (0.29 L). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design (5 blocks) and differences were declared at P ≤ 0.05. Linear (L) and quadratic (Q) polynomial contrasts were used to determine dose rate effects for NaL and MgL and orthogonal contrasts for INO effects. At d 0, increasing NaL dose from 0 to 1.5% increased DM (21.9 to 22.7 ± 0.12%; L) and decreased mold counts (4.48 to 3.62 ± 0.142 log cfu/fresh g; L). No treatment effects were observed on yeast (6.94) and lactic acid bacteria counts (7.04 log cfu/fresh g), sugars (6.15), CP (21.7), and NDF (43.2% of DM). At opening (d 229), increasing the NaL dose from 0 to 1.5% increased pH (4.33 to 4.56 ± 0.018; L) and DM (18.9 to 19.9 ± 0.19%; L), and decreased lactic acid (8.80 to 7.13 ± 0.24% of DM; L) and the lactic to acetic acid ratio (2.39 to 1.78 ± 0.07; L) but did not affect DM losses (~11.8 ± 0.67%). MgL increased pH (4.33 to 4.45 ± 0.018; L) and DM losses (11.28 to 14.05 ± 0.67%; L), and decreased lactic acid (8.80 to 6.74 ± 0.24%). Neither NaL nor MgL had an effect on sugars (~0.67 ± 0.07%), NH3-N (~10.9 ± 0.54% of N), acetate (~3.82 ± 0.13% of DM), and ethanol (~1.02 ± 0.04% of DM). Compared with untreated (P ≤ 0.05), INO increased DM losses (11.28 vs. 13.7 ± 0.67%), pH (4.33 vs. 4.46 ± 0.018), and decreased lactic acid (8.8 vs. 7.37 ± 0.24%) and sugars (0.8 vs. 0.45 ± 0.07% DM). Across treatments, yeasts and molds were below 2 log cfu/fresh g. In conclusion, additives tested did not improve the preservation of high moisture alfalfa silage, with INO and MgL actually increasing DM losses relative to untreated.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t81587 Watch 169 Physically effective neutral detergent fiber content modulates chewing activity, rumen fermentation, plasma metabolites, and performance. 1 Y. Cao physically effective NDF (peNDF) subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) chewing activity Y. Cao1,2, X. Chen2, L. Wang1,2, J. Yao1 1Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) continues to be a common and costly metabolic disorder in high-producing cows worldwide. To evaluate if increasing physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) in diet can prevent SARA in cows fed high concentrate diets. Thirty second-parity Holstein cows were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups: H-peNDF8.0, M-peNDF8.0, and L-peNDF8.0, which were prepared by mixing the same total mixed ration for 10, 18, or 60 min, respectively. The peNDF8.0 intake was positively correlated with the peNDF8.0 contents in the diets. Total chewing and ruminating time was lower for the L-peNDF8.0 diet than for the H-peNDF8.0 and M-peNDF8.0 diets (P < 0.05). Rumen pH was higher in the H-peNDF8.0-fed cows than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). The H-peNDF8.0 and M-peNDF8.0 diets corresponded with higher acetate concentration, acetate:propionate ratio than the L-peNDF8.0 diet (P < 0.05), while H-peNDF8.0 and M-peNDF8.0 resulted in lower propionate and valerate concentrations than L-peNDF8.0 (P < 0.05). Lowering the peNDF8.0 content decreased the activities of ruminal carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, and β-glucanase (P < 0.05). H-peNDF8.0 resulted in lower total plasma antioxidant capacity, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, and creatinine compared with M-peNDF8.0 and L-peNDF8.0 (P < 0.05). Somatic cell counts in milk were positively correlated with the dietary peNDF8.0 content. The feed and milk energy efficiencies were unaffected by the treatments. In conclusion, increasing the content of peNDF8.0 in diet could help alleviate SARA and improve animal health among early lactation cows fed a high concentrate diet by increasing peNDF8.0 intake, chewing activity, and rumen pH.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t82205 Watch 170 Hepatic lipid-associated protein abundances vary by day relative to calving and are associated with hepatic triglyceride content in transition dairy cows. 2 H. T. Holdorf lipase fatty liver peripartum H. T. Holdorf1, R. S. Pralle1, S. J. Erb1, H. M. White1 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI The objectives of this study were to determine protein abundance of hepatic lipid-associated proteins (HLAP) in liver homogenates and interrogate a potential relationship with peripartum liver triglyceride (LVTG) content. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 25) were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned to control or a fatty liver induction (FLI) treatment (TRT). Liver samples were collected via biopsy at −28, −14, +1, +14, +28, +42, and +56 d relative to calving (DRTC). Content of LVTG was determined and expressed on a % dry matter basis. Western blotting was used to analyze the abundance of HLAP: abhydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), phosphorylated HSL (PHSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), perilipin 1 (PLIN) and phosphorylated PLIN (PPLIN). Data was analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.4. Evidence was considered significant if P ≤ 0.05, and a tendency if 0.05 < P ≤ 0.1. When P ≤ 0.1 for the main effects, means were separated by Bonferroni adjustment and presented as least squares means ± SEM with comparison P-values. No evidence was observed for effects of TRT or TRT × DRTC (P > 0.1) on LVTG content or HLAP abundance. Mean LVTG content was greater (P ≤ 0.05) postpartum compared with prepartum and peaked at +14 DRTC (P ≤ 0.0004). Greater ATGL abundance was observed (P ≤ 0.04) at +14 and +28 DRTC (µ = 1.89 ± 0.02 arbitrary units [AU]) compared with +1 (1.83 ± 0.03 AU) DRTC. Abundance of PLIN tended to be greater (P = 0.08) at +14 (0.79 ± 0.02 AU) compared with +1 DRTC (0.72 ± 0.03 AU). Conversely, PPLIN was decreased (P ≤ 0.003) at +1, +14, +28, and +42 (µ = 1.67 ± 0.02 AU) compared with −14 DRTC (1.74 ± 0.01 AU). As linear regressors, PPLIN predicted (P = 0.05; β = −0.44) and ATGL tended to predict (P = 0.09; β = −0.33) LVTG content across all DRTC. Variation in HLAP abundance by DRTC and their associations with LVTG suggest a potential role in the accumulation and subsequent remobilization of LVTG. The impact of coordinated regulation of HLAP on the etiology of fatty liver onset and recovery peripartum warrants further exploration.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t82254 Watch 171 Effects of hindgut acidosis in lactating dairy cows already experiencing systemic inflammation. 3 M. A. Abeyta inflammation starch infusion LPS M. A. Abeyta1, E. A. Horst1, E. J. Mayorga1, B. M. Goetz1, S. J. Rodriguez-Jimenez1, M. F. Caratzu1, L. H. Baumgard1 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Following parturition cows experience an increased starch load to the large intestine, and we hypothesize that the negative consequences of hindgut acidosis are exacerbated by prior periparturient immunoactivation. Therefore, objectives were to evaluate the effects of hindgut acidosis on metabolism and inflammation in cows previously infused i.v. with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twelve rumen cannulated cows were enrolled in a study with 3 experimental periods (P). Baseline data were collected during P1 (5d). Beginning on d1 of P2 (2d), all cows received an i.v. LPS bolus (0.2 µg LPS/kg BW). During P3 (4d), cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 abomasal infusion treatments: 1) control (LPSCON; 1.5 L H2O/infusion; n = 6) or 2) starch infused (LPSST; 1 kg corn starch + 1.5 L H2O/infusion; n = 6) 4 times daily. Additionally, both treatments received an LPS bolus on d1 and 3 of P3 (0.8 and 1.6 µg LPS/kg BW, respectively). Effects of treatment, time, and treatment × time were assessed using PROC MIXED. During P3, starch infusion markedly decreased fecal pH relative to controls (0.82 pH units; P < 0.01). Relative to P1, administering LPS decreased production metrics during both periods, and the most pronounced effects were observed on d1 of P2 and d1 and 3 of P3 for milk yield (54, 45, and 37%) and DMI (49, 43, and 40%) respectively (all P < 0.01); However, starch infusion did not exacerbate effects of LPS on either parameter. Regardless of starch infusion, administering LPS markedly altered milk components and somatic cell counts. During P3, hindgut acidosis had no effect on circulating glucose, insulin, NEFA, or BHBA (P > 0.35), but decreased BUN (17%; P = 0.07) relative to LPSCON cows. Relative to P1, LPS administration markedly increased SAA and LBP during P2 (3.3-fold and 51%) and P3 (2.7-fold and 48%; all P < 0.01), however there were no additional effects of starch administration during P3 on acute phase proteins. By design, LPS administration initiated marked changes in metabolism and inflammation, however, hindgut acidosis did not exacerbate the inflammatory response.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t82774 Watch 172 Effects of hindgut acidosis in feed-restricted dairy cows. 4 M. A. Abeyta inflammation starch infusion M. A. Abeyta1, E. A. Horst1, E. J. Mayorga1, B. M. Goetz1, S. J. Rodriguez-Jimenez1, M. F. Caratzu1, L. H. Baumgard1 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Cows experience an increased starch load to the large intestine following parturition, and we hypothesize that the negative consequences of hindgut acidosis (HGA) may be exacerbated by prior periparturient stressors (i.e., reduced feed intake, inflammation). Therefore, objectives were to evaluate the effects of HGA on metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in feed restricted (FR) cows. Twelve rumen cannulated cows were enrolled in a study with 3 experimental periods (P). During P1 (5d), baseline data were collected. During P2 (2d), all cows were FR to 40% of their ad libitum P1 feed intake. During P3 (4d) cows remained FR and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 abomasal infusion treatments: 1) control (FRCON; 1.5 L H2O/infusion; n = 6) or 2) starch (FRST; 1 kg corn starch + 1.5 L H2O/infusion; n = 6). Respective treatments were infused 4 × daily. Effects of treatment, time, and treatment × time were assessed using PROC MIXED. Starch infusions markedly decreased fecal pH relative to FRCON during P3 (0.96 pH units; P < 0.01). By design, DMI decreased 60% relative to baseline for both treatments during P2 and P3 (P < 0.01). Milk yield was markedly decreased by FR during P2 and 3 relative to P1 (39%; P < 0.01), but was unaffected by HGA (P > 0.91). Feed restriction altered milk components and variables differently over time with no effect of HGA except on MUN, which decreased (28%; P = 0.01) relative to FRCON during P3. Feed restriction increased NEFA and decreased circulating glucose and insulin for both periods and the most pronounced differences were observed during P2 (3.6-fold, 13 and 74%, respectively; P < 0.01). Starch infusion did not influence circulating NEFA, glucose, and insulin patterns during FR. Relative to FRCON, BHBA concentrations increased (55%; P = 0.04) in FRST cows during P3. Over time, FR decreased BUN for both treatments but starch infusions further exacerbated this response during P3 as BUN levels decreased (31%; P = 0.03) relative to FRCON. No effects of FR or HGA were observed for SAA and LBP. By design, FR caused marked alterations in metabolism, however, no effects of FR or FR in combination with HGA were observed on inflammation.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t82640 Watch 173 Prepartum light shifting circadian rhythm disruption did not affect amount of muscle and adipose mobilized in transition dairy cows. 5 C. J. McCabe circadian rhythm ultrasound tissue mobilization C. J. McCabe1, A. Suarez-Trujillo1, T. M. Casey1, J. P. Boerman1 1Purdue University, Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN Circadian clocks function to maintain homeostasis by coordinating internal physiology to the external environment through the generation of 24 h rhythms. Circadian clocks are integrated with the metabolic system and disruption of clocks by altering timing of external cues affects metabolism, with long-term disruption associated with development of diseases in humans and rodents. During the periparturient period, dairy cattle are often in a negative energy balance and accommodate for nutrient gaps by mobilizing stores from adipose and muscle. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to chronic light-dark cycle phase shifts during the nonlactating prepartum period on tissue mobilization postpartum. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 16) were exposed to 16 h of light and 8 h of dark (CON; n = 8) or phase shifting (PS; n = 8) of the start of the light cycle forward 6 h every 3 d beginning 35 d before expected calving (BEC). Following calving both treatments were exposed to control lighting through 60 DIM. Longissimus dorsi and backfat ultrasounds measured muscle and backfat depth at 35, 21, and 7 d BEC and 0, 10, 21, 30, and 60 DIM. Cows lost muscle mass from 35 d BEC to 60 DIM (4.02 vs. 3.01 cm; P < 0.01), with no differences between treatments (P > 0.05). Muscle depth at 35 d BEC positively correlated to the amount of muscle mobilized over the study (P = 0.002; R2 = 0.50). Backfat depth was less between 35 d BEC and 30 and 60 DIM (P < 0.05). Creatinine, 3-methylhistidine, and NEFA, measured in plasma samples taken on ultrasound dates and 28, 14 d BEC and 7, 14 DIM as indicators of total muscle mass, and muscle and adipose mobilized, respectively, were not different between treatment (P > 0.05), but NEFA increased and creatinine decreased for all cows between pre and postpartum periods (P < 0.01). In this study, circadian clock disruptions in the prepartum did not affect the quantity of tissue mobilized nor blood metabolites during the dairy cow periparturient period.
Physiology and Endocrinology (T1)   Physiology and Endocrinology 6/23/2020 12:00 t82580 Watch 174 Effects of antioxidant supplementation on metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in heat-stressed dairy cows. 6 M. A. Abeyta heat stress antioxidant inflammation M. A. Abeyta1, M. Al-Qaisi1, E. A. Horst1, E. J. Mayorga1, S. J. Rodriguez-Jimenez1, B. M. Goetz1, S. Carta1, H. Tucker2, L. H. Baumgard1 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2Novus International, St. Charles, MO Study objectives were to evaluate if antioxidant supplementation (AP; AGRADO Plus 2.0; Novus International, St. Charles, Missouri) affects metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in hyperthermic lactating dairy cows. Thirty-two cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary-environmental treatments: 1) thermoneutral (TN) conditions and control (TNCON; n = 8), 2) TN conditions and AP (TNAP; n = 8), 3) heat stress (HS) and control (HSCON; n = 8), or 4) HS and AP (HSAP; n = 8). Before study initiation, cows were fed their respective diets for 30d and dietary treatments were top-dressed once daily. The trial consisted of 2 experimental periods (P); during P1 (4d) baseline data were collected. During P2 (7d) HS was artificially induced using an electric heat blanket (Thermotex Therapy Systems Ltd., Calgary, Canada). Effects of treatment, day, and treatment × day interaction were assessed using PROC MIXED. HS increased (P < 0.01) rectal, vaginal, and skin temperatures relative to TN controls and the largest differences were detected on d3–7 (1.2, 1.1, and 1.9°C, respectfully). On d2 of HS, AP supplementation decreased respiration rate (15%; P = 0.01) relative to HSCON. As expected, HS decreased (P < 0.01) milk yield and DMI during P2 and this was most pronounced on d4–7 (28, and 33%, relative to TN). Feed efficiency was increased by AP supplementation on d4–7 of HS relative to HSCON (15%; P = 0.06). DMI from HSAP cows tended to be decreased relative to HSCON cows during P2 (10%; P = 0.06). Circulating insulin and NEFA did not differ across environmental treatments, however, AP supplementation decreased insulin (37%; P = 0.01) and increased NEFA (68%; P = 0.03) during HS relative to HSCON cows. HS decreased circulating glucagon (26%; P < 0.01) relative to TN cows. Throughout P2, BUN from HS cows increased (21%; P < 0.01) relative to TN, and on d3 AP supplementation decreased BUN relative to HS controls (15%; P < 0.01). HS increased SAA and LBP relative to TN cows (78 and 59%, P = 0.08 and < 0.01) but neither variable was influenced by AP. Overall, AP supplementation appeared to alter metabolism but not inflammation during heat stress.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates and Lipids (T1)   Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/23/2020 12:00 t81746 Watch 175 Milk production responses of dairy cows to fatty acid supplements with different ratios of palmitic and oleic acid in low- and high-fat basal diets. 1 A. M. Burch fat supplementation basal diet milk fat A. M. Burch1, J. de Souza2, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Perdue AgriBusiness, Salisbury, MD We evaluated the effects of fatty acid (FA) supplements with different ratios of palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids in low and high fat basal diets on production responses of dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (50.2 ± 5.8 kg milk/d; 160 ± 36 d DIM) were used in a split-plot Latin square design. Cows were blocked by milk yield and allocated to a main plot receiving either a low fat (LF) basal diet (n = 18) containing cottonseed meal and cottonseed hulls or a high fat (HF) basal diet (n = 18) containing whole cottonseed. Diets were balanced for similar NDF (30.0% DM), starch (28.5% DM), and CP (17.5% DM). Within each plot a 3x3 Latin square arrangement of treatments was used with 3 21 d periods. Treatments were: 1) control (CON; no FA supplementation), 2) FA supplement containing 80% C16:0 + 10% C18:1 (PA), and 3) FA supplement containing 60% C16:0 + 30% C18:1 (PAOA). FA supplements were fed at 1.5% DM and replaced soyhulls in CON. The statistical model included the random effect of cow within basal diet, and the fixed effect of treatment, basal diet, period, and their interactions. Treatment by basal diet interactions were observed with FA treatments increasing lactose yield (P = 0.01) and tending to increase milk yield (P = 0.14) in LF but not in HF. Basal diet had no effect on DMI (P = 0.66) or milk yield (P = 0.62). Compared with LF, HF increased 3.5% FCM (46.7 vs. 50.2 kg/d; P = 0.04) and milk fat yield (1.65 vs. 1.83 kg/d; P = 0.02) and tended to increase ECM (47.1 vs. 50.0 kg/d; P = 0.07). Results for FA treatments are presented in the following order: CON, PA, and PAOA. PAOA decreased DMI (33.0, 33.1, 32.0 kg/d; P < 0.01). FA treatments increased 3.5% FCM (47.4, 48.9, 49.0 kg/d; P < 0.01), ECM (47.8, 49.0, 48.9 kg/d; P < 0.01), and milk fat yield (1.69, 1.76, 1.76 kg/d; P < 0.01) compared with CON but there was no difference between FA treatments. In conclusion, a high fat basal diet had positive production responses while the addition of fat supplements increased milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM, and ECM regardless of basal diet.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates and Lipids (T1)   Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/23/2020 12:00 t82530 Watch 176 Evaluation of sweet potato flour addition partially replacing corn on milk yield and metabolism of dairy cows. 2 M. A. Ollé milk production ruminant nutrition starch M. A. Ollé1, C. F. Demarco1, L. Oliveira2, C. A. Oliveira1, J. B. Cardoso1, A. E. Anjos1, A. D. C. Matos1, A. A. Barbosa1, J. O. Feijó1<