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Gene expression in liver and adipose tissue is altered during and after temporary changes to postpartum milking frequency - Corrected Proof
T.M. Grala, C.V.C. Phyn, J.K. Kay, A.G. Rius, M.C. Lucy, M.D. Littlejohn, R.G. Snell, J.R. Roche
Short-term changes to milking frequency can alter the metabolic status of dairy cows depending on the duration, magnitude, and stage of lactation at which the milking frequency changes occur. Additionally, effects of altered milking frequency that are subsequent to cows returning to a normal twice-daily (2×) milking regimen are not well established. This study tested the hypothesis that plasma concentrations of key hormones and metabolites and transcription of genes involved in the somatotropic axis and lipid metabolism would be altered in liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue from cows milked with different frequencies. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 2× milking for the whole lactation, or once-(1×) or 3 times-(3×) daily milking for 3 or 6 wk, immediately postpartum, and then 2× milking for the remainder of the lactation. Liver and subcutaneous fat were biopsied at wk 1 (liver only), 3, 6, and 9 postpartum, and transcription of genes involved in the somatotropic axis and lipid metabolism were measured. At wk 3, cows milked 3× had lower hepatic expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR1A) compared with cows milked 2× or 1×, and lower IGF1 expression compared with cows milked 1×, indicating greater uncoupling of the somatotropic axis. At wk 6, reduced transcription of total GHR and GHR1B occurred in the adipose tissue of cows milked 3×. Cows milked 1× had greater transcription in adipose tissue of lipogenesis genes at wk 3 and 6, and lipolysis genes at wk 6, compared with cows milked 2×, indicating a period of increased fatty acid storage, followed by increased fatty acid reesterification. At wk 9, cows previously milked 3× for 6 wk maintained lower transcription of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipolysis, and ketolysis in adipose tissue compared with cows milked 2×, indicating that the effects of 3× milking persist for at least 3 wk after switching to 2× milking. Results indicate that alterations to milking frequency affect the transcription of genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage, enabling the animal to manage the energy demands associated with the change in milk production. Some of these gene transcription changes were maintained in cows previously milked 3×, indicating that the adipose tissue gene expression changes were still required even after 3 wk of the less-demanding 2× milking regimen.
Genome shuffling of Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis YF11 for improving nisin Z production and comparative analysis - Corrected Proof
Y.F. Zhang, S.Y. Liu, Y.H. Du, W.J. Feng, J.H. Liu, J.J. Qiao
Nisin has been widely used in the food industry as a safe and natural preservative to increase the shelf time of many foods. In this study, genome shuffling was applied to improve nisin Z production of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis YF11 (YF11) via recursive protoplast fusion. Ultraviolet irradiation and diethyl sulfate mutagenesis were used to generate parental strains for genome shuffling. After 4 rounds of genome shuffling, the best-performing strain F44 was obtained, which showed dramatic improvements in tolerance to both glucose (ranging from 8 to 15% (wt/vol) and nisin (ranging from 5,000 to 14,000 IU/ mL). Fed-batch fermentation showed that the nisin titer of F44 was up to 4,023 IU/mL, which was 2.4 times that of the starting strain YF11. Field emission scanning electron microscope micrographs of YF11 and F44 revealed the apparent differences in cell morphology. Whereas YF11 displayed long and thin cell morphology, F44 cells were short and thick and with a raised surface in the middle of the cell. With the increasing glucose and nisin content in the medium, cells of both YF11 and F44 tended to become shrunken; however, alterations in YF11 cells were more pronounced than those of F44 cells, especially when cultured in tolerance medium containing both nisin and glucose. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis demonstrated that the structure of nisin from YF11 and F44 was the same. Expression profiling of nisin synthesis related genes by real-time quantitative PCR showed that the transcription level of nisin structural gene nisZ and immunity gene nisI of F44 was 48 and 130% higher than that of the starting strain YF11, respectively. These results could provide valuable insights into the molecular basis underlying the nisin overproduction mechanism in L. lactis, thus facilitating the future construction of industrial strains for nisin production.
Associations of cytological endometritis with energy metabolism and inflammation during the periparturient period and early lactation in dairy cows - Corrected Proof
T. Yasui, K. McCann, R.O. Gilbert, D.V. Nydam, T.R. Overton
Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 108) were used to determine the associations of cytological endometritis (CE) with plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) as markers of energy metabolism, calculated energy balance (EB), and plasma haptoglobin (Hp) as a marker of inflammation during the periparturient period and early lactation. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low-volume uterine lavage was conducted on 1 d between 40 and 60 d postcalving. The incidence of CE among cows sampled was 40%. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for both NEFA and BHBA using data collected from 3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition. Data for NEFA and BHBA AUC were stratified into prepartum (wk −3 to parturition) and postpartum (parturition to wk +3) for statistical analysis. Prepartum AUC for neither NEFA nor BHBA was associated with subsequent CE; however, cows that subsequently developed CE tended to have higher postpartum AUC for NEFA and had higher postpartum AUC for BHBA. Consistent with the results for plasma NEFA and BHBA, calculated EB during the prepartum period was not different in cows that did or did not develop CE; however, cows with CE had lower EB during the 6-wk postpartum period compared with cows without CE. Analysis of EB by week (wk −3 to −1 before calving and wk +1 to +6 postcalving) indicated that EB in cows with CE was lower at wk +1, +2, and +3 and tended to be lower at wk +6 than cows without CE. Plasma Hp concentrations were analyzed from wk +1 to +8 of lactation; concentrations of Hp were not different during either wk +1 or the entire postpartum period between cows that did or did not develop CE. These results suggest that lower energy status during the first 3 wk postpartum, but not necessarily systemic inflammation, is associated with subsequent development of CE.
Genetic parameter estimation for major milk fatty acids in Alpine and Saanen primiparous goats - Corrected Proof
C. Maroteau, I. Palhière, H. Larroque, V. Clément, M. Ferrand, G. Tosser-Klopp, R. Rupp
Genetic parameters for 18 fatty acids or groups of fatty acids (FA), milk production traits, and somatic cell score (SCS) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood with a repeatability animal model, using 45,259 test-day records from the first lactations of 13,677 Alpine and Saanen goats. Fatty acid data were collected as part of an extensive recording scheme (PhénoFinLait), and sample testing was based on mid-infrared spectra estimates. The total predicted FA content in milk was approximately 3.5% in Alpine and Saanen goats. Goat milk fat showed similar saturated FA to cattle and sheep, but higher contents of capric (C10:0) FA (~9.7 g/100 g of milk fat). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.49 for FA and estimates were generally higher when FA were expressed in g/100 g of milk fat compared with g/100 g of milk. In general, the 3 specific short- and medium-chain goat FA, caproic acid (C6:0), caprylic acid (C8:0), and especially capric (C10:0) acid, had among the highest heritability estimates (from 0.21 to 0.37; average of 0.30). Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat and protein contents, and SCS were 0.22, 0.23, 0.39, 0.09, and 0.24, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.15, in Alpine and Saanen goats, respectively. When FA were expressed in g/100 g of milk, genetic correlations between fat content and all FA were high and positive. Genetic correlations between the fat content and FA groups expressed in g/100 g of fat led to further investigation of the association between fat content and FA profile within milk fat. Accordingly, in both Saanen and Alpine breeds, no significant genetic correlations were found between fat content and C16:0, whereas the correlations between fat content and specific goat FA (C6:0 to C10:0) were positive (0.17 to 0.59). In addition, the genetic correlation between fat content and C14:0 was negative (−0.17 to −0.35). The values of the genetic correlations between protein content and individual FA were similar, although genetic correlations between protein content and FA groups were close to zero. Genetic correlations of milk yield or SCS with the FA profile were weak. Results for genetic parameters for FA, however, should be further validated, because the low predicting ability of certain FA using mid-infrared spectra and the limited calibration data set might have resulted in low accuracy. In conclusion, our results indicated substantial genetic variation in goat milk FA that supported their amenability for genetic selection. In addition, selection on protein and fat contents is not expected to have an undesirable effect on the FA profile in regard to specificity of goat products and human health.
Short communication: Timing of first milking affects serotonin (5-HT) concentrations - Corrected Proof
J. Laporta, J.J. Gross, T.D. Crenshaw, R.M. Bruckmaier, L.L. Hernandez
Hormonal signals differentially regulate the timing of parturition, as well lactogenesis and, potentially, colostrum formation in the mammary gland. Non-neuronal serotonin (5-HT) is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland. In the current study, we manipulated the timing of first milking to investigate its effects on serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations in the maternal and calf circulation, as well as in colostrum. Twenty-three cows were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n = 10) group, milked for the first time at 4 h postcalving, or a treatment (TRT; n = 13) group, milked for the first time approximately 1 d before calving in addition to 4 h postcalving. Maternal blood samples were collected for 4 d precalving, 3 times daily, and 1 blood sample was taken 4 h postcalving. Calf blood samples were collected 4 (before first colostrum feeding) and 12 h after birth, and at 3 wk of age. Calves from both treatments were fed colostrum from their respective mothers. Serum 5-HT concentrations were greater in CON cows and decreased significantly in TRT cows after milking was initiated precalving (951 vs. 524 ± 111 ng/mL, respectively). Cow serum calcium concentrations were affected by time, beginning to decrease 1 d precalving until 4 h postcalving, but this drop in serum calcium was more pronounced in TRT cows. Serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations were negatively correlated (r = −0.57) for the CON cows and positively correlated (r = 0.6) for the TRT cows. Maternal calcium and 5-HT decreased similarly due to precalving milking. Calcium and 5-HT concentrations were greater in colostrum collected from TRT cows milked precalving. Overall, calves had higher circulating 5-HT concentrations than cows, and calves born to TRT cows had increased 5-HT concentrations compared with the CON. Precalving milking could affect 5-HT synthesis within the mammary gland and therefore affect maternal 5-HT and calcium concentrations. Further research is needed in ruminants to assess the extent of 5-HT placental transfer, its role on pre- and postnatal development of the calf, the importance of its presence in colostrum, and potential long-term effects on calf health.
A genome-wide association study of calf birth weight in Holstein cattle using single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes predicted from auxiliary traits - Corrected Proof
J.B. Cole, B. Waurich, M. Wensch-Dorendorf, D.M. Bickhart, H.H. Swalve
Previous research has found that a quantitative trait locus exists affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 that may be related to increased calf birth weights, which are not routinely recorded in the United States. Birth weight data from large, intensively managed dairies in eastern Germany with management systems similar to those commonly found in the United States were used to develop a selection index predictor for predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of birth weight. The predictor included body depth, rump width, sire calving ease, sire gestation length, sire stillbirth, stature, and strength. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities from the United States were substituted for the German values, and birth weight PTA predicted for 31,984 bulls with US genetic evaluations. A genome-wide association study was conducted on the predicted birth weight PTA with the 2-step genomic BLUP procedure used for routine evaluations in the United States. Allele substitution effects were predicted for 43,188 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotypes were available for 53,644 predictor animals. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed on the 100 SNP that had the largest effects expressed in additive genetic standard deviations. Several SNP related to growth and development were found among the 25 SNP with the largest effects, including markers located within or near (≤100 kbp) ABCA12, FLRT2, LHX4, MAP3K5, NRAC, NTNG1, PIGN, and ZNF75A. The gene set enrichment analysis identified the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes “Regulation of actin cytoskeleton” pathway (bta04810) as being enriched. That pathway includes the ROCK gene, which is involved in placental function in the human, as well as other developmental genes (e.g., FAK and PAK). These results suggest that prediction equations derived from one population are useful for identifying genes and gene networks associated with phenotypes that are not directly measured in a second population. This approach will identify only genes associated with the traits used to construct the birth weight predictor, and not loci that affect only birth weight.
Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle - Corrected Proof
L. Krpálková, V.E. Cabrera, M. Vacek, M. Štípková, L. Stádník, P. Crump
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management.
How do cattle respond to sloped floors? An investigation using behavior and electromyograms - Corrected Proof
E. Rajapaksha, C.B. Tucker
On dairy farms, flooring is often sloped to facilitate drainage. Sloped floors have been identified as a possible risk factor for lameness, but relatively little is known about how this flooring feature affects dairy cattle. Ours is the first study to evaluate the short-term effects of floor slope on skeletal muscle activity, restless behavior (measured by number of steps), and latency to lie down after 90 min of standing. Sixteen Holstein cows were exposed to floors with a 0, 3, 6, or 9% slope in a crossover design, with a minimum of 45 h between each testing session. Electromyograms were used to evaluate the activity of middle gluteal and biceps femoris muscles. Muscle activity was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static muscle contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 90 min of standing; and (2) dynamic contractions that occurred during 90 min of treatment exposure. Median power frequency and median amplitude of both static and dynamic muscle electrical signals were calculated. Total muscle activity was calculated using the root mean square of the signals. Restless behavior, the number of steps per treatment, steps and kicks in the milking parlor, and the latency to lie down after the test sessions were also measured. It was predicted that restless behavior, muscle fatigue (as measured by median power frequency and median amplitude), total muscle activity, and latency to lie down after testing would increase with floor slope. However, no treatment differences were found. Median power frequency was significantly greater for the middle gluteal muscle [35 ± 4 Hz (mean and SE)] compared with the biceps femoris muscle (24 ± 3 Hz), indicating that the contractive properties of these muscles differ. The number of steps per minute and total muscle activity increased significantly over 90 min of standing, irrespective of floor slope. Although restless behavior and muscle function did not change with slope in our study, this work demonstrates that electromyograms can be used to measure skeletal leg muscle activity in cattle. This technology, along with restless behavior, could be useful in assessing cow comfort in other situations, such as prolonged standing.
In vitro iron absorption of α-lactalbumin hydrolysate-iron and β-lactoglobulin hydrolysate-iron complexes - Corrected Proof
X. Wang, T. Ai, X.L. Meng, J. Zhou, X.Y. Mao
To study the feasibility of promoting iron absorption by peptides derived from α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, the present work examined the transport of iron across Caco-2 monolayer cell as in vitro model. Caco-2 cells were seeded in bicameral chambers with α-lactalbumin hydrolysate-Fe (α-LAH-Fe) complex and β-lactoglobulin hydrolysate-Fe (β-LGH-Fe) complex, α-LAH and iron mixture, β-LGH and iron mixture, FeSO4 and ascorbic acid mixture, and FeSO4. In addition, the cytotoxicity of α-LAH-Fe and β-LGH-Fe complexes were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The iron absorption and ferritin content were assessed using the coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Results suggest that peptide-iron complexes can promote ferritin formation and it is possible to apply β-LGH-Fe complexes as iron-fortified supplements with high iron absorbability.
Relationship of severity of subacute ruminal acidosis to rumen fermentation, chewing activities, sorting behavior, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet - Corrected Proof
X. Gao, M. Oba
The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in severity of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to determine factors characterizing animals that are tolerant to high-grain diets. Sixteen ruminally cannulated late-lactating dairy cows (days in milk = 282 ± 33.8; body weight = 601 ± 75.9 kg) were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. After 17 d of diet adaptation, chewing activities were monitored for a 24-h period and ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 72 h. Acidosis index, defined as the severity of SARA (area of pH <5.8) divided by dry matter intake (DMI), was determined for individual animals to assess the severity of SARA normalized for a feed intake level. Although all cows were fed the same diet, minimum pH values ranged from 5.16 to 6.04, and the acidosis index ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 pH·min/kg of DMI. Six cows with the lowest acidosis index (0.04 ± 0.61 pH·min/kg) and 4 with the highest acidosis index (7.67 ± 0.75 pH·min/kg) were classified as animals that were tolerant and susceptible to the high-grain diet, respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and volatile fatty acid profile were not different between the groups. Susceptible animals sorted against long particles, whereas tolerant animals did not (sorting index = 87.6 vs. 97.9, respectively). However, the tolerant cows had shorter total chewing time (35.8 vs. 45.1 min/kg of DMI). In addition, although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ between the groups, milk urea nitrogen concentration was higher for tolerant cows compared with susceptible cows (12.8 vs. 8.6 mg/dL), which is possibly attributed to less organic matter fermentation in the rumen of tolerant cows. These results suggest that a substantial variation exists in the severity of SARA among lactating dairy cows fed the same high-grain diet, and that cows tolerant to the high-grain diet might be characterized by less sorting behavior but less chewing time, and higher milk urea nitrogen concentration.
Short communication: Use of young bulls in the United States - Corrected Proof
J.L. Hutchison, J.B. Cole, D.M. Bickhart
The availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has resulted in many changes to dairy cattle breeding programs. One such change has been the increased contribution of young bulls (0.8 to 3.9 yr old) to those programs. The increased use of young bulls was investigated using pedigree data and breeding records obtained from the US national dairy database (Beltsville, MD). The adoption of genotyping was so rapid that by 2009, >90% of all Holstein artificial insemination (AI) service sires and 86% of Jersey AI service sires were genotyped, regardless of age. The percentage of sons sired by young bulls increased by 49 percentage points (10% in 2008 compared with 59% in 2012) due to the onset of genomic evaluations for Holsteins and by 46 percentage points for Jerseys (11 and 57%, respectively). When limiting these data to sons retained for breeding purposes through AI, the increase was even more dramatic, increasing approximately 80 percentage points from 2008 to 2012 for both Holsteins and Jerseys (1, 5, 28, 52, and 81% for Holsteins and 3, 4, 43, 46, and 82% for Jerseys from 2008 through 2012). From US breeding records from 2007 through 2012, 24,580,793 Holstein and 1,494,095 Jersey breedings were examined. Young bulls accounted for 28% and 25% of Holstein and Jersey breedings in 2007, respectively. These percentages increased to 51% of Holstein and 52% of Jersey breedings in 2012, representing 23- and 27-percentage-unit increases, respectively. Matings to genotyped young bulls have rapidly increased while the use of nongenotyped bulls has diminished since the onset of genomics. Mean sire age for Holstein male progeny born in 2012 was 2.7 yr younger than males born in 2006, and 1.3 yr younger for females; corresponding values for Jerseys were 2.3 and 0.9 yr. Holstein male offspring had an increase of 281 kg between 2006 and 2012, compared with 197 kg between 2000 and 2006 for parent averages (PA) for milk, an increase of 84 kg between the 2 periods. Jersey male offspring had an increase of 49 kg between the 2 periods. To demonstrate the economic impact of the differential use of young bulls, herds were grouped by the frequency of their use of young bulls, and average PTA for milk and net merit for cows that were bred in 2003 through 2012 were calculated. In 2012, herds using >75% young bulls created offspring that had a PA of +52 kg for milk and +$58 net merit compared with herds using no young bulls. Jersey herds using >75% young bulls created offspring that had a PA of +142 kg for milk and +$63 for net merit compared with herds using no young bulls. Use of young bulls has greatly reduced the generation interval and improved the rate of genetic gain since the implementation of genomic evaluations.
Water footbath, automatic flushing, and disinfection to improve the health of bovine feet - Corrected Proof
T. Fjeldaas, M. Knappe-Poindecker, K.E. Bøe, R.B. Larssen
Disinfecting footbaths are used to treat and prevent interdigital dermatitis (ID) and heel horn erosion (HHE). However, many disinfectants are disadvantageous for the environment and, as an alternative, washing of the feet has been introduced. Our aim was to investigate the effect of water footbaths (trial 1), footbaths with CuSO4 (trial 2), automatic water flushing (trial 3), and water flushing followed by disinfection with a glutaraldehyde-based compound (trial 4) in 4 randomized controlled clinical trials performed in a freestall dairy herd of approximately 45 Norwegian Red cows. At trimming before and after each trial, hind foot diseases, hardness of the claw horn (in D-units), locomotion, and cleanliness of the claws were recorded. Before each trial, the cows were divided in comparable study and control groups, based on prevalence of ID and HHE, parity, and days in milk. Using a transponder-regulated gate, the study groups were led through a footbath (trials 1 and 2) or an automatic washer (trials 3 and 4), whereas the control groups were left untreated. Each trial lasted 3 mo and the curative effect in diseased cows and the preventive effect in cows with healthy feet on ID, HHE, and ID + HHE were analyzed. In trial 2, a preventive effect of CuSO4 on HHE compared with the untreated cows was observed. During trial 1, 100% (11/11) of the treated cows with ID got better and 22% (2/9) without ID became diseased, whereas 92% (11/12) of the treated cows with ID + HHE got better and 38% (3/8) without ID + HHE became diseased. During trial 2, 69% (9/13) of the treated cows with ID got better and 11% (1/9) without ID became diseased. During trial 4, 19% (3/16) of the untreated cows with ID + HHE got better and 71% (5/7) without ID + HHE became diseased. In trial 3, no significant effects on ID, HHE, or ID + HHE were revealed. In trial 2 (CuSO4), the treated cows' claw horn was harder after the trial compared with the controls (D-unit difference: 13.25). In trial 3 (stationary water flushing) the treated cows' claw horn was softer after the trial when compared with the controls (D-unit difference: −15.66). The results show that CuSO4 footbaths were useful to prevent HHE and indicate that automatic stationary flushing with only water had no beneficial effect on ID or HHE. The claw horn of cows walking through CuSO4 became harder and the claw horn of cows that had their hind feet flushed with water became softer compared with the controls.
Responses of late-lactation cows to forage substitutes in low-forage diets supplemented with by-products - Corrected Proof
M.B. Hall, L.E. Chase
In response to drought-induced forage shortages along with increased corn and soy prices, this study was conducted to evaluate lactation responses of dairy cows to lower-forage diets supplemented with forage substitutes. By-product feeds were used to completely replace corn grain and soybean feeds. Forty-eight late-lactation cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets using a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 4-wk experimental period. The covariate diet contained corn grain, soybean meal, and 61% forage. Experimental diets contained chopped wheat straw (WS)/sugar beet pulp at 0/12, 3/9, 6/6, or 9/3 percentages of diet dry matter (DM). Corn silage (20%), alfalfa silage (20%), pelleted corn gluten feed (25.5%), distillers grains (8%), whole cottonseed (5%), cane molasses/whey blend (7%), and vitamin and mineral mix with monensin (2.5%) comprised the rest of diet DM. The WS/sugar beet pulp diets averaged 16.5% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 11% starch (DM basis). Cows consuming the experimental diets maintained a 3.5% fat- and protein-corrected milk production (35.2 kg; standard deviation = 5.6 kg) that was numerically similar to that measured in the covariate period (35.3 kg; standard deviation = 5.0 kg). Intakes of DM and crude protein declined linearly as WS increased, whereas neutral detergent fiber intake increased linearly. Linear increases in time spent ruminating (from 409 to 502 min/d) and eating (from 156 to 223 min/d) were noted as WS inclusion increased. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-and protein-corrected milk did not change as WS increased, but those of protein and lactose declined linearly. Phosphorous intakes were in excess of recommended levels and decreased linearly with increasing WS inclusion. Nutritional model predictions for multiparous cows were closest to actual performance for the National Research Council 2001 model when a metabolizable protein basis was used; primiparous cow performance was better predicted by energy-based predictions made with the National Research Council or Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System models. Model predictions of performance showed a quadratic diet effect with increasing WS. Lactating dairy cows maintained production on low-forage diets that included forage substitutes, and in which by-product feeds fully replaced corn grain and soybean. However, longer-term studies are needed to evaluate animal performance and to improve model predictions of performance on these nontraditional diets.
Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle - Corrected Proof
K.L. Parker Gaddis, J.B. Cole, J.S. Clay, C. Maltecca
Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship of production with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. The development of genomic selection methodologies, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Producer-recorded health information may provide a wealth of information for improvement of dairy cow health, thus improving profitability. The principal objective of this study was to use health data collected from on-farm computer systems in the United States to estimate variance components and heritability for health traits commonly experienced by dairy cows. A single-step analysis was conducted to estimate genomic variance components and heritabilities for health events, including cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. A blended H matrix was constructed for a threshold model with fixed effects of parity and year-season and random effects of herd-year and sire. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates that ranged from 0.02 (standard deviation = 0.005) for lameness to 0.36 (standard deviation = 0.08) for retained placenta. Significant genetic correlations were found between lameness and cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum and ketosis, displaced abomasum and metritis, and retained placenta and metritis. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, approximately 30% with the incorporation of genomic data. From the results of these analyses, it was concluded that genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data are feasible in the United States, and that the inclusion of genomic data substantially improves reliabilities for these traits.
Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners - Corrected Proof
E.C. Morais, A.R. Morais, A.G. Cruz, H.M.A. Bolini
The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar.
Short communication: Decrease in rumination time as an indicator of the onset of calving - Corrected Proof
S. Büchel, A. Sundrum
The aim of this study was to investigate whether rumination time (RT) is affected by the onset of calving. The relationship between both feeding time and dry matter intake (DMI) to the onset of calving was also examined. In addition, the correlation between feeding behavior characteristics, described here as RT, feeding time, and DMI, was evaluated. Under test conditions, the feeding behavior of pregnant Holstein cows was recorded from the time when they were moved into calving pens (usually 7 to 5 d prepartum) until the onset of calving. Feeding time and DMI were recorded by automatic feed bins; RT was measured continuously by a measuring halter based on electromyography (DairyCheck; BITSz Engineering GmbH, Zwickau, Germany), which constitutes a new approach regarding feeding behavior detection. Data analysis related to the final 72 h, before the onset of calving, which were divided into twelve 6-h blocks. The last 6 h (one 6-h block) before calving were compared with the 72- to 7-h time frame (11 times 6-h blocks) before calving, which was defined as the reference period. For this time period, feeding behavior data for 17 cows was fully available, which was the precondition for data analysis. In the final 6 h before imminent birth, RT was significantly reduced. During this time, it was found that the mean minimum RT was 69.9 ± 28.5 min/6 h compared with the mean RT of 95.5 ± 30.8 min/6 h in the reference period. The average decrease in RT was 27% (25.6 min/6 h). In addition, feeding time and DMI were significantly reduced. The average decrease in feeding time was 57% (20.8 min/6 h), and in DMI it was 56% (1.9 kg/6 h). High correlation coefficients between feeding behavior characteristics were only found between feeding time and DMI. Values of feeding behavior among cows were characterized by high variability. Recording RT can serve as a useful tool for predicting the timing of birth for dairy cows, but further research is necessary.
Evaluating the effect of ration composition on income over feed cost and milk yield - Corrected Proof
M.H. Buza, L.A. Holden, R.A. White, V.A. Ishler
Feed is generally the greatest expense for milk production. With volatility in feed and milk markets, income over feed cost (IOFC) is a more advantageous measure of profit than simply feed cost per cow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ration cost and ingredient composition on IOFC and milk yield. The Pennsylvania State Extension Dairy Team IOFC tool (http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/business-management/financial-tools/income-over-feed-cost/introduction-to-iofc) was used to collect data from 95 Pennsylvania lactating dairy cow herds from 2009 to 2012 and to determine the IOFC per cow per day. The data collected included average milk yield, milk income, purchased feed cost, ration ingredients, ingredient cost per ton, and amount of each ingredient fed. Feed costs for home-raised feeds for each ration were based on market values rather than on-farm cost. Actual costs were used for purchased feed for each ration. Mean lactating herd size was 170 ± 10.5 and daily milk yield per cow was 31.7 ± 0.19 kg. The mean IOFC was $7.71 ± $1.01 cost per cow, ranging from −$0.33 in March 2009 to $16.60 in September 2011. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA in SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Values were grouped by quartiles and analyzed with all years combined as well as by individual year. Purchased feed cost per cow per day averaged $3.16 ± $1.07 for 2009 to 2012. For 2009 to 2012 combined, milk yield and IOFC did not differ with purchased feed cost. Intermediate levels (quartiles 2 and 3) of forage cost per cow per day between $1.45 and $1.97 per cow per day resulted in the greatest average IOFC of $8.19 and the greatest average milk yield of 32.3 kg. Total feed costs in the fourth quartile ($6.27 or more per cow per day) resulted in the highest IOFC. Thus, minimizing feed cost per cow per day did not maximize IOFC. In 2010, the IOFC was highest at $8.09 for dairies that fed 1 or more commodity by-products. Results of the study indicated that intermediate levels of forage cost and higher levels of total feed cost per cow per day resulted in both higher milk yield and higher IOFC. This suggests that optimal ration formulation rather than least cost strategies may be key to increasing milk yield and IOFC, and that profit margin may be affected more by quality of the feed rather than the cost.
The effect of linear velocity and flux on performance of ceramic graded permeability membranes when processing skim milk at 50°C - Corrected Proof
Justyna Zulewska, David M. Barbano
Raw milk (about 500 kg) was cold (4°C) separated and then the skim milk was pasteurized at 72°C and a holding time of 16 s. The milk was cooled to 4°C and stored at ≤4°C until processing. The skim milk was microfiltered using a pilot-scale ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfilter system equipped with 0.1-µm nominal pore diameter ceramic Membralox membranes. First, about 155 kg of pasteurized skim milk was flushed through the system to push the water out of the system. Then, additional pasteurized skim milk (about 320 kg) was microfiltered (stage 1) in a continuous feed-and-bleed 3× process using the same membranes. The retentate from stage 1 was diluted with pasteurized reverse osmosis water in a 1:2 ratio and microfiltered (stage 2) with a GP system. This was repeated 3 times, with total of 3 stages in the process (stage 1 = microfiltration; stages 2 and 3 = diafiltration). The results from first 3 stages of the experiment were compared with previous data when processing skim milk at 50°C using ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) membranes. Microfiltration of skim milk using ceramic UTP and GP membranes resulted in similar final retentate in terms of serum proteins (SP) removed. The SP removal rate (expressed by kilogram of SP removed per meter-squared of membrane area) was higher for GP membranes for each stage compared with UTP membranes. A higher passage of SP and SP removal rate for GP than UTP membranes was achieved by using a higher cross-flow velocity when processing skim milk. Increasing flux in subsequent stages did not affect membrane permeability and fouling. We operated under conditions that produced partial membrane fouling, due to using a flux that was less than limiting flux but higher than critical flux. Because the critical flux is a function of the cross-flow velocity, the difference in critical flux between UTP and GP membranes resulted only from operating under different cross-flow velocities (6.6 vs 7.12 for UTP and GP membranes, respectively). Conditions that allow microfiltration operation at higher flux will reduce the membrane surface area required to process the same amount of milk in the same length of time. Less membrane surface area reduces investment costs and uses less energy, water, and chemicals to clean the microfiltration system.
Effects of parturition and feed restriction on concentrations and distribution of the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows - Corrected Proof
T. Laeger, E. Wirthgen, M. Piechotta, F. Metzger, C.C. Metges, B. Kuhla, A. Hoeflich
Hormones and metabolites act as satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in the control of feed intake (FI). These signals can reach the hypothalamus and brainstem, 2 major centers of FI regulation, via the blood stream or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). During the early lactation period of high-yielding dairy cows, the increase of FI is often insufficient. Recently, it has been demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGF) may control FI. Thus, we asked in the present study if IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) are regulated during the periparturient period and in response to feed restriction and therefore might affect FI as well. In addition, we specifically addressed conditional distribution of IGFBP in plasma and CSF. In one experiment, 10 multiparous German Holstein dairy cows were fed ad libitum and samples of CSF and plasma were obtained before morning feeding on d −20, −10, +1, +10, +20, and +40 relative to calving. In a second experiment, 7 cows in second mid-lactation were sampled for CSF and plasma after ad libitum feeding and again after feeding 50% of the previous ad libitum intake for 4 d. Intact IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4 were detected in plasma by quantitative Western ligand blot analysis. In CSF, we were able to predominantly identify intact IGFBP-2 and a specific IGFBP-2 fragment containing detectable binding affinities for biotinylated IGF-II. Whereas plasma concentrations of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 increased during the periparturient period, IGFBP-3 was unaffected over time. In CSF, concentrations of IGFBP-2, both intact and fragmented, were not affected during the periparturient period. Plasma IGF-I continuously decreased until calving but remained at a lower concentration in early lactation than in late pregnancy. Food restriction did not affect concentrations of IGF components present in plasma or CSF. We could show that the IGFBP profiles in plasma and CSF are clearly distinct and that changes in IGFBP in plasma do not simply correspond in the brain. We thus assume independent control of IGFBP distribution between plasma and CSF. Due to the known anorexic effect of IGF-I, elevated plasma concentrations of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 during the postpartum period in conjunction with reduced plasma IGF-I concentrations may be interpreted as an endocrine response against negative energy balance in early lactation in dairy cows.
Dynamics of culling for Jersey, Holstein, and Jersey x Holstein crossbred cows in large multibreed dairy herds - Corrected Proof
P.J. Pinedo, A. Daniels, J. Shumaker, A. De Vries
The objective of this observational study was to describe and compare the dynamics of reason-specific culling risk for the genetic groups Jerseys (JE), Holsteins (HO), and Jersey × Holstein crossbreds (JH), considering parity, stage of lactation, and milk yield, among other variables, in large multibreed dairy herds in Texas. The secondary objective was to analyze the association between survival and management factors, such as breeding and replacement policies, type of facilities, and use of cooling systems. After edits, available data included 202,384 lactations in 16 herds, ranging from 407 to 8,773 cows calving per year during the study period from 2007 to 2011. The distribution of lactation records by genetic group was 58, 36, and 6% for HO, JE, and JH crosses, respectively. Overall culling rates across breeds were 30.1, 32.1, and 35.0% for JH, JE, and HO, respectively. The dynamics of reason-specific culling were dependent on genetic group, parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and herd characteristics. Early lactation was a critical period for “died” and “injury-sick” culling. The risk increased with days after calving for “breeding” and, in the case of HO, “low production” culling. Open cows had a 3.5 to 4.6 times greater risk for overall culling compared with pregnant cows. The odds of culling with reason “died” within the first 60 d in milk (DIM) were not significantly associated with genetic group. However, both JE and JH crosses had lower odds of live culling within the first 60 DIM compared with HO cows (OR = 0.72 and 0.82, respectively). Other cow variables significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 60 DIM were cow relative 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for death included herd size and origin of replacements. In addition to genetic group, the risk of live culling within 60 DIM was associated with cow-relative 305ME milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for live culling included herd-relative 305ME milk yield, herd size, type of facility, origin of replacement, and type of maternity. Overall, reason-specific culling followed similar patterns across DIM in the 3 genetic groups.
Effects of feeding various dosages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in transition dairy cows - Corrected Proof
E.M. Zaworski, C.M. Shriver-Munsch, N.A. Fadden, W.K. Sanchez, I. Yoon, G. Bobe
Feeding 56 versus 0 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) can increase feed intake and milk production in transition dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of various dosages of SCFP, Holstein cows were given individually a supplement containing 0 (n = 14), 56 (n = 15), or 112 g (n = 13) of SCFP daily during morning lockup as a topdressing to their total mixed ration. The supplement consisted of 0, 56, or 112 g of SCFP mixed with 84 g of molasses and 168, 112, or 56 g of corn meal, respectively. Supplement feeding began 28 d before predicted calving date (no less than 14 d) and ended 28 d postpartum, and supplement intake was evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected at d −21, −14, −7, −3, −1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure serum concentrations of macrominerals, metabolites, acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin, and hormones. Milk weights were measured and milk samples were collected 2 times/wk on nonconsecutive days and analyzed for milk fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). During the first day after calving, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased serum cortisol concentrations and at least tended to increase supplement intake and serum concentrations of calcium, glucose, urea N, and serum amyloid A. During the first 4 wk postpartum, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased milk SCC and increased milk production and serum phosphorus concentrations. Feeding 112 versus 56 g of SCFP/d did not show additional effects. Our results suggest that feeding SCFP may have a dosage-independent beneficial effect in supporting the physiologic adaptations after parturition, resulting in higher milk production and lower milk SCC.
Multilocus sequence typing of Lactococcus lactis from naturally fermented milk foods in ethnic minority areas of China - Corrected Proof
Haiyan Xu, Zhihong Sun, Wenjun Liu, Jie Yu, Yuqin Song, Qiang Lv, Jiachao Zhang, Yuyu Shao, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang
To determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Lactococcus lactis isolates, 197 strains isolated from naturally homemade yogurt in 9 ethnic minority areas of 6 provinces of China were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST analysis was performed using internal fragment sequences of 12 housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murC, murE, pepN, pepX, pyrG, recA, rpoB, and pheS). Six (dnaA) to 8 (murC) different alleles were detected for these genes, which ranged from 33.62 (clpX) to 41.95% (recA) GC (guanine-cytosine) content. The nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.00362 (murE) to 0.08439 (carB). Despite this limited allelic diversity, the allele combinations of each strain revealed 72 different sequence types, which denoted significant genotypic diversity. The dN/dS ratios (where dS is the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site, and dN is the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) were lower than 1, suggesting potential negative selection for these genes. The standardized index of association of the alleles (
= 0.3038) supported the clonality of Lc. lactis, but the presence of network structure revealed by the split decomposition analysis of the concatenated sequence was strong evidence for intraspecies recombination. Therefore, this suggests that recombination contributed to the evolution of Lc. lactis. A minimum spanning tree analysis of the 197 isolates identified 14 clonal complexes and 23 singletons. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the sequence types, using the minimum evolution algorithm, and on the concatenated sequence (6,192 bp), using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, and these trees indicated that the evolution of our Lc. lactis population was correlated with geographic origin. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MLST could provide a better understanding of Lc. lactis genome evolution, as well as useful information for future studies on global Lc. lactis structure and genetic evolution, which will lay the foundation for screening Lc. lactis as starter cultures in fermented dairy products.
Bovine κ-casein inhibits human rotavirus (HRV) infection via direct binding of glycans to HRV - Corrected Proof
M. Inagaki, H. Muranishi, K. Yamada, K. Kakehi, K. Uchida, T. Suzuki, T. Yabe, T. Nakagomi, O. Nakagomi, Y. Kanamaru
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a major etiologic agent of severe infantile gastroenteritis. κ-Casein (κ-CN) from both human and bovine mature milk has been reported to have anti-HRV activity; however, the mechanism of this activity is poorly understood. The present study examined the molecular basis for the protective effect of bovine κ-CN derived from late colostrum (6–7 d after parturition) and from mature milk. Among the components of casein, κ-CN is the only glycosylated protein that has been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether the glycan residues in κ-CN were involved in the anti-HRV activity. Desialylated CN obtained by neuraminidase treatment exhibited anti-HRV activity, whereas deglycosylated CN obtained by o-glycosidase treatment lacked antiviral activity, indicating that glycans were responsible for the antiviral activity of CN. Furthermore, an evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted assay showed that HRV particles directly bound to heated casein (at 95°C for 30 min) in a viral titer–dependent manner. Although the heated κ-CN retained inhibitory activity in a neutralization assay, the activity was weaker than that observed before heat treatment. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory mechanism of bovine κ-CN against HRV involves direct binding to viral particles via glycan residues. In addition, heat-labile structures in κ-CN may play an important role in maintenance of κ-CN binding to HRV.
Group housing of Holstein calves in a poor indoor environment increases respiratory disease but does not influence performance or leukocyte responses - Corrected Proof
C.J. Cobb, B.S. Obeidat, M.D. Sellers, A.R. Pepper-Yowell, M.A. Ballou
The objective of the current study was to determine if group-housing Holstein heifer calves in indoor pens with poor ventilation and drainage influences performance, health, leukocytes, and behavioral responses compared with individually housed calves. Ninety colostrum-fed calves (2 ± 1 d of age) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: individually housed (G1; n = 30 calves), 2 calves per pen (G2; n = 30 calves), or 3 calves per pen (G3; n = 30 calves). The space allowance per calf was 2.5 m2 for all treatment groups. All calves were fed 747 and 1,010 g/d of dry matter of a 28% CP and 20% fat milk replacer during the first 2 wk and wk 3 to 6, respectively. Weaning was initiated on d 46 by removing the evening feeding, and calves were completely weaned when they consumed 800 g/d of dry matter calf starter for 2 consecutive days after d 54. Calves were randomly commingled at d 90 in groups of 5 calves per pen in outdoors pens with an attached hutch. Peripheral blood was collected during the neonatal (3, 10, 21 d), weaning (46, 48, 54 d), and commingling periods (90, 93, 98 d) and was analyzed for neutrophil oxidative burst capacity when cocultured with an Escherichia coli, neutrophil surface L-selectin protein concentration, and whole blood secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when cocultured with lipopolysaccharide. Behavior of each calf was assessed using 2 independent tests: an approach response to a human subject and the response of the calf when placed in an isolated cage. Calf starter intake was greater for G2 and G3 during wk 8 and 9, and also at wk 11 for G3 compared with G1. No treatment × time interaction or treatment effect for average daily gain was observed. Additionally, no treatment × time or treatment effect was noted for any leukocyte or biochemical variable of biological significance throughout the entire study. Individually housed calves tended to have a reduced incidence of respiratory disease during the first 90 d of life. No other treatment differences for the other health outcomes were observed. Group-housed calves also relied more on calf-to-calf interactions than calf-to-human interactions, as evident by their reduced approach of the human observer and more frequent movement when placed in an isolated pen. Group housing in an environment with poor ventilation and drainage may increase the risk of respiratory disease.
Extent of linkage disequilibrium, consistency of gametic phase, and imputation accuracy within and across Canadian dairy breeds - Corrected Proof
S.G. Larmer, M. Sargolzaei, F.S. Schenkel
Genomic selection requires a large reference population to accurately estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects. In some Canadian dairy breeds, the available reference populations are not large enough for accurate estimation of SNP effects for traits of interest. If marker phase is highly consistent across multiple breeds, it is theoretically possible to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction for one or all breeds by pooling several breeds into a common reference population. This study investigated the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 5 major dairy breeds using a 50,000 (50K) SNP panel and 3 of the same breeds using the 777,000 (777K) SNP panel. Correlation of pair-wise SNP phase was also investigated on both panels. The level of LD was measured using the squared correlation of alleles at 2 loci (r2), and the consistency of SNP gametic phases was correlated using the signed square root of these values. Because of the high cost of the 777K panel, the accuracy of imputation from lower density marker panels [6,000 (6K) or 50K] was examined both within breed and using a multi-breed reference population in Holstein, Ayrshire, and Guernsey. Imputation was carried out using FImpute V2.2 and Beagle 3.3.2 software. Imputation accuracies were then calculated as both the proportion of correct SNP filled in (concordance rate) and allelic R2. Computation time was also explored to determine the efficiency of the different algorithms for imputation. Analysis showed that LD values >0.2 were found in all breeds at distances at or shorter than the average adjacent pair-wise distance between SNP on the 50K panel. Correlations of r-values, however, did not reach high levels (<0.9) at these distances. High correlation values of SNP phase between breeds were observed (>0.94) when the average pair-wise distances using the 777K SNP panel were examined. High concordance rate (0.968–0.995) and allelic R2 (0.946–0.991) were found for all breeds when imputation was carried out with FImpute from 50K to 777K. Imputation accuracy for Guernsey and Ayrshire was slightly lower when using the imputation method in Beagle. Computing time was significantly greater when using Beagle software, with all comparable procedures being 9 to 13 times less efficient, in terms of time, compared with FImpute. These findings suggest that use of a multi-breed reference population might increase prediction accuracy using the 777K SNP panel and that 777K genotypes can be efficiently and effectively imputed using the lower density 50K SNP panel.
Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms - Corrected Proof
G.L. Charlton, D.B. Haley, J. Rushen, A.M. de Passillé
Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m2). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The results show that the median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6 h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2 h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12 h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ2 = 4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m2) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen increased, lying daily bout frequency increased (correlation coefficient = 0.24) and lying bout duration decreased (correlation coefficient = −0.30). Lying behavior was affected by the time the cows were away from the pen being milked. When cows were away from the pen for longer than 3.7 h/d, no farm achieved the recommended herd median lying time of 12 h/d or longer. These results suggest that providing 1 stall for each cow in the pen and minimizing time away from the pen are important factors if cattle are to achieve the recommended daily lying duration of 12 h/d.
Changes in the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle: An approach to match field data with the epidemiological cycle of C. burnetii in endemic herds - Corrected Proof
A. Piñero, F. Ruiz-Fons, A. Hurtado, J.F. Barandika, R. Atxaerandio, A.L. García-Pérez
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the epidemiological status of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle herds to better understand the epidemiology of the infection and to predict its evolution. Bulk-tank milk (BTM) and serum samples were collected from 94 dairy cattle herds and analyzed by ELISA (BTM and sera) and PCR (BTM) in study 1 (S1). Two years later (study 2; S2), the same farms were visited with a similar sampling approach. To estimate seroconversion during this period, blood samples were collected from the maximum possible number of animals surveyed in S1. Environmental samples were collected in S2 to identify active shedding. Farms were allocated into 3 different categories in each study according to PCR and ELISA results: category A, with BTM ELISA and PCR positive herds and at least 1 seropositive animal; category B, with BTM ELISA or PCR positive herds or individual sera positive; and category C, with all negative results among herds. Changes in herd category between S1 and S2 were grouped in 9 classes. Two statistical models, one to search for drives of within-herd changes in C. burnetii infection status and another to look for variables modulating individual changes in C. burnetii antibody level, were built. Several herds in category A in S1 remained in that category 2 yr later, indicating that C. burnetii can remain within a herd for a long time. Most of the herds with seroconversion and detection of the bacterium in the environment belonged to category A, suggesting active and recent infections. Changes in the epidemiological status of herds were driven by local densities of domestic ruminants, showing the implication of neighbor reservoirs; whereas individual changes in antibody levels were modulated by variation in the epidemiological status of herds. Observed changes in epidemiological status allowed depiction of the hypothesized life cycle of C. burnetii within dairy cattle herds, which should be tested by future long-term series studies on C. burnetii infection to help fitting control measures (e.g., vaccination) to within-herd C. burnetii status.
Effects of short-term repeated exposure to different flooring surfaces on the behavior and physiology of dairy cattle - Corrected Proof
K.E. Schütz, N.R. Cox
Dairy cattle managed in some pasture-based systems such as in New Zealand are predominantly kept outdoors all year around, but are often taken off pasture for periods of time in wet weather to avoid soil damage. It is common to keep cattle on concrete surfaces during such “stand-off” practices and we investigated whether the addition of rubber matting onto concrete areas improves the welfare of dairy cattle. Sixteen groups of 5 cows (4 groups/treatment, 5 cows/group) were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (concrete, 12-mm-thick rubber mat, 24-mm-thick rubber mat, or deep-bedded wood chips) and kept on these surfaces for 18 h/24 h for 4 consecutive days (6 h on pasture/24 h). Each 4-d stand-off period was repeated 4 times (with 7 d of recovery between periods) to study the accumulated effects of repeated stand-off. Lying behavior was recorded continuously during the experiment. Gait score, stride length, hygiene score, live weight, and blood samples for cortisol analysis were recorded immediately before and after each stand-off period. Cows on wood chips spent the most time lying, and cows on concrete spent the least time lying compared with those on other surfaces [wood chips: 10.8 h, 24-mm rubber mat: 7.3 h, 12-mm rubber mat: 6.0 h, and concrete: 2.8 h/18 h, standard error of the difference (SED): 0.71 h]. Cows on concrete spent more time lying during the 6 h on pasture, likely compensating for the reduced lying during the stand-off period. Similarly, cows on concrete spent more time lying on pasture between stand-off periods (concrete: 12.1 h, 12-mm rubber mat: 11.1 h, 24-mm rubber mat: 11.2 h, and wood chips: 10.7 h/24 h, SED: 0.28 h). Cows on concrete had higher gait score and shorter stride length after the 4-d stand-off period compared with cows on the other surface types, suggesting a change in gait pattern caused by discomfort. Cows on rubber mats were almost 3 times dirtier than cows on concrete or wood chips. Cortisol and live weight decreased for all treatment groups during the stand-off period. We observed no major effect of the repeated stand-off exposure. In summary, adding rubber matting onto concrete surfaces for stand-off purposes is beneficial for animal welfare. A well-managed wood chip surface offered the best welfare for dairy cows removed from pasture, and the findings of this study confirm that a concrete surface decreases the welfare of cows removed from pasture.
Short communication: Prediction of retention pay-off using a machine learning algorithm - Corrected Proof
Saleh Shahinfar, Afshin S. Kalantari, Victor Cabrera, Kent Weigel
Replacement decisions have a major effect on dairy farm profitability. Dynamic programming (DP) has been widely studied to find the optimal replacement policies in dairy cattle. However, DP models are computationally intensive and might not be practical for daily decision making. Hence, the ability of applying machine learning on a prerun DP model to provide fast and accurate predictions of nonlinear and intercorrelated variables makes it an ideal methodology. Milk class (1 to 5), lactation number (1 to 9), month in milk (1 to 20), and month of pregnancy (0 to 9) were used to describe all cows in a herd in a DP model. Twenty-seven scenarios based on all combinations of 3 levels (base, 20% above, and 20% below) of milk production, milk price, and replacement cost were solved with the DP model, resulting in a data set of 122,716 records, each with a calculated retention pay-off (RPO). Then, a machine learning model tree algorithm was used to mimic the evaluated RPO with DP. The correlation coefficient factor was used to observe the concordance of RPO evaluated by DP and RPO predicted by the model tree. The obtained correlation coefficient was 0.991, with a corresponding value of 0.11 for relative absolute error. At least 100 instances were required per model constraint, resulting in 204 total equations (models). When these models were used for binary classification of positive and negative RPO, error rates were 1% false negatives and 9% false positives. Applying this trained model from simulated data for prediction of RPO for 102 actual replacement records from the University of Wisconsin-Madison dairy herd resulted in a 0.994 correlation with 0.10 relative absolute error rate. Overall results showed that model tree has a potential to be used in conjunction with DP to assist farmers in their replacement decisions.
Casein synthesis is independently and additively related to individual essential amino acid supply - Corrected Proof
S.I. Arriola Apelo, L.M. Singer, W.K. Ray, R.F. Helm, X.Y. Lin, M.L. McGilliard, N.R. St-Pierre, M.D. Hanigan
Specific AA affect rates of milk protein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating cows. The objective of this study was to quantify the rate of αS1-casein synthesis in response to Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr supplementation, and to test the single-limiting AA theory for milk protein synthesis by exploring interactions among these AA. Effects of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr were studied in vitro with a composite design containing a central point repeated 4 times, with 2 axial points per AA and a complete 24 factorial. Other AA were at the concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM). The experiment was replicated with mammary tissue from 5 lactating cows. Mammary tissue slices (0.12 ± 0.02 g) were incubated for 4 h at 37°C in 5 mL of treatment medium containing 2H5-Phe. Caseins were precipitated from cell homogenate supernatants. Enrichment with 2H5-Phe of the NLLRFFVAPFPE αS1 peptide was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF), which was used to determine enrichment of Phe in the transfer (t)RNA pool and αS1-casein fractional synthesis rates (CFSR). Data were analyzed with a polynomial mixed model containing linear, quadratic, and 2-factor interactions for Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr, and cow and residual as random factors. Interactions were not significant at P < 0.1 and were removed from the model. Increasing concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr simultaneously increased CFSR curvilinearly with a predicted maximum response of 4.32 ± 0.84%/h at 63% of DMEM concentrations. The maximum response to each of the 4 AA was at 71, 49, 60, and 32% of the concentration in DMEM, for Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr, respectively. These values correspond to 270, 120, 440, and 140% the plasma concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr observed in lactating cows fed to meet National Research Council requirements, respectively. The CFSR estimated at those maxima were similar among AA (3.6 ± 0.6%/h). Individual AA effects on CFSR did not correlate with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Independent responses of CFSR to individual essential AA observed in this study contradict the single-limiting AA theory assumed in current requirement systems. The saturable responses in CFSR to these 4 AA also highlight the inadequacy of using a fixed postabsorptive AA efficiency approach for determining AA requirements for milk protein synthesis.
Evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone hydrogen chloride at 3 doses with prostaglandin F2α for fixed-time artificial insemination in dairy cows - Corrected Proof
J.R. Chenault, D.M. Meeuwse, C. LaGrow, J.-K.S. Tena, S.L. Wood-Follis, J.W. Hallberg
The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the efficacy and field safety of GnRH HCl administered at 3 doses in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) programs (Ovsynch) in dairy cows. A common protocol was conducted at 6 commercial dairies. Between 188 and 195 cows were enrolled at each site (total enrolled = 1,142). Cows had body condition scores ≥2 and ≤4, were between 32 to 140 d in milk, and were clinically healthy. Within pen and enrollment day (enrollment cohort), cows were assigned randomly in blocks of 4 to each of 4 treatments: (1) 25 mg of PGF2α on d 7 with FTAI 72 ± 2 h later (control); (2) 100 µg of GnRH on d 0, d 7 a dose of 25 mg of PGF2α, and the second administration of 100 µg of GnRH (T100) administered either at 48 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α with FTAI 24 ± 2 h later or 56 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α and FTAI 17 ± 2 h later; (3) same as T100 with both injections of 150 µg of GnRH (T150); and (4) same as T100 with both injections of 200 µg of GnRH (T200). Three sites selected the first option and 3 sites selected the second option for the timing of the second injection of all doses of GnRH. Cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and adverse clinical signs. Cows not returning to estrus had pregnancy diagnosis between 42 and 65 d following FTAI. Pregnancies per FTAI (P/FTAI) were analyzed as a binary variable (1 = pregnant, 0 = not pregnant) using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial error distribution and a logit link function. The statistical model included fixed effects for treatment, random effects of site, site by treatment, enrollment cohort within site, and residual. Parity (first vs. second or greater) was included as a covariate. For demonstration of effectiveness, α = 0.05 and a 2-tailed test were used. Fifty-two cows were removed from the study because of either deviation from the protocol, injury, illness, culling, or death. Among the remaining 1,090 cows, 33.9% were primiparous and 66.1% were multiparous. Back-transformed least squares means for P/FTAI were 17.1, 27.3, 29.1, and 32.2% for control, T100, T150 and T200, respectively. The P/FTAI for each GnRH dose differed from that of the control. No differences were detected in P/FTAI between GnRH doses. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. Mastitis was the most frequently observed adverse clinical sign, followed by lameness and pneumonia. This study documents the efficacy and safety of doses of 100 to 200 µg of GnRH as the HCl salt when used in Ovsynch programs.
Economic evaluation of participation in a voluntary Johne's disease prevention and control program from a farmer's perspective—The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative - Corrected Proof
R. Wolf, F. Clement, H.W. Barkema, K. Orsel
The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a Johne's disease (JD) control program with the goal of reducing the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through implementation of best management practices. The objective was to estimate the economic benefit of participation in the AJDI. A decision tree was constructed in which disease prevalence, test characteristics, and probabilities for implementation of best management practices suggested by herd veterinarians were implemented. Analysis was performed using a Markov analysis, and input data were assigned using estimates from the AJDI and published data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed and the net benefit of participation (from the perspective of a dairy farmer) in the AJDI compared with no participation was calculated. A series of 1-way sensitivity analyses were used to control for uncertainty. Farms participating in the AJDI were estimated to have a net benefit of Can$74 per cow over the course of 10 yr. If project costs were covered by the participating farm, the net benefit was Can$27. In addition to the effects on MAP infection, a reduction in calf diarrhea was modeled for farms that improved their calf management through the use of pasteurizers. In that case, the additional costs outweighed additional revenues compared with the baseline analysis, resulting in a reduced net benefit of Can$19. Participation would not be cost effective if cows in early stages of MAP infection did not have decreased production and if prevalence of MAP infection did not increase on farms with poor management. A limitation of the study, despite high uncertainty in some input parameters, was the lack of knowledge regarding changes in prevalence on farms with various management strategies. In conclusion, participation in the AJDI was cost effective for the average Alberta dairy farm.
Effect of cell-surface components and metabolites of lactic acid bacteria and probiotic organisms on cytokine production and induction of CD25 expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells - Corrected Proof
R. Ashraf, T. Vasiljevic, S.C. Smith, O.N. Donkor
In the current study, the relative contribution of cell-surface components (CSC) and cell-free supernatants (CFS) in the immuno-modulatory properties of 17 strains of probiotic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was assessed. The production of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 p70, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β was measured at different time points after stimulation of buffy coat derived-peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors with CSC and CFS of probiotic and LAB. Results showed that CSC of probiotic and LAB strains induced production of T helper 1 and 2 type cytokines. Transforming growth factor-β was stimulated at highest concentrations, followed by IL-10 and TNF-α. The CFS of all tested bacterial strains induced PBMC for significantly high levels of IL-10 secretion compared with unstimulated cells, but the values were less than lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Cytokines due to CFS stimulation showed declined concentration for IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-4, and complete disappearance of IL-12, IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor-β in the cultured medium at 96 h of incubation. Results of cytokine data demonstrate proinflammatory TNF-α immune responses are mainly directed through cell-surface structures of probiotic and LAB, but antiinflammatory immune responses are mediated both by metabolites and cell-surfaces of these bacteria. The induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells after stimulation of PBMC with CSC and CFS of probiotic and LAB showed regulatory T cell activity appeared to be influenced both by the CSC and metabolites, but was principally triggered by cell surfaces of probiotic and LAB strains.
Short-term response in milk production, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows to changes in postgrazing sward height - Corrected Proof
E. Ganche, L. Delaby, M. O'Donovan, T.M. Boland, E. Kennedy
Postgrazing sward height (PGSH) can be altered to adjust the allowance of grass in the dairy cow's diet. This study aimed to investigate the short-term dairy cow response to a change in postgrazing height in early lactation. Ninety Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows were randomly assigned across 3 postgrazing height treatments (n = 30): 2.7 cm (severe), 3.5 cm (low), and 4.2 cm (moderate) from February 14 to April 24, 2011. From April 25, animals were rerandomized within each treatment to graze across 2 postgrazing heights: 3.5 cm (low) or 4.5 cm (high). Animal production measurements were taken from April 4 to 24 (measurement period 1; M1) and from April 25 to May 15 (measurement period 2; M2). The 6 treatments (n = 15) of M2 were severe-low, severe-high, low-low, low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high. During M1, increasing postgrazing height from severe to low to moderate linearly increased daily milk yield (21.5, 24.6 and 25.8 kg/cow per day) and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; 13.2, 14.9, and 15.8 kg of DM/cow per day). Milk solids yield was reduced in the severe (−1,518 g/cow per day) treatment when compared with the low and moderate cows (1,866 g/cow per day, on average). The milk yield (MY) response to change in PGSH between M1 and M2 (VM1−M2) was established using VM1−M2 MY = −1.27 − 1.89 × PGSHM1 + 1.51 × PGSHM2 (R2 = 0.64). The MY response associated with each treatment between M1 and M2 (3 wk) were −1.03 kg/cow for severe-low, 0.68 kg/cow for severe-high, −2.56 kg/cow for low-low, −1.11 kg/cow for low-high, −4.17 kg/cow for moderate-low, and −2.39 kg/cow for moderate-high. The large increase in energy intake in severe-high between M1 and M2 was achieved through higher GDMI per minute and GDMI per bite, which supported the positive change in MY. Treatments low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high recorded the highest overall cumulative milk yield (74 kg of milk solids/cow) over the 6-wk period, whereas severe-low and severe-high had the lowest (65 kg of MS/cow). From the animal responses observed in the present study, imposing a postgrazing height of 3.5 cm in early spring provides the opportunity to increase postgrazing height thereafter; the cow increases GDMI accordingly and converts the additional energy intake into milk output. The equations established in this paper provide a decision tool for dairy farmers to anticipate the animal response when postgrazing height is altered or maintained around the tenth week of lactation.
Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure? - Corrected Proof
R. Nilsen, A.H. Pripp, A.T. Høstmark, A. Haug, S. Skeie
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure.
Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States - Corrected Proof
K.M. Cicconi-Hogan, N. Belomestnykh, M. Gamroth, P.L. Ruegg, L. Tikofsky, Y.H. Schukken
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n = 1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n = 2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n = 1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n = 1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system.
Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G - Corrected Proof
R.V. Pereira, M.L. Bicalho, V.S. Machado, S. Lima, A.G. Teixeira, L.D. Warnick, R.C. Bicalho
Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm2) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Staph. aureus (0.4 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum significantly decreased the IgG concentration, with an observed final mean IgG reduction of approximately 50%. Development of new methods to reduce bacterial contaminants in colostrum must take into consideration the barriers imposed by its opacity and organic components, and account for the incidental damage to IgG caused by manipulating colostrum.
Changes on expected taste perception of probiotic and conventional yogurts made from goat milk after rapidly repeated exposure - Corrected Proof
M.P. Costa, C.F. Balthazar, R.M. Franco, E.T. Mársico, A.G. Cruz, C.A. Conte Junior
Goat milk yogurt is an excellent source of fatty acids, protein, and minerals; however, it is not well accepted by many consumers, due to its typical flavor derived from caprylic, capric, and caproic acids present in this milk and dairy products. Recently, the repeated-exposure test has been used to increase the consumption of particular foods. This methodology has been used to increase children's willingness to eat food in some settings and has also been used to reduce sodium in soup. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposures may increase acceptance of both goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. In a pre-exposure session, a total of 45 panelists (28 females and 17 males) from southeastern Brazil, who were not used to consuming dairy goat milk, evaluated the expected taste perception and the perceived liking after tasting 3 yogurt preparations. Then, consumers were randomly divided into 3 groups and participated in rapidly repeated exposure sessions performed within 6 d. Each panelist consumed only the yogurt that he or she would be exposed to. The day after the exposure sessions, all panelists returned to participate in the postexposure session and were asked to evaluate acceptance, familiarity, and the “goaty taste” characteristic of each yogurt. Regarding the expected liking before tasting, results showed higher expectations for cow milk yogurt compared with goat milk yogurt, which proved that consumers were not familiar with the goat milk yogurt. Likewise, only cow milk yogurt presented high acceptance and familiarity rates, confirming that these panelists were used to consuming cow milk products. With respect to the rapidly repeated exposure, 6 d were enough to significantly increase the consumers' familiarity with goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. However, this method was not suitable to significantly increase the acceptance of such products. Nonetheless, a correlation existed between the exposure sessions and the increase in acceptance of the exposure groups. Thus, hypothetically, the increasing of exposure sessions could be a strategy to increase goat milk product acceptance.
Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples - Corrected Proof
L.F. Ferraretto, K. Taysom, D.M. Taysom, R.D. Shaver, P.C. Hoffman
The objectives of the study were (1) to determine relationships between high-moisture corn (HMC) dry matter (DM), ammonia-N [% of crude protein (CP)], and soluble CP concentrations, and pH, with 7-h ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivStarchD), and (2) to evaluate the effect of ensiling on pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD measurements in HMC. A data set comprising 6,131 HMC samples (55 to 80% DM) obtained from a commercial feed analysis laboratory was used for this study. Month of sample submittal was assumed to be associated with length of the ensiling period. Data for month of sample submittal were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with month as a fixed effect. Regressions to determine linear and quadratic relationships between ivStarchD and ammonia-N, soluble CP, pH, and DM content were performed using Proc Mixed. The ivStarchD increased by 9 percentage units from October to August of the following year. Similar results were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP with increases from 1.8 to 4.6% of CP and 31.3 to 46.4% of CP, respectively, from October to August of the following year. Ammonia-N was positively related to ivStarchD (R2 = 0.61). The DM content of HMC at silo removal was negatively related (R2 = 0.47) to ivStarchD with a decrease of 1.6 percentage units in ivStarchD per 1-percentage-unit increase in DM content. The pH of HMC was negatively related to ammonia-N (R2 = 0.53), soluble CP (R2 = 0.57), and ivStarchD (R2 = 0.51). Combined, ammonia-N, DM, soluble CP, and pH provided a good prediction of ivStarchD (adjusted R2 = 0.70). Increasing pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD values indicate that HMC may need up to 10 mo of ensiling to reach maximum starch digestibility. Ammonia-N, DM content, soluble CP concentration, and pH are good indicators of ruminal in vitro starch digestibility for high-moisture corn.
Short communication: Effects of systemic treatment with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk yields in dry primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) - Corrected Proof
J. Guccione, A. Pesce, M. Pascale, N. Tommasini, F. Garofalo, A. Di Loria, L. Cortese, C. Salzano, P. Ciaramella
The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were enrolled as the control group (CG). Evening milk samplings were performed at 10, 30, and 60 d in milk (DIM). Somatic cell count (SCC) values were evaluated on composite milk samples, whereas bacteriological culture and California Mastitis Test were performed on quarter milk. Daily milk yields were recorded after all milkings. After 60 DIM, composite milk samples from each animal were collected for monthly SCC and bacteriological culture until drying off. Statistically significant differences were found between the prevalence of mastitic quarters in the 2 groups at 10 and 30 DIM, and between the incidence of mastitic animals during the examined period (TG: 4/20, 20% vs. CG: 10/20, 50%). Even though lower and higher values of SCC and milk yields were found in TG during each sampling, statistically significant differences were only found at 30 (SCC) and 60 DIM (milk yields). In our study, the antibiotic administration precalving showed good bactericidal activity against the most common udder-specific pathogens that cause mastitis in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes, and greater efficacy was observed at 10 and 30 DIM compared with 60 DIM. Given the significant decrease in SCC and increase in yields achieved, use of this antibiotic could be economically beneficial in buffalo breeding.
Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Corrected Proof
Renu Nandakumar, Kesh Talapatra
Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples.
Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle - Corrected Proof
R.L. Baldwin, A. Zhang, S.W. Fultz, S. Abubeker, C. Harris, E.E. Connor, D.L. Van Hekken
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n = 3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n = 3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5 kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10 g of tridecane and 5 g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125 μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R2 = 0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted.
A dynamic mechanistic model of lactic acid metabolism in the rumen - Corrected Proof
J.A.N. Mills, L.A. Crompton, J.L. Ellis, J. Dijkstra, A. Bannink, S. Hook, C. Benchaar, J. France
Current feed evaluation systems for ruminants are too imprecise to describe diets in terms of their acidosis risk. The dynamic mechanistic model described herein arises from the integration of a lactic acid (La) metabolism module into an extant model of whole-rumen function. The model was evaluated using published data from cows and sheep fed a range of diets or infused with various doses of La. The model performed well in simulating peak rumen La concentrations (coefficient of determination = 0.96; root mean square prediction error = 16.96% of observed mean), although frequency of sampling for the published data prevented a comprehensive comparison of prediction of time to peak La accumulation. The model showed a tendency for increased La accumulation following feeding of diets rich in nonstructural carbohydrates, although less-soluble starch sources such as corn tended to limit rumen La concentration. Simulated La absorption from the rumen remained low throughout the feeding cycle. The competition between bacteria and protozoa for rumen La suggests a variable contribution of protozoa to total La utilization. However, the model was unable to simulate the effects of defaunation on rumen La metabolism, indicating a need for a more detailed description of protozoal metabolism. The model could form the basis of a feed evaluation system with regard to rumen La metabolism.
Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in dairy cattle: Antibody titers, ovarian function, hormonal levels, and reversibility - Corrected Proof
L. Balet, F. Janett, J. Hüsler, M. Piechotta, R. Howard, S. Amatayakul-Chantler, A. Steiner, G. Hirsbrunner
Suppression of cyclic activity in cattle is often desired in alpine farming and for feedlot cattle not intended for breeding. A cattle-specific anti-GnRH vaccination (Bopriva, Zoetis Australia Ltd., West Ryde, Australia) is approved for use in heifers and bulls in New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Turkey, and Peru. Eleven healthy, cyclic Swiss Fleckvieh cows were included in the study and vaccinated twice with Bopriva 4 wk apart. Injection site, rectal body temperature, and heart and respiratory rates were recorded before and 3 d following each vaccination. Blood samples were taken weekly for progesterone and estrogen analysis and to determine GnRH antibody titer. Ovaries were examined weekly, using ultrasound to count the number of follicles and identify the presence of a corpus luteum. Thirty weeks after the first vaccination, the cows were subjected to a controlled internal drug-releasing device-based Select-Synch treatment. The GnRH antibody titers increased after the second vaccination and peaked 2 wk later. Estrogen levels were not influenced by vaccination, and progesterone level decreased in 7 of 11 cows up to 3 wk after the second vaccination and remained low for 10 to 15 wk following the second vaccination. The number of class I follicles (diameter ≤5 mm) was not influenced by vaccination, whereas the number of class II follicles (diameter 6–9 mm) decreased between 7 and 16 wk after the first vaccination. Class III follicles (diameter >9 mm) were totally absent during this period in most cows. The median period until recurrence of class III follicles was 78 d from the day of the second vaccination (95% confidence interval: 60–92 d). After vaccination, all cows showed swelling and pain at the injection site, and these reactions subsided within 2 wk. Body temperature and heart and respiratory rates increased after the first and second vaccinations and returned to normal values within 2 d of each vaccination. The cows in our study were not observed to display estrus behavior until 30 wk after the first vaccination. Therefore, a Select-Synch protocol was initiated at that time. Ten cows became pregnant after the first insemination (the remaining cow was reinseminated once until confirmed pregnancy). Bopriva induced a reliable and reversible suppression of reproductive cyclicity for more than 2 mo. The best practical predictor for the length of the anestrus period was the absence of class III follicles.
Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen - Corrected Proof
G. Borreani, E. Tabacco
This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6 log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage.
Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: The combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves - Corrected Proof
R.G. Cabral, M.A. Cabral, C.E. Chapman, E.J. Kent, D.M. Haines, P.S. Erickson
Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5 g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0 h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6 h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123 g of IgG at 0 h with or without 20 g of NaHCO3 and 61.5 g of IgG at 6 h with or without 10 g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12 h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30 g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30 g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30 g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30 g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24 h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6 h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption.
Effects of lipid and propionic acid infusions on feed intake of lactating dairy cows - Corrected Proof
S.E. Stocks, M.S. Allen
Propionic acid is more hypophagic for cows with elevated hepatic acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) concentration in the postpartum period. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interaction of hepatic acetyl CoA concentration, which is elevated by intravenous lipid infusion, and intraruminal propionic acid infusion on feed intake and feeding behavior responses of lactating cows. Eight multiparous, ruminally cannulated, Holstein dairy cows past peak lactation were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were propionic acid (PI) infused intraruminally at 0.5 mol/h for 18 h starting 6 h before feeding and behavior monitoring or sham control (CO), and intravenous jugular infusion of lipid (LI, Intralipid 20%; Baxter US, Deerfield, IL) or saline (SI, 0.9% NaCl; Baxter US) infused at 250 mL/h for 12 h before feeding and behavior monitoring, and then 500 mL/h for 12 h after feeding. Changes in plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones and hepatic acetyl CoA from before infusion until the end of infusion were evaluated. We observed a tendency for an interaction between PI and LI for the change in plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration from the preliminary day to the end of the infusion period. Infusion of propionic acid decreased dry matter intake (DMI) 15% compared with CO, but lipid infusion did not affect DMI over the 12 h following feeding. Infusion of propionic acid tended to decrease hepatic acetyl CoA concentration from the preliminary day to the end of the infusion compared with CO, consistent with PI decreasing DMI by stimulating oxidation of acetyl CoA. Contrary to our expectations, LI did not increase concentration of NEFA or β-hydroxybutyrate in plasma, concentration of acetyl CoA in the liver, or milk fat yield, suggesting that the infused lipid was stored or oxidized by extra-hepatic tissues. As a result, we detected no interaction between PI and LI for DMI. Although the effect of PI on DMI was consistent with our previous results, this lipid infusion model using cows past peak lactation was not useful to simulate the lipolytic state of cows in the postpartum period in this experiment.
Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows - Corrected Proof
E. Cha, A.R. Kristensen, J.A. Hertl, Y.H. Schukken, L.W. Tauer, F.L. Welcome, Y.T. Gröhn
Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for most CM cases (>85%); the range was 86.2% (Klebsiella spp.) to 98.5% (Staphylococcus spp.). In general, the optimal recommended time for replacement was up to 5 mo earlier for cows with CM compared with cows without CM. Furthermore, although the parameter estimates implemented in this model are applicable to the dairy farms in this study, the parameters may be altered to be specific to other dairy farms. Cow rankings and values based on disease status, pregnancy status, and milk production can be extracted; these provide guidance when determining which cows to keep or cull.
Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets - Corrected Proof
P. Nozière, W. Steinberg, M. Silberberg, D.P. Morgavi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels.
Short communication: Comparison of virulence factors in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with multiple or single cases of mastitis - Corrected Proof
I. Kanevsky-Mullarky, A.J. Nedrow, S. Garst, W. Wark, M. Dickenson, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, R.N. Zadoks
Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis in dairy cattle is generally due to an opportunistic infection from the environment, resulting in large heterogeneity among mastitis-causing strains within a herd. However, in mastitis outbreaks in 4 herds, several strains of K. pneumoniae were identified as the cause of infection in multiple cows, suggesting increased ability to either cause disease or evade host defenses. In this study, differences in capsule formation and immune evasion were compared in 5 pairs of K. pneumoniae strains, where one strain in each pair was associated with multiple cases of mastitis and the other with a single case of mastitis. Production of capsular polysaccharide, ability to evade killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL), and the relationship between the 2 were evaluated for each strain grown in broth or milk. Growth of isolates in skim milk increased capsule size and ability to evade killing by PMNL, depending on strain type. Specifically, strains associated with multiple cases of mastitis had increased capsule size in skim milk. Strains associated with single cases of mastitis were better able to evade killing by PMNL when grown in skim milk. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the 2 groups of strains may constitute different subpopulations of K. pneumoniae. However, our findings do not indicate that capsule or evasions of killing by PMNL explain increased mastitis outbreaks with Klebsiella. Further work will explain the enhanced ability of some strains to cause mastitis in dairy cows.
Copyright 2014 by The American Dairy Science Association