ADSA 2022 Recordings

Session Session_Type Science_Section Session_DT Tracking_Num Watch Abs # Title Session_Order Presenter Keywords Authors Institutions Abstract
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 s9988                  
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86642 Watch 1446V Episodic heat stress during the dry period of Northern New York Holstein cows in confined housing. 1 E. M. Fread heat stress lying time reticular temperature E. M. Fread1,2, C. S. Ballard1, A. E. Pape1, R. J. Grant1 1W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY, 2University of Vermont, Burlington, VT Heat stress negatively impacts dry dairy cows in subtropical climates, but impacts in moderate climates are unknown. Objectives of this study were to determine if dry cows in Northern NY are impacted by episodic heat stress and varying levels of heat exposure. During summer 2020 and 2021, 170 dry Holstein cows were enrolled 42 d pre-calving. Cows were housed in either free stalls or a bedded pack and had fans over feed alleys and lying areas. Temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were recorded to calculate temperature-humidity index (THI) every 10 min. Lying behavior, reticular temperature (RT), and rumination were measured every 1, 2, and 10 min, respectively. Change in body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and locomotion score (LS) from dry-off to calving was calculated. Colostrum weight and quality (BRIX) were assessed. Total milk yield was calculated for 21 DIM. To assess the impact of heat events on cows, average median RT, rumination, and lying time were compared between days when average THI was >72 (HOT) and ≤68 (COOL). To assess cumulative heat exposure, 3 categories were created retrospectively: low exposure (LOW; THI ≥72 for 0–14.9% of dry period; n = 59), moderate exposure (MOD; THI ≥72 for 15–29.9% of dry period; n = 85), and high exposure (HI; THI ≥72 for 30–45% of dry period; n = 26). Data were summarized 42 d pre-calving and analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS v 9.4) with fixed effects of treatment and year and the random effect of cow. On HOT days, cows had 0.19°C greater RT (n = 85; P < 0.01), ruminated for 35 more min (n = 101; P < 0.01), and stood for 36 more minutes (n = 92; P < 0.01) compared with COOL days. Compared with LOW cows, HI cows tended to have 2 d shorter gestation (n = 170; P = 0.06). No difference was seen in BW change (2.2 ± 2.5 kg), BCS change (−0.2 ± 0.02) LS change (0.5 ± 0.05), colostrum weight (6.1 ± 0.3 kg), BRIX (24.4 ± 0.3) or 21 d milk yield (913.6 ± 11.6 kg) between groups. Northern NY dry cows may be impacted by episodic heat stress as demonstrated by reduced lying time and gestation length; however, immediate carry-over effects into the next lactation were not apparent.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86729 Watch 1447V Effect of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection on heifer mammary gland growth and development. 2 P. H. Baker mastitis heifer mammogenesis P. H. Baker1, F. K. Arnold2, D. D. Clevenger1, S. K. Jacobi2, R. M. Akers3, B. D. Enger1 1The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA Intramammary infections (IMI) are common in nonlactating dairy heifers. Such IMI are expected to impair mammary growth and development and negatively impact future milk production. Even with this assumption, how these IMI affect mammary gland growth and development in rapidly growing and developing mammary glands has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to delineate how IMI alters tissue structure in heifer mammary glands hormonally induced to grow and develop. Nonpregnant heifers (n = 16) between 11 – 14 mo of age received daily supraphysiological injections of estradiol and progesterone for 14 d to stimulate rapid mammary growth and development. One mammary gland of each heifer was randomly selected on d 8 and infused with Staph. aureus (CHALL) while another mammary gland was designated as an uninfected control (UNINF). Heifers were randomly euthanized on either the last day of hormonal injections, denoted as GROWTH tissues, or 13 d post-injections, denoted as DEVELOPMENT tissues. Mammary tissues were collected from the center and edge parenchymal regions of each mammary gland for morphometric tissue area evaluation. Measured tissue areas of GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT tissues were analyzed separately using PROC MIXED with quarter treatment and parenchyma region as fixed effects, and heifer as a random effect. For GROWTH tissues, CHALL quarters had less epithelial tissue area (P = 0.04) and marginally more intralobular stroma tissue area (P = 0.06) than UNINF quarters. Tissue areas occupied by luminal space, extralobular stroma, adipose, and lobular tissue were similar (P ≥ 0.32). For DEVELOPMENT tissues, area occupied by epithelium, luminal space, intralobular stroma and extralobular stroma did not differ between quarter treatments (P ≥ 0.30), but UNINF quarters had more adipose tissue area (P = 0.01) and marginally less lobular area (P = 0.08) than CHALL quarters. Results indicate that IMI in growing and developing mammary glands impairs mammary epithelial growth and alters mammary gland development. Taken together, these tissue changes before calving may have adverse impacts on milk production.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86352 Watch 1448V Effects of wildfire smoke PM2.5 on preweaned Holstein dairy calves. 3 A. Pace air quality immune response health A. Pace1, P. Rezamand1, A. L. Skibiel1 1University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Wildfires are increasing in prevalence and intensity and release hazardous pollutants into the air. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in wildfire smoke can be inhaled into the lungs and enter circulation to cause local and systemic immune responses and disease in humans. However, there are limited data on the effects of wildfire smoke exposure in cattle. Recently, our group found that dairy calf mortality was associated with high wildfire-derived PM2.5. The aim of the present study was to assess the physiological and immune responses of dairy calves to PM2.5 exposure from wildfire smoke. Holstein heifer calves (n = 15) at the University of Idaho Dairy Center were monitored from birth through weaning (July–September 2021), coinciding with the Pacific Northwest wildfire season. Weekly blood samples were collected for hematology analysis. Health scores, respiratory rates (RR), heart rates (HR), and rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded weekly. Hourly PM2.5 and meteorology data were obtained from a monitoring station near the farm. Wildfire, wind, and PM2.5 mapping using HYSPLIT modeling and AirNow-Tech Navigator were used to determine if increases in PM2.5 derived from active wildfires. Data were analyzed using mixed models with daily average PM2.5 and temperature-humidity index (THI), and their interaction as fixed effects and calf as a random effect. Separate models were run with lags of up to 7 d. PM2.5 ranged from 2.0 to 118.8 µg/m3, with spikes coinciding with wildfires. THI ranged from 48 to 73. There was a positive interactive effect of PM2.5 and THI on RR (P = 0.04), HR (P < 0.01), and RT (P = 0.04) at lag d 0. Together, elevated PM2.5 and THI increased eosinophil count (P = 0.02) on lag d 0, decreased total white blood cell (P = 0.01) and neutrophil counts (P < 0.01) after a 3-d lag, and decreased lymphocyte count after a 2-d lag. Cough score (P < 0.01) and eye score (P = 0.02) increased on lag d-3 with greater PM2.5 and THI. Several of these effects persisted for up to 4–5 d. Our results indicate that calf exposure to wildfire PM2.5 along with elevated THI alters calf physiology and hematology and may contribute to dairy calf morbidity and mortality.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86302 Watch 1449V Effects of supplementing native rumen microbes on milk production of mid-lactation dairy cows. 4 K. Goldsmith microbiome feed additive rumen K. Goldsmith1, J. Liesman1, J. Lefler2, M. VandeHaar1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Native Microbials, Inc, San Diego, CA Our objective was to evaluate the effects of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) supplement containing 4 native rumen microorganisms on milk production and efficiency of dairy cows. Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 90; 43% primiparous; 92 ± 23 DIM) averaging 45 kg milk/d were studied in 2 time cohorts. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 43% forage, 29% NDF, 29% starch, and 18% CP. After 14 d, they were blocked by parity, DIM, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) per metabolic BW. Within block, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments which were top-dressed daily for the next 112 d onto the basal diet. Treatments were 150 g of ground corn mixed with 1) no live DFM (CON), 2) 5 g of a live DFM (Galaxis Frontier; G2), and 3) 5 g of DFM (Galaxis Frontier; G2P). G2 contained Clostridium beijerinckii at 1 × 107 cfu/d and Pichia kudriavzevii, Ruminococcus bovis, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens at 1 × 108 cfu/d. G2P was similar but with higher levels of C. beijerinckii at 4 × 107 cfu/d and P. kudriavzevii at 1 × 109 cfu/d. G2 and G2P are products of Native Microbials Inc. (San Diego, CA). Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with pretreatment period as covariate for production. DFM did not alter yield of total milk, protein, or fat (P > 0.2), but slightly decreased gain of BW (P = 0.02) and body condition (P = 0.05) with no difference between G2 and G2P (P = 0.7). DFM tended to decrease dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.08) and tended to improve feed efficiency (P = 0.06) (ECM/DMI). DFM did not alter digestibility of fiber, starch, protein, or fat and did not alter concentrations of glucose or nonesterified fatty acids but tended to decrease concentration of insulin in plasma averaged over a day (P = 0.057). DFM decreased somatic cell counts in milk (P = 0.05) with no difference between G2 and G2P. In conclusion, supplementation with DFM had little impact on mid-lactation production, but some trending improvements in feed efficiency were observed. The digestibilities of NDF and starch in our diet were relatively high (45% and 95%, respectively), which might explain the lack of improved performance.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86291 Watch 1450V Effects of bacterial inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactococcus lactis on corn silage fermentation and aerobic stability. 5 C. A. N. de Guzmán Cerna Homolactic bacteria heterolactic bacteria yeast counts C. A. N. de Guzmán Cerna1, K. G. Arriola1, I. Fernandez-Marenchino1, K. V. Almeida2, F. X. Amaro1, H. Sultana1, D. Vyas1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microbial inoculant, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactococcus lactis, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage under laboratory conditions. Corn was harvested at 40.7% DM, chopped, and ensiled in 20L buckets after the application of 1) double distilled water (CON), and 2) manual application of inoculant (INC; SiloSolve FC) with a dose of 30 mL of diluted inoculant per kilogram of forage, and 150 000 cfu/g of forage. Corn forage was ensiled for 30 and 90 d with 5 replicates for each treatment by day combination. Silage extract was prepared using 0.1% peptone water and fermentation characteristics including lactate, acetate, ethanol, 1, 2 propanediol, and ammonia-N were measured. Yeast and mold counts were determined by plating. Aerobic stability was measured after 30 and 90 d of ensiling. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. After 90 d of ensiling, DM loss was lower for INC compared with CON (1.16 vs. 3.68% ± 0.61). Lactate concentration was greater for both CON and INC after 90 d compared with 30 d of ensiling (5.77 vs. 5.27% for CON and 5.69 vs. 5.21% for INC ± 0.16). Acetate concentration improved for INC compared with CON (1.17 vs 1.72% ± 0.05); however, the extent of increase was greater for INC after 90 d. Ammonia-N and 1, 2 propanediol concentrations were increased with INC compared with CON and a greater response was observed on both parameters with INC after 90 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability was improved with INC compared with CON after 90 d of ensiling (230.8, vs 95.1h ± 23.55). Yeast counts were lower with INC after 90 d of ensiling while no INC effects were observed on mold counts. In conclusion, inoculation of corn silage is an effective strategy to increase acetate and 1, 2 propanediol concentrations, lower yeast counts, and subsequently, increase aerobic stability of corn silage after 90 d of ensiling.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86273 Watch 1451V The effect of dietary cation-anion difference and dietary buffer for lactating dairy cattle during mild heat stress. 6 C. A. Bertens heat stress dietary cation-anion difference dietary buffer C. A. Bertens1, C. Shoffel2, M. Crombie3, G. B. Penner1 1University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 2Papillon Agricultural Company, Easton, MD, 3MIN-AD Inc, Winnemucca, NV The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and dietary buffer supply on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, milk and milk component yield, gastrointestinal tract permeability, and urinary mineral excretion in lactating dairy cattle exposed to mild heat stress. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows including 8 cannulated primiparous (80 ± 19.2 DIM) and 8 noncannulated multiparous (136 ± 38.8 DIM), were housed in a tie-stall barn programmed to maintain a temperature-humidity index (THI) between 68 and 72 from 0600 h to 1600 h. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square (21-d periods) with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Diets were formulated for low (LD; +10 mEq/100 g) or high DCAD (HD; +30 mEq/100 g) with low (LB) or high buffer (HB; 20.0 vs. 41.5 mEq H+/g added acid consuming capacity, respectively). The DCAD was adjusted using NH4Cl and Na-acetate and buffer was adjusted using CaMg(CO3)2. A ruminal dose of Cr-EDTA and an omasal dose of Co-EDTA was used to evaluate total and post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract permeability, respectively. The effects of DCAD, buffer and the interaction were tested with the MIXED procedure of SAS version 9.4. Treatments had no effect on DMI (25.1 kg/d, P ≥ 0.65), milk yield (36.9 kg/d, P ≥ 0.55), fat yield (1.51 kg/d, P ≥ 0.44), protein yield (1.21 kg/d, P ≥ 0.62) or mean ruminal pH (6.38, P ≥ 0.40). Cows fed LB-LD (108.1 mg) excreted more Co in the first 24 h relative to the Co-EDTA dose than HB-LD (74.8 mg; DCAD × Buffer, P = 0.03) with no differences among other treatments. No differences were detected for 24-h urinary Cr recovery (P ≥ 0.35). Cows fed HD produced 4 kg/d more urine than LD (P = 0.02) and increased urinary Na+ (P < 0.01) but reduced urinary K+ (P = 0.03) excretion. Dietary buffer and DCAD interact to influence post-ruminal permeability and urinary mineral excretion but have minimal effect on performance of lactating dairy cattle exposed to mild heat stress.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86160 Watch 1452V Effects of weaning strategies on health, hematology, and productivity in Holstein dairy calves. 7 A Wolfe calf health weaning pace weaning age A Wolfe1, P Rezamand2, B Agustinho2, D Konetchy2, A Laarman1,2 1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CA, 2University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Weaning strategies in dairy calves vary considerably, though the impact on animal health is unclear. This study examined the effects of calf weaning age (6 vs. 8 wk) and pace (abrupt vs. gradual) on health parameters in dairy calves. Holstein calves (n = 72), blocked by gender and birth weight, were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments (n = 18 per): Early-Abrupt (EA), Early-Gradual (EG), Late-Abrupt (LA), and Late-Gradual (LG). Milk replacer (24% CP, 17% fat; up to 1200 g/d) was fed twice daily; water, calf starter (18% CP), and chopped alfalfa hay were fed ad libitum. Daily intakes of milk replacer, calf starter, and forage were recorded. Body weight, health measures, blood hematology, and fecal scores were obtained pre- and post-weaning. Calves were orally bolused with a rumen pH logger for the last 3 d of the weaning transition and rumen pH was measured continuously. Data were analyzed with age and pace as fixed effects. Age at weaning increased respiration (P = 0.02), while gradual weaning groups had lower respiration rate (P = 0.01). Heartrate was lower in gradual than in abrupt groups (P = 0.01). Fecal score tended to increase in late-weaned groups (P = 0.06) and gradually weaned groups (P = 0.04). No difference was detected in body core temperature by age or pace. During the weaning transition, average daily gain was lower in LA than EA (0.62 vs. 0.11 Kg/d, P < 0.01) and gradually weaned groups had increased ADG (0.65 kg/d, P = 0.02). Change in grain intake, but not forage intake, was greater in gradually weaned groups (P < 0.01). Mean rumen pH tended to increase from EG to LG (7.65 vs. 8.84, P = 0.1) and from LA to LG (7.89 vs. 8.84, P = 0.1). No difference was detected among treatments in red or white blood cell counts, and hemoglobin. Procalcitonin tended to be different depending on the age × pace interaction with the LA group having the highest percentage of procalcitonin (0.18%, P = 0.07). Blood hematocrit increased in abruptly weaned groups (41.3 %, P = 0.01). Overall, calf health is affected by both age and pace of weaning, though the health parameters impacted by age and pace differ.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86135 Watch 1453V Oleic acid limits lipolysis and improves mitochondrial function in adipose tissue from periparturient dairy cows. 8 U. Abou-Rjeileh oleic acid lipolysis PLIN5 U. Abou-Rjeileh1, D. Salcedo1, J. Parales1, C. Prom1, M. Chirivi1, N. J. O'Boyle2, J. Laguna1, A. L. Lock1, G. A. Contreras1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2University of Nottingham, Loughborough, United Kingdom Our objective was to determine the effect of oleic acid (OA) on insulin sensitvity and mitochondrial function in adipose tissue (AT) of periparturient dairy cows. In the liver, OA promotes lipid droplet formation by activating perilipin 5 (PLIN5) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα); however, it is unknown if this mechanism occurs in AT. We hypothesize that OA limits lipolysis and improves mitochondrial function in bovine AT. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 12) were infused abomasally following parturition with ethanol (CON) or OA (60 g/d) for 15 d. Subcutaneous AT samples were obtained at 11 ± 3.6d before calving (PreP), and 6 ± 1d (PP1) and 13 ± 1.4d (PP2) after parturition. Adipocyte morphometry was performed on H&E-stained sections. Isoproterenol (ISO, 1μM) stimulated lipolysis and insulin (1μg/L) inhibition of ISO were determined using an in vitro explant culture by measuring glycerol release. PLIN5 and PPARα expression were determined by capillary electrophoresis. NGS RNA sequencing was used to evaluate the transcriptomic profile of bioenergetics gene pathways. Statistical analyses were performed using a mixed effect model which included the random effect of cow, and the fixed effect of treatment, time, and their interactions. At PP2, compared with CON, OA reduced AT response to ISO and increased AT sensitivity to insulin (P < 0.01). Compared with CON, OA decreased the percentage of smaller adipocytes (<3000μm2) at PP2 (P < 0.001) hence limiting adipocyte size reduction. Compared with CON, OA tended to have higher PPARα content at PP1 (P < 0.10), and increased PLIN5 protein expression at PP2 (P < 0.05). At PP2, OA increased PARP3 fragments per kilobase million mapped reads (FPKM) which mediates DNA strand break repair (P < 0.05) and tended to increase SOD2 FPKM which plays an antiapoptotic role against oxidative stress (P = 0.06). OA decreased SIRT3 FPKM at PP2 (P < 0.05) supporting a shift to lipogenesis. Our results provide initial evidence that OA may limit lipolysis by enhancing lipogenesis through the activation of PPARα through PLIN5. RNa-seq results show that OA improves mitochondrial integrity reflecting a state of lipogenesis.
ADSA Production MS Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production MS Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86130 Watch 1454V Effects of post-day one colostrum supplementation on growth and health of preweaning dairy heifers. 9 H. R. McCarthy calf colostrum supplementation growth performance H. R. McCarthy1, A. J. Lopez1, A. Pineda1, D. L. Renaud1, M. Nagorske2, M. A. Steele1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd, Saskatoon, SK, Canada The preweaning period of calves is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates, leading to financial losses for producers. Research regarding ways to improve the health of calves to reduce antimicrobial use continues to be crucial to the success of the dairy industry. The study aimed to explore the effects of supplementing colostrum replacer (CR) post-day one to calves on health and growth. Holstein heifer calves (n = 200; 50/TRT) were enrolled at birth, fed CR (205g IgG/feeding) at 0 and 12h, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 100% milk replacer (MR) from d 2–49 (control; C); 50% CR + 50% MR d 2–3 and 100% MR d 4–49 (transition; T); 100% MR + 10% CR d2–14 and 100% MR d 15–49 (extended; E); or 50% CR + 50% MR d 2–3, 100% MR + 10%CR d 4–14, and 100% MR d 15–49 (extended + transition; ET). Body weight was recorded at birth and weekly until wk 7. Blood serum samples were taken daily (d 0–7) and weekly until wk 7. In addition, a health assessment was completed daily. All data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and are reported as least squared means with standard errors. Calves fed T had higher overall average daily gain (ADG) compared with C (0.47 vs 0.42 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.03). The E and ET groups had higher (P ≤ 0.05) ADG at wk 2 (0.45 vs 0.42 ± 0.05kg, respectively) compared with C (0.29 ± 0.05kg). The incidence and length of diarrhea, respiratory illness and therapies did not differ among treatments (P > 0.10). Calves fed T (8.2 ± 0.01%) and E (6.1 ± 0.00%) tended to have lower mortality (P = 0.08) compared with C (20.0 ± 0.01%). Serum IgG levels did not differ by treatment (P = 0.80). Considering the positive effects of treatments T and E on ADG and mortality, more research is needed to determine the impact of colostrum supplementation and its mechanism of action.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 s9986                  
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86882 Watch 2382V Effect of forages with varying fiber digestibility on lactation performance and methane emissions of dairy cows. 1 D. J. Nelson corn silage alfalfa silage methane D. J. Nelson1,2, K. F. Kalscheur2,1 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Madison, WI, 2US Dairy Forage Research Center, USDA-ARS, Madison, WI High-quality forages are a fundamental component of formulating diets that meet the energy requirements of high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of forages with varying fiber digestibility on lactation performance and methane (CH4) emissions of dairy cows. Sixty-four lactating Holstein cows (109 ± 25 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets using a randomized complete-block design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period. Cow was the experimental unit. Following the production study, cows were allocated to 1 of 4 environmental chambers (2 cows/chamber) for wk 7. Performance and emissions data from wk 7 were used for analysis. Chamber was the experimental unit. Experimental diets were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial evaluating 2 types of corn silages [conventional corn silage (CS) and brown midrib corn silage (BMR)] and 2 types of alfalfa haylages [conventional (AH) alfalfa haylage and reduced-lignin (RL) alfalfa haylage]. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS. Dry matter intake (DMI) averaged 27.3 kg/d and was not affected by the type of corn silage nor by the type of alfalfa haylage included in the 6-wk production study; however, a trend was observed for corn silage × alfalfa haylage during wk 7 (P = 0.08). Milk production averaged 45.5 kg/d and was not affected by treatment. No treatment effect was observed for ECM (46.8 kg/d) nor feed efficiency (ECM/DMI = 1.72). Milk fat and protein % (3.89 and 2.97%, respectively) were also not affected by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RL compared with cows fed AH (13.9 vs 12.9 mg/dL; P = 0.001). There were no interactions between the varieties of corn and alfalfa on lactation performance during the 6-wk production study. During the emissions study, an interaction of corn silage × alfalfa haylage was observed for CH4/ECM (P = 0.01), whereas there was tendency for CH4 emissions (g/d; P = 0.07). These results indicate that varieties of corn silage and alfalfa haylage with greater digestibility did not improve production measures but did affect methane emissions in the present study.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86854 Watch 2383V Effectiveness of GnRH as a resynchronization tool in lactating dairy cows. 2 A. Santos ovulation fertility corpora lutea A. Santos1, T. Minela1, L. R. Martins1, J. R. Pursley1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is utilized in Ovsynch type programs to initiate resynchronization before pregnancy diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of GnRH on induction of ovulation before pregnancy diagnosis. These treatments were part of a resynchronization program to time-AI non-pregnant cows on d 42 following previous AI. We hypothesized that GnRH treatments before the first GnRH of Ovsynch would increase the percent of cows with synchronized follicular development compared with Ovsynch alone. Lactating primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 362) were randomly assigned by parity and AI number to one of 3 resynchronization treatments following ≥1st AI: 1st GnRH (100 µg of gonadorelin acetate) of Ovsynch on d 32 postprevious AI (control; n = 108), GnRH 7 d before 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (1PreG; n = 116), and GnRH 14 and 7 d before 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (2PreG; n = 138). Ovaries of all cows were examined via ultrasound on d 18, 21, 25, 28, 32 and 35 post-AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34 after AI. Non-pregnant cows received final PGF2a of Ovsynch on d 39 and AI on d 42 postprevious AI. Data were analyzed using the mixed (continuous) and logistic (binomial) models in SAS 9.4. Overall, there was greater percentage of ovulations in non-pregnant vs. pregnant cows to previous AI. Only data from non-pregnant cows to previous AI are reported. There was no difference (P = 0.57) across treatments in the percent of cows that had ovulation to 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (67, 57 and 61% in control, 1PreG and 2PreG). There was an effect of resynchronization treatment on P/AI on d 34 post-AI after 1st AI but not after previous resynchronization with Ovsynch. Treatment 1PreG increased (P = 0.04) P/AI compared with 2PreG (60 vs. 41%) but not controls (49%; P = 0.40). Pre-synchronization GnRH treatments did not increase the percent of cows with synchronized follicular development at 1st GnRH of Ovsynch compared with the Ovsynch control.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86810 Watch 2384V Abomasal infusion of branched-chain amino acids or branched-chain keto-acids alter lactation performance in early lactation dairy cows. 3 K. Gallagher branched-chain amino acid branched-chain ketoacid lactation performance K. Gallagher1, I. Bernstein1, C. Collings1, D. Main1, S. Naughton1, V. Mavangira2, M. VandeHaar1, Z. Zhou1 1Michigan State University, Department of Animal Science, East Lansing, MI, 2Michigan State University, Large Animal Clinical Sciences, East Lansing, MI High-yielding dairy cows enter a state of negative protein balance postpartum when lactation greatly increases the mammary demand for AA. Our objective was to determine the impact of abomasal infusion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding keto-acids (branched-chain keto-acids, BCKA) on production performance in early lactation. Twenty 2 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design experiment. Cows were infused for the first 21 d postpartum with solutions of 1) saline (CON, n = 7); 2) BCAA (n = 7) including 67 g valine, 50 g leucine, and 17 g isoleucine; and 3) BCKA (n = 8) including 77 g ketovaline, 57 g ketoleucine, and 39 g ketoisoleucine. All cows received the same diet. Treatment effects were determined using PROC MIXED in SAS. No differences (P > 0.60) were detected for body weight and body condition score. Dry matter intake (P = 0.43), milk yield (P = 0.16), and milk components (P > 0.34) were also not changed in response to BCAA or BCKA treatments. However, compared with BCAA (1.64 kg/d, P = 0.04) or CON (1.67 kg/d, P = 0.13), protein yield was higher in response to BCKA treatment (1.77 kg/d, SEM = 0.04). Additionally, feed efficiency (milk yield divided by intake) was greater in cows receiving BCAA (2.17, SEM = 0.14) when compared with BCKA (1.72, P = 0.03) or CON (1.87, P = 0.15) cows. Postruminal infusion of BCAA improved feed efficiency whereas infusion of BCKA increased protein yield in multiparous cows during early lactation. Further research is warranted to determine if dietary supplementation of BCAA or BCKA might be warranted.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86786 Watch 2385V Differences in body temperature regulation during heat stress and seasonal depression in milk yield between Holstein, Brown Swiss, and crossbred cows. 4 C. J. Cuellar heat stress vaginal temperature milk yield C. J. Cuellar1, T. F. Amaral1, M. Saleem1,2, L. M. Jensen1, Q. A. Hoorn1, M. L. J. Haimon1, S. Jeensuk1, T. S. Maia1, P. J. Hansen1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan Brown Swiss (BS) cows have been reported to have lower rectal temperatures during heat stress than Holsteins (H) under arid conditions. Objectives were to evaluate 1) differences in body temperature regulation during heat stress between H, BS, and crossbred (X) cows under semi-tropical conditions and 2) test whether the seasonal depression in milk yield was greater for breeds less able to regulate body temperature. Data were from a dairy in Florida (27°24′N 81°03′W). For the first objective, conducted from Aug 9 to Sept 10, 2021, vaginal temperature was measured at 15 min intervals for 5 d in mid-gestation lactating H (n = 68), BS (n = 51) and X cows (n = 14). Vaginal temperature was affected by time (P < 0.0001) and time x breed (P < 0.0001). Temperatures were higher for H except during the afternoon. The maximum daily vaginal temperature was affected by breed (P = 0.034), with values higher for H (39.8 ± 0.1°C) than BS (39.3 ± 0.2°C) or X (39.2 ± 0.1°C). For the second objective, 6,179 lactation records (2,144 H, 2,685 BS and 1,350 X) from 2000 – 2011 were analyzed to determine effect of breed and season of calving (cool = Oct to March; warm = April to Sept) on 305-d milk yield. Cow (n = 2,972) was included as a random term in the model. Milk yield was affected by breed (P < 0.0001) and season (P < 0.0001) but not by breed x season (P = 0.1641). Overall, 305-d milk yield was 7,435 ± 48 kg for H, 6740 ± 47 kg for BS and 6,978 ± 66 kg for X. The difference in average 305-d milk yield between cows calving in cool vs hot weather was 310 kg (4% decrease) for H, 480 kg (7% decrease) for BS, and 420 kg (6% decrease) for X. In conclusion, BS and X regulated body temperature during heat stress better than H but these breeds were not more resistant to heat stress with respect to milk yield.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86776 Watch 2386V Assessment of the effects of prepartum anti-inflammatory therapies on cow health and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. 5 E. Jimenez acetylsalicylic acid meloxicam prepartum period E. Jimenez1, J. Spring1, M. Martinez1, E. Hovingh1, J. Lawhead2, A. A. Barragan1 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Millerstown Veterinary Associates, Millerstown, PA The objective of this study was to assess the effects of pre-partum administration of anti-inflammatory therapies on β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB] concentration, incidence of postpartum diseases and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. At 14 d before the expected calving date, cows (n = 64) and heifers (n = 24) were blocked by BCS category (optimal = 3.25–3.5; high ≥3.75) and parity (nulliparous; parous), and randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment groups: 1) ASA (n = 29) = receive one oral treatment with administration of acetylsalicylic acid (4 boluses; 480 grain/bolus); 2) MEL (n = 31) = receive one oral administration of meloxicam (1mg/kg of BW), or 3) PLC (n = 29) = receive one oral treatment with gelatin capsules filled with water. At 7 ± 3, 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 DIM blood samples were collected, to assess BHB concentration, and clinical metritis was assessed using a Metricheck device. Clinical disease events in the first 60 DIM and reproductive performance parameters for the first 120 DIM were collected from on-farm computer records. The data were analyzed using MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS as a randomized complete-block design. On average enrolled cows received treatment administration 10 d before actual calving date (standard deviation = 5.10 d). There was no difference on BHB concentration (95% CI) between study groups (ASA = 0.71 mmol/L, 0.57–0.88; MEL = 0.67 mmol/L, 0.55–0.82; PLC = 0.65 mmol/L, 0.53–0.80). However, cows treated with MEL tended to have higher incidence of subclinical ketosis at 21 ± 3 DIM (LSM ± SEM) compared with PLC cows (ASA = 24.4 ± 12.1%; MEL = 50.9 ± 15.7%; PLC = 6.05 ± 6.32%). Cows treated with ASA had lower incidence of retained fetal membranes compared with MEL and PLC cows (ASA = 0%; MEL = 19.3%; PLC = 17.2%). There was no difference in the reproductive performance parameters assessed. These findings suggest that treatment with pre-partum acetylsalicylic acid might have positive effects on postpartum cow health. Further studies with larger data sets are needed to confirm association observed in this trial.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86620 Watch 2387V Condition of surplus dairy calves at livestock dealers in Ohio. 6 H. Maggard surplus dairy calf calf health livestock market H. Maggard1, M. Moran2, G. Habing2, D. Renaud3, K. Proudfoot4, D. Wilson3, J. Pempek1 1Department of Animal Sciences, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 4Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada Surplus dairy calves are sold soon after birth, often through live auctions or livestock dealers. Our previous work demonstrated veal calves arrive to growing facilities with a high prevalence of failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) and signs of disease, but little is known regarding calf condition at livestock dealers. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of FTPI and poor health outcomes in surplus calves at livestock dealers. Two livestock dealers in Ohio were visited 2 to 3 times per week, with approximately 28 calves enrolled in the study per visit for a total of 1,063 calves. One blood sample per calf was obtained to evaluate FTPI by measuring serum total protein (using a cutoff < 5.1 g/dL). Calves were clinically evaluated for signs of navel inflammation, depression, dehydration, fever, diarrhea, respiratory disease, and arthritis; health outcomes were dichotomized using clinically relevant cut-points. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of calves with poor condition. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine if sex or source were risk factors for poor health outcomes. Twenty-one percent (227/1063) of calves had FTPI, and those purchased directly from the dairy farm were more likely to have FTPI compared with those purchased from auctions or livestock dealers (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02). Upon clinical examination, 70.5% (748/1060) of calves were dehydrated, 26.7% (283/1059) had navel inflammation, and 7.1% (76/1062) were depressed. Seventeen percent (98/573) of calves from dairy farms that had FTPI were dehydrated, while 14% (42/303) of calves from auctions or livestock dealers had both health concerns. Male calves were more likely than female calves to have navel inflammation (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–3.0; P = 0.0003) and depression (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 0.94–4.4; P = 0.07). FTPI is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and can also contribute to antimicrobial use and resistance. This research highlights the opportunity for improvements throughout the surplus calf production chain to improve calf condition before transport.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86582 Watch 2388V Use of rumen-protected lysine labeled with 15N-lysine to estimate bioavailability. 7 K. L. Clark intestinal digestibilty rumen bypass stable isotope K. L. Clark1, L. R. Rebelo1, J. E. Copelin1, T. Clifford2, I. Brown-Crowder2, M. J. Poss2, C. Lee1 1Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 2Kemin Industries, Inc, Des Moines, IA Accurate estimation of bioavailability (BA) of rumen-protected (RP)-AA is critical in determining its inclusion in a ration. One popular technique uses rumen incubation of RP-AA followed by abomasal infusion of the residuals where plasma appearance of AA is used to estimate bioavailability. The current study evaluated this technique by using 2 prototypes of RP-Lys labeled with 15N-Lys. Two cows were used only for rumen incubation and 4 cows were used for abomasal infusion in a 4 × 4 Latin square design: control (L-Lys with 15N-Lys), RP-Lys1 (L1), RP-Lys2 (L2), and RP-Lys3. Because only L1 and L2 were labeled with 15N-Lys, results for L3 are not shown here. The 4 cows received a common diet (16% CP and 32% NDF on a DM basis) for 14 d with 10 d of washout and received abomasal infusion for 5 min (d 11) of control or one of 3 prototype residuals from 8-h ruminal incubation. Blood samples were collected at −2, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 18 h after infusion. Total feces were collected for 4 d after infusion and analyzed for 15N excretion. The rumen bypass rate (RB) was calculated from DM, N or 15N of residuals after rumen incubation of the prototypes. The intestinal digestibility (ID) was determined using fecal 15N excretion and also using plasma total Lys appearance (PLA). The mixed procedure of SAS was used for data analysis. The RB was greater for L1 versus L2 (DM, 102 vs. 16%; N, 99 vs. 6%; 15N, 85 vs. 5%). However, RB of L1 was lower (P < 0.01) when calculated with 15N versus N while that of L2 was similar. The ID of L1 and L2 was 9 and 112%, respectively, from PLA. When calculated using 15N excretion in feces, ID of 40 and 86% (P < 0.01) were obtained for L1 and L2, respectively. Therefore, BA for L1 and L2 was 9 and 6%, respectively, from PLA and was 34 and 5% for L1 and L2 (P < 0.01), respectively, from fecal 15N excretion. We found evidence of microbial contamination after rumen incubation of RP-Lys and the degree of contamination was affected by the rumen degradation rate. The large difference in ID between PLA and 15N approach supports caution when BA is obtained from plasma Lys concentration.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86473 Watch 2389V Effects of colostrum management and meloxicam administration on hematological parameters in transported preweaned calves. 8 K. Elmore calf colostrum meloxicam K. Elmore1, D. Konetchy1, M. Chahine2, A. Laarman3,1, B. Agustinho1, P. Rezamand1, G. Chibisa1 1Department of Animal, Veterinary, and Food Science, Moscow, ID, 2Department of Animal, Veterinary, and Food Sciences, Twin Falls Research and Extension Center University of Idaho, Twin Falls, ID, 3Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutrition Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Poor colostrum management and subsequent transportation can cause negative health outcomes in pre-weaned calves, which may be mitigated by the pre-transport administration of meloxicam (MEL). Our objective was to determine the effects and potential interaction of colostrum management and MEL administration on hematological parameters in transported pre-weaned calves. Male dairy calves (n = 48) were collected at birth and used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments; colostrum feeding according to recommendations or milk replacer (MR) in place of colostrum, and administration of MEL or a placebo before transportation. Blood samples were collected from calves (<2 d old) before transportation (300 km), on arrival, and 12 h and 36 h post arrival (harvest) and were analyzed for hematological parameters. Data analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. There was no colostrum × MEL interaction (P ≥ 0.15) on any hematological parameters. However, there was a colostrum ´ time interaction (P = 0.04) on white blood cell (WBC) count; MR calves had a much lower WBC count 36 h after arrival than colostrum calves. Additionally, there was a MEL × time interaction (P < 0.01) on red blood cell (RBC) count; MEL calves had a lower RBC count at arrival and 36 h after arrival than placebo. There was a colostrum × time interaction (P = 0.04) for lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and basophil proportions; colostrum-fed calves had greater lymphocyte, monocyte, and basophil proportions, but a lower neutrophil proportion than MR calves. There was a MEL × time interaction (P < 0.01) for hematocrit proportion and absolute hemoglobin count; MEL calves had a lower hematocrit and absolute hemoglobin proportion at arrival than before and after transportation compared with placebo calves. Overall, feeding colostrum resulted in a higher WBC count and MEL administration decreased hematocrit and absolute hemoglobin proportion over time. This suggests these 2 factors have an impact on immune function in transported pre-weaned calves and could be useful in developing management strategies to reduce transport-related stress.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86367 Watch 2390V Direct effects of heat stress on hepatic mitochondrial function in lactating dairy cattle. 9 A. S. Marquez-Acevedo oxidative phosphorylation oxidative stress metabolism A. S. Marquez-Acevedo1, P. Villamediana1, C. C. Josefson1, R. J. Collier1, A. L. Skibiel1 1University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Heat stress reduces hepatic mitochondrial protein expression, however the functional impact of heat stress on mitochondria is unclear. We hypothesized that heat stress has a direct effect on hepatic metabolism through impaired mitochondrial function and oxidant imbalance, with consequences for lactation performance. Mid-lactation (94 ± 6 d in milk) multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment based on mature equivalent milk yield (MY) and parity. Treatments (n = 8/group) were heat-stressed (HT) or pair-fed thermoneutral (TN). Cows were housed in individual tie-stalls and acclimated for 3 d before experimental periods (P1 and P2). During P1 (7 d), all cows were under thermoneutral conditions and fed ad libitum. During P2 (10 d), HT cows were fed ad libitum and fitted with electric heat blankets. TN cows were pair-fed to match the reduction in feed intake of HT cows. Rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), and MY were recorded daily during P1 and P2. Milk samples were collected on D1,5,6 of P1 and P2 for composition. On d 10 of P2, liver biopsies were taken from all cows. Hepatic mitochondrial function was measured as the respiratory control ratio (RCR, maximal/basal respiration) using complex I (NADH-linked) and complex II (FADH2-linked) substrates. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission and liver antioxidant activity and oxidative damage were quantified. Expression of genes involved in mitochondrial activity were quantified by qRT-PCR. Temperature-humidity index of the barn was 58 ± 5 across the study. RT and RR were similar between treatment groups during P1 but were higher for HT compared with TN during P2 (P < 0.01). Liver complex I and II RCR, ROS emission, antioxidant activity, oxidative damage, MY, BW, and BCS did not differ between treatment groups. Milk protein was lower in HT cows (P < 0.01). Liver CAT expression tended to be upregulated (P = 0.06), but all other genes showed similar expression patterns between treatment groups. Our results suggest heat stress does not have a substantial direct impact on hepatic mitochondrial function and antioxidant capacity.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86275 Watch 2391V Relationship between management, reticulorumial pH, and risks of subacute ruminal acidosis. 10 F. Huot subacute ruminal acidosis reticuloruminal pH F. Huot1, S. Claveau2, A. Bunel2, R. M. Petri3, D. E. Santschi4, E. Paquet1, R. Gervais1 1Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, 2Agrinova, Alma, QC, Canada, 3Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, 4Lactanet, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada Low reticuloruminal pH (rpH) such as in subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) may negatively affect rumen health and animal performance. To investigate the prevalence of rpH and SARA under commercial conditions, and assess their relationship with management and animal traits, rpH was continuously monitored for 150 d using wireless boluses on 110 early lactation Holsteins of different parities, selected from 12 farms covering a broad range of management strategies. The variation between animals rpH was substantial and interestingly, that variability was also present within animals from the same farm. To assess this variability, we performed a multivariable mixed model with management traits as fixed effects and with animal and farm as random effects. Automatic milking system (AMS) and dietary corn silage were associated with a decrease in rpH of 0.37 (P < 0.01) and 0.20 (P = 0.06; tendency) units, respectively, whereas monensin supplementation was associated with an increase of 0.27 unit (P = 0.03). Also, rpH increased of 0.15 unit over the first 60 d in milk. August, September, and October were the months of the year associated with the lowest rpH (P < 0.01). An occurrence of SARA was identified when rpH was maintained below the limits of 6.0 (SARA6.0) and 5.8 (SARA5.8) for at least 300 min over a period of 24 h. A total of 65 and 38 cows experienced at least one episode of SARA6.0 and SARA5.8, respectively. The proportion of SARA-positive cows varied among farms from 0 to 100%. AMS was associated with an increased incidence of SARA5.8 (odds ratio: 10; P < 0.01) and SARA6.0 (odds ratio: 11, P = 0.02). The use of corn silage was associated with an increased incidence of SARA5.8 (odds ratio: 21; P < 0.01) while the use of monensin was associated with a decreased incidence of SARA5.8 (odds ratio: 0.02; P = 0.03). These results denote the variability of factors associated with rpH and the difficulty to assess SARA under commercial conditions. This study lays the foundation for further work into mitigating the risks of SARA by highlighting management strategies such as AMS that may affect rpH and increase risk of SARA.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86162 Watch 2392V Effects of trace mineral and forage sources on mineral solubility, ruminal fermentation, digestibility and N utilization. 11 M. L. Johnson copper hydroxy manganese M. L. Johnson1, J. A. Arce-Cordero1, E. Sarmikasoglou1, J. R. Vinyard1, R. R. Lobo1, V. Brandao2, A. P. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Micronutrients LLC, Indianapolis, IN The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 forms of Cu, Zn, and Mn on ruminal fermentation in diets varying in forages grown in different geographical locations in the USA, in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Eight fermenters were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, combining 2 factors: (1) diet type [West (W) or East (E) coast] and (2) mineral source [sulfate (S) or hydroxy (H)]. Treatments were (1) WH [West coast diet with Intellibond Cu, Zn, and Mn]; (2) WS [West coast diet with Cu, Zn, and Mn sulfates]; (3) EH [East coast diet with Intellibond Cu, Zn, and Mn]; (4) ES [East coast diet with Cu, Zn, and Mn sulfates]. All diets were formulated to contain similar chemical composition. Treatments were supplemented with 12, 56, and 36 ppm of Cu, Zn, and Mn from the corresponding mineral source. Four 10-d periods were conducted, and the last 3 d of each period were used for collection of samples for analyses of lactate, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), as well as nutrient digestibility and Cu, Zn, and Mn solubility. Effects of diet type, mineral source, and their interaction were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), CP (P = 0.02), NDF (P < 0.01), and ADF (P < 0.01), were affected by diet type but not by mineral source. Compared with H mineral sources, S mineral sources had greater daily average concentrations of soluble Mn (P = 0.04) and Zn (P = 0.06), and greater concentrations of Cu (P = 0.05), Mn (P = 0.05) and Zn (P = 0.02) during the first 8 h after feeding. There was a diet x mineral source interaction on fermenter pH (P = 0.02). When S sources were fed, there was a reduction on pH only with the W diet. Sulfate mineral sources reduced daily average NH3-N concentration when supplemented with the W diet but had the opposite effect with the E diet. Our results indicate that H sources have a lower ruminal solubility than S sources, and there was an effect of mineral source on ruminal fermentation when the W diet was fed, particularly when it comes to NH3-N and pH.
ADSA Production MS Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production MS Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85844 Watch 2394V Effect of dietary palmitic acid supplementation and milking frequency on milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. 12 M. Landry dairy cow palmitic acid milking frequency M. Landry1,2, F. Huot1,2, R. Lessard3, Y. Lebeuf1,2, J. Chamberland1,2, G. Brisson1,2, D. E. Santschi4, É. Paquet1, D. E. Rico5, P. Y. Chouinard1,2, R. Gervais1,2 1Université Laval, Quebec, Canada, 2Centre de recherche en sciences et technologie du lait, Quebec, Canada, 3Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, 4Lactanet, Quebec, Canada, 5Centre de recherche en sciences animales de Deschambault, Quebec, Canada This study was conducted to evaluate if combined effect of feeding palmitic acid (PA) and increasing milking frequency (MF) may benefit milk responses of early lactation dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 45 ± 14 DIM were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary PA (0 or 2% on a DM basis), MF (twice- or thrice-daily, at regular intervals), and their interaction on milk production and composition. Treatment periods were 21 d in length, with the last 5 d used for data and sample collection. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (28.2 ± 0.8 kg/d; P ≥ 0.32), and no interaction between PA and MF was observed on any measured parameters (P ≥ 0.16). Regardless of MF, supplementing cows with PA increased milk (48.0 vs. 46.2 kg/d; P < 0.01), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 47.0 vs. 43.9 kg/d; P < 0.01), and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM; 47.9 vs. 44.5 kg/d; P < 0.01) yields along with ECM:feed efficiency (1.67 vs. 1.56; P < 0.01). Compared with no supplementation, feeding dietary PA increased milk fat concentration (4.03 vs. 3.77%; P < 0.01) and yield (1.92 vs. 1.73 kg/d; P < 0.01), as well as protein yield (1.54 vs. 1.47 kg/d; P < 0.01), whereas milk protein concentration was not affected (3.21 ± 0.07%; P = 0.34). Thrice-daily MF increased milk (48.6 vs. 45.6 kg/d; P < 0.01), ECM (46.6 vs. 44.3 kg/d; P < 0.01), and FCM (47.4 vs. 45.0 kg/d; P < 0.01) yields along with ECM:feed efficiency (1.65 vs. 1.58; P = 0.01). Increasing MF decreased milk fat concentration (3.84 vs. 3.96%; P = 0.05) but increased milk fat yield (1.86 vs. 1.79 kg/d; P = 0.01). Whereas milk protein concentration was not affected (3.21 ± 0.07%; P = 0.24), protein yield was increased (1.55 vs. 1.46 kg/d; P < 0.01) with MF. Milk free fatty acid concentration was similar among treatments (0.70 ± 0.07 mEq/100g of milk fat; P ≥ 0.70). This study demonstrated that both PA supplementation and thrice-daily MF increased milk and fat yields, but the absence of interaction reveals that their effects were additive.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 s9989                  
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86909 Watch 1455V Integrating animal-level data for early detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows using machine learning algorithms. 1 R. E. P. Ferreira machine learning ketosis prediction R. E. P. Ferreira1, T. Bresolin1, H. T. Holdorf1, H. M. White1, J. R. R. Dorea1 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI During the transition period, dairy cows often experience negative energy balance (NEB) to support the high energy demands of lactation. The severity of NEB can increase the risk of peripartum disorders such as hypocalcemia, ketosis, and others, which cause large economic losses on dairy farms. Thus, the objective of this study was to integrate animal-level data and train machine learning (ML) models to early detect subclinical ketosis events and high NEB in dairy cows. The following data were collected from 106 cows in the prepartum period: parity, diet, BCS, previous days in milk and dry period length, number of previous ketosis and other health events, and average feed intake, meal duration, eating, lying and rumination times from −7 to −1 d relative to calving (DRTC). Blood samples were obtained approximately every other day from −7 to +21 DRTC, and maximum blood BHB values above 1.0 mmol/L postpartum were considered subclinical ketosis events. Cows that had at least one plasma NEFA measurement above 0.6 mmol/L from 3 to 14 d after calving were characterized as having high NEB. Random Forest (RF) was used as a predictive approach, and the trained models were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation to allow for more cows to be used for training compared with k-fold cross-validation or hold-out, and to use the whole data set as independent test examples. The trained RF models predicted subclinical ketosis events on the independent test examples with an accuracy of 84.9%, sensitivity of 79.5%, and specificity of 88.7%, and predicted high NEB with an accuracy of 75.5%, sensitivity of 72.9%, and specificity of 78.7%. The results of this study suggest that RF can potentially be used to early detect cases of subclinical ketosis and high NEB in dairy cows from 4 to 15 d in advance, and predictive performance on external data should be further investigated. Detecting high-risk cows before they calve can provide new opportunities for implementing preventive practices to improve animal health and welfare in dairy production systems.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86418 Watch 1456V Dietary effects on branched-chain volatile fatty acid use for bacterial lipid synthesis in dual-flow cultures varying in forage and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. 2 K. E. Mitchell cellulolytic fatty acids aldehyde K. E. Mitchell1, S. L. Kienzle1, B. A. Wenner1, C. Lee2, D. H. Kleinschmit3, M. T. Socha3, J. L. Firkins1 1Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 3Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN Rumen bacteria utilize branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) or aldehydes (BCALD) to maintain membrane homeostasis, and cellulolytics require branched-chain volatile fatty acid (BCVFA). Our objective was to assess BCVFA usage in continuous cultures (CC) administered high (HF) and low (LF) forage diets. We hypothesized that BCVFA would be used more in the HF diet because of the greater proportion of cellulolytic bacteria. However, supplemental PUFA would inhibit cellulolytic bacteria, so less BCVFA was expected to be recovered in BCFA and BCALD. The study was an incomplete block design with 8 CC used in 4 periods with treatments (n = 4) arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial. The factors were: HF or LF (67 or 33% forage, 33:67 alfalfa:orchard grass), without or with supplemental corn oil (3% CO, 1.5% PUFA), and without or with 2.15 mmol/d (5 mg/d 13C) each of isovalerate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate. Bacteria pellets were collected. After methylation, FA and fatty aldehydes were separated before analysis by GC/IRMS. A mixed model had random effects of period and fermenter and fixed effects of diet, CO, BCVFA, and their interactions. Label was only recovered in branched-chain lipids, contrary to previously reported results performed on a shorter column, which probably caused coelution. Dose recovery in bacterial lipids decreased (P = 0.02, Diet × CO) from 2.07% with HF to 1.47% with LF, but CO in the HF diet decreased the recovery by 19.8%. Fatty aldehydes were less than 6% of total bacterial lipids, but 26.5% of 13C recovered in lipids were recovered in BCALD. HF increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, which increased the dose recovery in lipids, but CO only affected recovery with a HF diet because the bacterial profile shifted toward a population that was more sensitive to PUFA supplementation. Because BCFA and BCALD play an important role in the function and growth of bacteria, especially cellulolytics, BCVFA supplementation can support the rumen microbial consortium, increasing fiber degradation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85962 Watch 1457V DNA methylation in first exon potentially regulate gene expression during bovine subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. 3 M. Wang milk somatic cells DNA methylation first exon M. Wang1,2, M. Laterrière3, P.-L. Dudemaine1, N. Bissonnette1, D. Gagné3, J.-P. Roy4, M.-A. Sirard2, E. M. Ibeagha-Awemu1 1Sherbrooke Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, 2Department of Animal Science, Laval University, Quebec city, Quebec, Canada, 3Quebec Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec city, Quebec, Canada, 4University of Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mechanism, has been found to be involved in bovine subclinical mastitis caused by various pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Milk somatic cells (MSCs) indirectly reflect the inflammatory response of the mammary gland to disease pathogens among other insults. To investigate the effect of DNA methylation of first exons (MeFE) on gene expression (GE) during mastitis, the DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of MSCs from 15 cows with SA-induced subclinical mastitis (SACs) and 13 healthy cows (HCs) were determined by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing, respectively. The MeFE of 20764 genes were calculated by averaging CpG sites in the first exon of each gene. Spearman's correlation analysis using MethGet showed an inverse correlation between MeFE and GE at the genome-wide scale. Using the Gaussian Mixed module (GMM) of scikit-learn package (machine learning in Python) to correlate the changes of MeFE and GE between SACs and HCs identified 843 genes with ≥ 10% difference in MeFE and |log2FC| > 1 in GE (p of GMM < 0.005) in SACs compared with HCs, that were considered differentially methylated and expressed genes (DME-genes). DME-genes were significantly enriched in 22 GO terms and 17 KEGG pathways with immune-related functions. In addition, the MeFE and GE of 580 DME-genes were significantly inversely correlated, including 153 DME-genes with strong inverse correlations (p.adj < 0.05, rho < −0.5). These genes (153) and 39 DME-genes with strong positive correlations with GE were significantly enriched in 33 GO terms and 4 KEGG pathways, including Staphylococcus aureus infection and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, further suggesting that MeFE may be involved in regulating the host response to SA infection by modulating the expression of related genes. In conclusion, the DNA methylation status of the first exon tends to inversely correlate with gene expression, and may possibly participate in regulating responses of mammary gland to subclinical mastitis caused by SA.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86799 Watch 1458V Lactating cows inseminated following estrus have greater early pregnancy losses compared to the fertility program Double-Ovsynch. 4 T. Minela Double-Ovsynch estrus conceptus attachment T. Minela1, A. Santos1, J. R. Pursley1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Programs such as Double Ovsynch (DO) improve pregnancy rates per AI compared with AI after estrus detection (ES). The objective of this study was to determine time to the increase in pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) as a marker of conceptus attachment (CA) in lactating dairy cows receiving AI following ES or DO. We hypothesized that DO would reduce time to CA compared with ES and that delayed conceptus attachment would have greater pregnancy losses. Lactating dairy cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to treatment. Cows synchronized with DO (n = 54) received AI 16 h after the final GnRH, between 74 and 80 DIM. Cows detected in ES between 69 and 89 DIM received AI from 8 to 23 h after onset of estrus (n = 55). Daily blood samples were collected from d 16 to d 28 post-AI to determine PSPB concentrations. Time of CA was determined as the first d of ≥ 12.5% increase in PSPB from baseline (average d 16 to 18), followed of 2 d of 12.5% daily increases. Pregnancy was diagnosed based on PSPB at d 28 post-AI and again ~35 d post-AI via ultrasound. Mixed models were utilized to analyze repeated measurements, continuous variables, and binary outcomes. Predicted probabilities were estimated with logistic regression. Time to CA did not differ between treatments (DO 21.0 ± 0.3 vs. ES 21.2 ± 0.3 d). ES cows had greater pregnancy losses occurring between CA and 35 d post-AI (8/55 vs. 1/54; P = 0.04). Greater d to CA decreased pregnancy likelihood at d 28 post-AI (P = 0.02). There was no effect of treatment on PSPB concentration between d 16 and 28 post-AI. Overall, cows that maintained pregnancy had higher concentration of PSPB between d 22 and 28 post-AI in comparison to cows that lost pregnancy (P < 0.01). Increase in PSPB concentration was delayed in 1 d in cows that experienced pregnancy loss (d 22 post-AI) in comparison with cows that maintained pregnancy (d 21 post-AI), utilizing cows with no CA for comparisons (P < 0.01). Within DO 7/30 cows had CA later than 21 d and 13/32 out of ES cows (P = 0.15). Cows receiving AI following ES had greater pregnancy losses (between CA and 35 d post-AI) than DO cows.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86676 Watch 1459V Effect of altered photoperiod precalving on colostrum production by dairy breed. 5 K. Alward photoperiod colostrum dry cow K. Alward1, J. Duncan1, R. Cockrum1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Exposing dry cows to short-day photoperiod (SDPP) of 8 h per day can improve milk production post-calving by 3.2 kg per day, over cows exposed to long-day photoperiod (LDPP) during the dry period. However, only one study has evaluated the effect of dry period day length on colostrum production and was limited to Holstein cows. Recent studies show seasonal variations on colostrum production differ by breed, so this study was designed to examine the effect of long and short-day photoperiod on colostrum production in Holstein and Jersey cows. Holstein and Jersey cows (n = 33) dried off 60 d before their due date were enrolled in 2 replicates. Cows were exposed to either SDPP of 8 h of light (n = 9 Holstein, n = 8 Jersey) or LDPP of 16 h of light (n = 8 Holstein, n = 8 Jersey) at 18.3°C until calving. At calving, calves were not allowed to suckle and cows were milked within 2 h. Total colostrum volume was weighed and colostrum quality via Brix refractometer were recorded. Other data recorded included lactation number, PTA for fat, PTA for milk, percent inbred, far-off and close-up feed intake, days of treatment and sex of the calf. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4. PROC MIXED was used to determine the effect of photoperiod on colostrum volume and Brix score by breed. For colostrum volume and Brix score, lactation number was a covariate and colostrum volume, replicate, far-off and close-up feed intake, sex of the calf and days of treatment were random effects. Photoperiod treatment did not affect colostrum volume (P = 0.73) however breed was significant (P = 0.03) with Holsteins producing more colostrum (11.68 kg ± 5.88) than Jerseys (7.02 kgs ± 4.24). Photoperiod also did not affect Brix score (P = 0.31) however Breed was significant (P = 0.01) with Jerseys having a greater average Brix score (27.84% ± 2.64%) than Holsteins (23.41% ± 3.07%). This study indicates that photoperiod alone may not account for seasonal variations in colostrum production and other environmental factors such as THI may play a large role. In addition, shortened day length to enhance milk production post-calving does not compromise colostrum production.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86643 Watch 1460V Effects of source of supplementary trace minerals on reproductive biology and performance in dairy cows. 6 B. Mion fertility embryo mineral B. Mion1, G. Madureira1, B. Van Winters1, J. F. W. Spricigo1, M. Steele1, J. LaMarre2, S. J. LeBlanc3, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to compare the effects of inorganic (ITM) or organic (OTM) sources of supplementary trace minerals fed in pre- and postpartum diets on ovarian and uterine biology, conceptus development, and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cows and heifers were randomly assigned to receive ITM (n = 136) or OTM (n = 137) from 45 d prepartum to 156 DIM. Diets of both groups were identical except that ITM group received Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn sulfates and Na selenite, and OTM group received Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn proteinates and selenized yeast (Bioplex and Sel-Plex, Alltech). After PGF injections at 42 and 56 DIM, estrous behavior was monitored by activity sensors. Cows in estrus were inseminated, and those not detected in estrus were enrolled in a timed AI program. A subgroup of cows (28 ITM, 29 OTM) received uterine flushing 15 d after AI to recover conceptuses and uterine fluid (UF) for transcriptomics (RNA-Seq) and metabolomics (MS), respectively. Plasma progesterone was measured on d 0, 7, and 15 after AI. After flushing, PGF was given and the dominant follicle (DF) was aspirated 2 d later to measure the concentration of TM by ICP-MS. Gene expression of interferon-stimulated genes in blood leukocytes (PBL) was done in a separate subgroup of cows (67 ITM, 73 OTM) on d 19 after AI. Data were analyzed using SAS (GLIMMIX and PHREG) except for transcriptomics (DESeq2 in R) and metabolomics (MetaboAnalyst). Estrous behavior, progesterone concentration, time to pregnancy, and pregnancy by 156 DIM did not differ between treatments. OTM had greater concentration of Cu in DF (0.77 vs 0.89 µg/mL; P = 0.02). In pregnant multiparous, expression of RTP4 in PBL was 42% greater (P = 0.03) in OTM. Conceptuses had 608 differently expressed genes (>1.5 fold; P < 0.05), with many indicating advanced conceptus elongation and greater expression of selenoproteins in OTM. In pregnant cows, 24 metabolites were more abundant (>2 fold; P < 0.05) in UF of OTM cows, including spermidine, sucrose and cholesterol. Replacing ITM by OTM seemed to affect uterine biology and conceptus development but did not alter measurements of ovarian biology and reproductive efficiency.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86605 Watch 1461V Gestation length and dystocia of Holsteins mated to Holstein and beef breed service sires. 7 B. L. Basiel beef × dairy dystocia days carried calf B. L. Basiel1, T. L. Felix1, C. D. Dechow1 1Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Objectives were to determine if dystocia and gestation length (GL) in Holstein heifers and cows are influenced by beef service sires in comparison to Holstein service sires. Calving records (n = 6,671) of Holsteins from the years 2019 to 2022 were obtained from Pennsylvania dairies (n = 7). Cows were mated to Holstein (n = 5,545 calvings; n = 394 sires), Angus (n = 617 calvings; n = 53 sires), Charolais (n = 114 calvings; n = 3 sires), Wagyu (n = 36 calvings; n = 4 sires), Simmental or SimAngus (n = 292 calvings; n = 14 sires), and crossbred beef (n = 67 calvings; n = 5 sires) bulls. Calving ease (CE) score from 1, indicating no problem, to 5, indicating extremely difficult birth or Cesarean section, was used to quantify dystocia. Records of GL were available for all calvings and CE score was available from a subset (n = 4,424) of records from 5 herds. Linear models were used to analyze GL and CE where sire breed type (beef or dairy) or sire breed was the main effect. Lactation number, twinning incidence, stillbirth incidence (SB), and calf sex were included as fixed effects. The interactions of SB and twinning incidence and of SB and calf sex were included in the CE models. When grouped as breed type, beef-sired calves were carried for 0.9 d longer than dairy-sired calves (P < 0.05). However, gestation length of Charolais-sired calves was shorter (271 d) than Holstein-sired calves (272 d, P < 0.05) while Angus (273 d), Simmental (274 d), and Wagyu-sired (279 d) calves was longer (P < 0.05). Calving ease of Holsteins mated to beef bulls did not differ from those mated to Holstein bulls. The least squares means of CE score of animals mated to Holstein and Angus sires were greater than those mated to Simmental sires. Holsteins mated to Angus sires had greater CE scores than those mated to crossbred beef sires. Beef-sired calves were carried for the same or a greater number of days than Holstein-sired calves except for those sired by Charolais bulls. Using beef sires did not cause greater incidence of dystocia than Holstein sires. Simmental-sired calves reduced incidence of dystocia when compared with Holstein-sired calves.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86373 Watch 1462V Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on energy metabolism in dairy cows. 8 V. Pszczolkowski serotonin energy metabolism lactation V. Pszczolkowski1, M. Connelly1, A. Beard1, J. Laporta1, L. Hernandez1, S. Arriola Apelo1 1UW-Madison, Madison, WI Administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) has been shown to alter some aspects of energy metabolism in dairy cows, but neither 5-HTP’s effects on insulin sensitivity nor long-term effects on milk production have been studied in ruminants. Our objectives were to determine the effects of 5-HTP infusion on the response of dairy cows to an i.v. glucose tolerance test (GTT) and on lactation performance. Holstein cows (n = 24) were assigned to i.v. infusion of either 5-HTP (1 mg/kg/d) or saline in a crossover design. Treatments were given as a bolus infusion (1 h/d) via jugular catheters, with 3 d of infusion followed by 4 d of rest, repeated thrice over the 21-d period. The GTT was performed on d 3, right after the end of treatment infusions. Serial coccygeal and mammary vein blood samples were taken from d 17 to d 21. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, with repeated measures and Bonferroni adjustment when multiple time points were included. For the GTT, differential effects were observed between glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Glucose was not affected by 5-HTP (P > 0.1). Basal insulin (P = 0.004) and area under the curve (AUC, P = 0.04) were both decreased by 5-HTP. Both minimal (P = 0.02) and AUC (P = 0.03) NEFA were increased by 5-HTP treatment. Milk fat yield tended to be decreased (P = 0.06) by 5-HTP on infusion days, recovering on rest days. Over the 21-d period, 5-HTP cows lost body weight while control cows gained body weight (P < 0.01). Circulating insulin was lower and NEFA was higher on d 17 only immediately after the 5-HTP infusion (P < 0.001), returning to control within 3 h. However, mammary NEFA extraction remained elevated out to 3 h (P < 0.001). Neither circulating level nor mammary extraction of glucose was affected by treatment (P > 0.1). Given the glucose and insulin responses during the GTT, less insulin was required to clear the same glucose load for cows receiving 5-HTP. As well, 5-HTP blunted the effect of the GTT on NEFA, and 5-HTP temporarily improved mammary NEFA extraction on d 17. Overall, there are clear but transient effects of 5-HTP on energy metabolism, and more work is needed to elucidate their mechanisms.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86219 Watch 1463V Association between residual feed intake and reproduction in Holstein cows. 9 M. N. Marinho efficiency reproduction RFI M. N. Marinho1, J. E. P. Santos1 1University of Florida, Objectives were to evaluate associations between residual feed intake (RFI) in the first 105 d in milk (DIM) and reproduction by 300 DIM. Cows, 342 primiparous and 509 multiparous, in 9 experiments were fed complete diets and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and body weight (BW) were measured daily, whereas milk sampled from consecutive milkings twice weekly was analyzed for fat, protein, and lactose. The net energy for lactation (NEL) in milk was calculated to determine daily NEL secretion in milk. The body condition (BCS) was scored twice weekly. Body energy change (BEC) was calculated as: [2.88 + (1.036 x BCS)] x BW change. The NEL content of the diet was estimated: (NEL required for: maintenance + milk synthesis + BEC)/DMI. Blood sampled in the first 21 DIM was analyzed for plasma concentrations of fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models. DMI was regressed as a function of the fixed effects of NEL secreted in milk, BW0.75, BEC, and parity group, and the random effect of treatment within experiment. The residuals from the model defined RFI, and cows were categorized as Q1, most efficient, to Q4, least efficient. The association between RFI and reproduction was analyzed with the fixed effects of RFI quartile and morbidity, and the random effect of month-year of calving, and orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used. Improving efficiency was not associated with NEL secreted in milk or BEC, but less efficient cows extracted less energy from diets and had worse reproduction. Mechanisms that underly improved feed efficiency might favor reproduction in dairy cows. Table 1. Quartile of RFI and reproduction in Holstein cows
Item Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 SE
RFI,* kg/d −1.86 −0.45 0.40 1.90 0.05
DMI,* kg/d 18.4 20.1 21.0 22.0 0.3
Diet NEL,* Mcal/kg 1.89 1.77 1.72 1.59 0.02
Milk NEL, Mcal/d 26.0 26.4 26.9 26.7 0.5
BEC, Mcal/d −1.9 −1.3 −1.5 −2.0 0.6
NEFA,* mM 0.65 0.62 0.59 0.59 0.05
β-hydroxybutyrate,§ mM 0.72 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.05
Glucose, mM 3.95 4.00 4.04 3.94 0.07
Inseminated, % 98.3 99.1 97.7 99.1 1.0
Pregnancy per insemination,* % 32.9 31.0 31.7 25.4 2.3
Pregnant by 300 DIM,§ % 80.9 81.6 83.1 73.6 3.1
Median days open* 132 125 135 147
Hazard of pregnancy* 1.32 1.24 1.30 1.00
*Linear (P<0.05); §Quadratic (P<0.05).
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86199 Watch 1464V Effects of ruminal lipopolysaccharides on growth and fermentation end products of pure cultured bacteria. 10 E. Sarmikasoglou Megasphaera elsdenii Selenomonas ruminantium Streptococcus bovis E. Sarmikasoglou1, J. Ferrell2, J. Vinyard1, M. Flythe2, A. Tuanyok1, A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Lexington, KY Elevated levels of ruminal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been linked to ruminal acidosis; however, their structure may exhibit lower endotoxicity compared with LPS derived from species like Escherichia coli. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of E. coli-LPS (E. COLI), ruminal-LPS (RUM), and a 1:1 mixture of E. coli and ruminal-LPS (MIX) on the growth and fermentation end products of lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis JB1, Selenomonas ruminantium HD4) and lactate-utilizing bacterium (Megasphaera elsdenii T81). Rumen bacteria were obtained from the ruminal content (7 L) of a TMR (60:40; forage: concentrate) fed cow, extracted with phenol-water, purified with ultracentrifugation, and lyophilized. Concentrations of E. COLI (Escherichia coli O111:B4), RUM and MIX were 200,000 EU. Optical densities were recorded hourly except in the case of S. bovis JB1, for which measurements were collected every 30 min, until bacterial growth reached a plateau. Samples for ammonia-nitrogen and organic acids were collected at mid-exponential phase to represent continuous fermentation conditions. At least 3 biological replicates were done for each strain. Data were statistically analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS; in which treatments were analyzed as fixed effect and experimental runs analyzed as random effect. Results show that, compared with the control group (LPS-free anaerobic water; CTRL), the maximum specific growth rate of S. bovis JB1 decreased by approximately 19% and 23% when RUM and MIX were dosed, respectively. In addition, acetate and lactate concentrations in Se. ruminantium HD4 were reduced by approximately 30% and 18%; respectively, in response to MIX dosing. Compared with CTRL, lactate concentration from S. bovis JB1 was reduced approximately by 31% and 22% in response to RUM and MIX dosing; respectively. In summary, ruminal-LPS decreased the growth and lactate production of lactate-producing bacteria, potentially mitigating the development of acidosis, whereas it did not affect the growth of Megasphaera elsdenii T81.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86014 Watch 1465V Identifying on-farm factors associated with the level of free fatty acids in bulk tank milk. 11 H. M. Woodhouse milk fat free fatty acids non-foaming H. M. Woodhouse1, D. F. Kelton1, S. J. LeBlanc1, T. J. DeVries2 1University of Guelph Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2University of Guelph Department of Animal Biosciences, Guelph, ON, Canada Elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) in bulk tank milk are a recent concern in the dairy industry. FFA result from triglyceride hydrolysis and milk with > 1.2 mmol FFA/100g of milk fat is associated with undesirable characteristics, such as off-flavor, rancidity, reduced frothing ability, and inhibited cheese coagulation. Previous research indicates that elevated FFA are multifactorial, and this study aimed to identify the major contributing factors at the farm level. We hypothesized that automated milking systems (AMS), fat additives in the lactating ration, and a narrow pipeline diameter are associated with higher concentrations of FFA. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to identify on-farm factors associated with elevated FFA in bulk tank milk. A total of 300 Canadian dairy farms in Ontario (240) and British Columbia (60) were visited once to complete a survey, assess milking systems, and gather ration data. Bulk tank FFA values for each farm were obtained from the provinces’ milk marketing boards and a monthly FFA average around the farm visit date was used as the outcome variable. All 300 farms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were generated. 70 were tie-stall, 110 were freestall with parlors, and 120 were freestall with AMS. The mean bulk tank FFA was 0.83 mmol FFA/100g of fat (SD = 0.39, range = 0.26 to 3.67) and 9.0% (27) of herds had an FFA > 1.2 mmol/ 100g fat. A univariable linear regression analysis was conducted to identify explanatory variables significantly associated (P < 0.05) with bulk tank FFA. A multivariable linear regression model, including those significant factors, was subsequently constructed using backward elimination until all remaining variables were P < 0.05. Residual analyses were completed to ensure model assumptions were satisfied. Contrary to our hypothesis, milking pipeline diameter was not associated with FFA concentration. In the final multivariable linear regression model, tie-stall milking systems (β = 0.32, P < 0.001), increased milking frequency (β = 0.30 per milking, P < 0.001), and the use of fat supplements in the lactating ration (β = 0.09, P = 0.04) were associated with higher FFA concentration. Pre-cooling milk was associated with lower FFA (β = −0.16, P = 0.016). The final model adjusted R2 = 22.8% suggests that there are more factors affecting FFA that still need to be identified.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85919 Watch 1466V Lipolysis inhibition improves clinical outcomes in the treatment of ketosis in dairy cows: An individually randomized multigroup parallel controlled trial. 12 M. Chirivi   M. Chirivi1, D. Cortes1, A. O’Connor1, G. A. Contreras1 1Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Lipolysis dysregulation in adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows is a major risk factor for clinical ketosis (CK). The current treatment for CK is oral propylene glycol (PG) which stimulates gluconeogenesis. However, PG does not reduce lipolysis. Niacin (NIA) and cyclooxygenase inhibitors can inhibit lipolytic activity. Our goal was to evaluate CK recovery when using NIA and flunixin meglumine (FM) as lipolysis inhibitors and their effect on AT insulin sensitivity. Multiparous Jersey cows [n = 72; 7.1 (SD = 3.8) DIM; parity mode 3] were selected from a commercial dairy. Inclusion criteria were CK symptoms (hypophagia, lethargy, reduced rumination and milk yield) and hyperketonemia (BHB ≥ 1.2 mmol/L). Cows were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments T1) PG: 310g oral once per d for 5 d, T2) PG+NIA: 24g oral once per d for 3 d, T3) PG+NIA+FM: 1.1 mg/kg IV once per day for 3 d. Healthy control cows (CON n = 24) matched by lactation and DIM (±2 d) were sampled. Plasma BHB (mmol/L), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA mmol/L), and glucose (GLU mg/dL) concentrations were determined pre (PRE) and post-treatment (PT) at D3, D7, and D14. A subset of 6 cows were randomly selected from each group to collect subcutaneous AT samples (right flank) at PRE and D7. The AT explants were treated ex vivo with insulin (IN = 1µL/L) during lipolysis stimulation with isoproterenol (β-adrenergic). Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release in the media. A mixed-effect linear model was used to calculate group means ± SD. A logistic regression model was used to calculate ketosis recovery (BHB < 1.2mmol/L) and relative risk (RR) for recovery. At PRE, CK cows showed high BHB (1.93 ± 0.9) and NEFA (0.66 ± 0.3), but low GLU (56.86 ± 12.4) compared with CON (P < 0.001). The PT results are presented in the following order T1, T2, T3, and CON ± SD. Compared with T1 and T2, T3 reduced PT plasma BHB (1.35, 1.23, 0.89, 0.63 ± 0.97, P < 0.05), NEFA (0.56, 0.56, 0.48, 0.38 ± 0.18, P < 0.05) and increased PT GLU concentrations (66.5, 60.57, 66.17, 71.12 ± 10.4, P < 0.01). The RR for ketosis recovery in T3 cows were 1.5 (95% CI, 1.03–2.17) and 1.4 (95% CI, 0.99–1.97) relative to T1 and T2 respectively. At PRE, IN reduced lipolysis by 41 ± 8% in AT from CON, while no response was observed in CK cows (- 2.9 ± 4%). At D7, AT from T3 cows had a stronger response to IN reducing lipolysis by 36.5 ± 8% compared with T1 (26.9 ± 7%) and T2 (7.4 ± 8%) P < 0.05. These data suggest that including NIA and FM in CK treatment reduced lipolysis biomarkers and improved CK recovery and AT insulin sensitivity. Future studies will evaluate the mechanisms by which NIA and FM regulate AT's lipolytic responses during CK.
ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Production PhD Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86356 Watch 1467V Effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine and calcium salts enriched in omega-3 fatty acids on lactation in periparturient dairy cows. 13 T. L. France methionine omega-3 transition T. L. France1, K. S. Juarez-Leon1, A. Javaid1, M. G. Vogellus1, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding rumen-protected (RP)-methionine (Met) and calcium salts (CS) of fatty acids (FA) enriched without or with C20:5 and C22:6 (i.e., n3FA) on milk production in periparturient cows. In a study with a randomized complete block design, 79 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n = 19–20/diet): 1) Met unsupplemented (-Met) with CS palm oil not enriched in n3FA (-n3FA; 0% n3FA; EnerGII; Virtus Nutrition, USA), 2) Met supplemented (+Met; Smartamine M; Adisseo Inc., France) with -n3FA, 3) -Met with CS enriched in n3FA (+n3FA; 4% n3FA; EnerG-3; Virtus Nutrition], or 4) +Met with +n3FA from wk −4 before expected calving through wk 4 of lactation. Cows were fed corn silage-based total mixed rations, pre- and postpartum, which were formulated to provide Met at ≤ 0.96 or ≥ 1.13 g /Mcal metabolizable energy for -Met and +Met, respectively. CS were fed at 1.5% FA (% ration dry matter). Pre and post-calving data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SASv9.4. Pre-planned contrasts included: 1) effect of Met (-Met vs. +Met), 2) effect of n3FA (-n3FA vs. +n3FA), and 3) effect of co-supplementation (+Met/+n3FA vs. +Met/-n3FA and -Met/+n3FA). Although prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) was not modified by diet, +Met and +n3FA cows had greater postpartum DMI, relative to -Met and -n3FA, respectively (P < 0.05). Yields of energy-corrected milk (58.5 vs. 55.3 kg/d; ECM) and fat-corrected milk (FCM), milk protein % and yields were greater in +Met, relative to -Met (P < 0.05); milk fat yield and milk lactose % tended to be greater in +Met (P ≤ 0.08). Yields of ECM (58.1 vs. 55.7 kg/d), and milk fat, protein, and lactose yields, and lactose % were greater in +n3FA, relative to -n3FA (P < 0.05); FCM yields tended to be greater in +n3FA. Milk protein % and fold-change increase in ECM (wk 1 to 4) were greater (P ≤ 0.02), and milk fat % tended to be greater (P = 0.10), in +Met/+n3FA, relative to +Met/-n3FA and -Met/+n3FA. In conclusion, feeding transition cows RP-Met and CS enriched in n3FA enhanced ECM yields and milk composition.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 s9987                  
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85854 Watch 2395V Defining clinical diagnosis and treatment of puerperal metritis in dairy cows: A scoping review. 1 A. Garzon vaginal discharge cattle clinical definition A. Garzon1, G. Habing2, F. Lima1, N. Silva-del-Rio1,3, F. Samah1, R. Pereira1 1Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, University of California, Davis, Tulare, CA Puerperal metritis (PM) is a common infectious disease in dairy cattle. Currently there are discrepancies between clinical case definitions. The inconsistent criteria can result in disparities related to recommendations for treating cows, affecting judicious use of antimicrobials. Our objective was to systematically review literature for clinical signs used as diagnostic criteria, including local (e.g., vaginal discharge) and systemic signs of infection (fever). The PRISMA-ScR protocol was used to screen commonly used databases. One reviewer screened title/abstract for eligibility (n = 2,096) followed by full-text screening of articles (n = 396) by 2 reviewers to identify eligible articles (n = 174). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to evaluate the association among variables. The most frequently cited reference (37.5%) for the definition was published in 2006. In 40.2% of articles, no reference was provided. For the definition of PM, the vaginal discharge (VD) was described in terms of color, odor, and viscosity. Among colors, the terms used were red brown (61.4%), red (5.1%), brown (8.6%), or others (12.4%); VD color was not reported in 24.1% articles. The VD odor was described as fetid (75.8%), putrid (5.1%), foul (10.3%), or other (5.7%); and not mentioned in 7.4% of articles. The viscosity was described as watery (74.1%), purulent (27%), mucopurulent (8.6%), thin (4%), serous (2.8%) or abnormal (2.3%), and was not mentioned in 11.5%. Fever was included in 59.7% articles as a criterion for PM diagnosis. Fever was not used as diagnostic criteria in 39.6% of articles. Approaches used for VD evaluation included rectal palpation (37.3%), gloved hand (18.4%), Metricheck (9.8%) or speculum (5.7%); for 28.7% of articles were not mentioned. The lack of reporting on the data items charted for the review was a prevalent finding. This scoping review describes a disparity in robust and clear criteria used to diagnose PM in literature. Although select consensus articles are available, it is common for no references to be used, and further high-quality research is needed to identify a standard criterion for case definition.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86930 Watch 2399V Effects of dietary betaine supplementation and partial rumen content transplantation on metabolism in heat-stressed Holstein cows. 2 A. Javaid betaine metabolism methyl donor A. Javaid1, A. R. Gonzalez2, D. E. Rico3, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, 3CRSAD, Deschambault, QC, Canada Heat stress alters the rumen environment while modifying metabolism in cows, which may be influenced by dietary betaine supplementation. Twelve rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (39 ± 6.4 kg milk/d; 82 ± 27 DIM) were used in a split-plot design testing the effects of betaine and partial rumen content transplantation (PRCT) on measures of metabolic health and methyl donor metabolism during heat stress. The main plot was the level of dietary betaine (CON: unsupplemented; or BET: 100 g/d intraruminal betaine hydrochloride 95%; AB Vista, Canada). Within each plot, cows were randomly assigned to the following treatments 1) heat stress (HS), 2) thermoneutral pair-feeding (TNPF), or 3) HS with PRCT (HS+PRCT; 25% replacement of rumen contents from 4 donor cows in thermoneutrality; d 8–14) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 4 h relative to feeding time on d 0, 7, and 13. Data were analyzed in a mixed model including the fixed effects of plot, treatment, day, and their interactions. Pre- and postprandial plasma insulin concentrations were increased in HS by 65% and 44%, respectively, relative to TNPF on d 7 (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased by 55% and 51%, respectively on d 13 (both P = 0.06). In contrast, no differences between HS and HS+PRCT were detected on d 7 or 13. Pre-prandial total fatty acids (FA) were decreased in HS (P < 0.05), relative to TNPF. Pre- and postprandial plasma cholesterol decreased by 30% in HS, relative to TNPF on d 13 (P < 0.01), but did not differ between HS and HS+PRCT. Pre-prandial cholesterol tended to increase (P = 0.09), while pre-prandial triglycerides (P = 0.05) were decreased in BET, relative to CON. Plasma betaine was increased in BET, relative to CON (P < 0.01); whereas methionine was decreased (P = 0.03). Heat stress decreased the plasma concentrations of betaine (P < 0.01), and tended to decrease trimethylamine N-oxide (P = 0.10) in HS, relative to TNPF. Dietary betaine and PRCT modulate methyl donor metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Supported by FFAR.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86905 Watch 2400V Varying colostrum insulin ingestion does not affect blood metabolites or immunoglobulin G absorption in neonatal Holstein bulls but affects intestinal development. 3 K. S. Hare colostrum insulin neonate K. S. Hare1, K. Swanson2, M. Nagorske3, K. M. Wood1, M. A. Steele1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 3Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Bovine colostrum contains supraphysiological insulin concentrations (35 µg insulin/L) that are highly variable (5 to 263 µg insulin/L) between cows. Colostrum insulin may act as a mitogen within the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas consuming pharmacological insulin doses can induce hypoglycemia in neonatal calves and elevate insulin concentrations to potentially inhibit immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption. Thus, our objective was to investigate if varying colostral insulin concentrations influence GIT development, peripheral metabolism, and IgG absorption in neonatal Holstein bulls. Calves (46.3 ± 0.8 kg; n = 16/treatment) were removed from their dams and a catheter was placed in a jugular vein by 75 min postnatal to enable frequent blood collection. Calves were fed 3 colostrum meals (7%BW or 3.10 ± 0.02 L; 55 g IgG/L; 2, 14, and 26 h) that contained insulin at basal concentrations (BI; 16.8 µg/L) or supplemented with insulin to achieve either a 5 × (5BI; 83.4 µg/L) or 10 × (10BI; 167.5 µg/L) increase in colostrum insulin respective to basal concentrations. A subset of calves (n = 8/treatment) were killed at 30 h postnatal to evaluate GIT development. Postprandial plasma glucose and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration curves differed (time: P < 0.01) over time, indicating that gluconeogenesis began 6 h after the first feeding but not the second feeding. Blood glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and IgG concentrations were not influenced (P ≤ 0.95) by dietary insulin treatment. Relative rumen mass (g/kg BW) was lesser (P = 0.01) for 5BI and 10BI calves relative to BI, whereas relative kidney mass (g/kg BW) linearly increased (P = 0.02) with insulin supplementation. Ileal villi length linearly increased (P = 0.003) and distal jejunal villi width, crypt depth, and crypt width tended to linearly increase (P ≤ 0.10) with greater colostral insulin content. These data indicate that varying colostral insulin concentrations do not influence postprandial blood metabolites or IgG absorption in Holstein bulls but may alter neonatal intestinal development.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86649 Watch 2401V Calcium dynamics and associated patterns of milk constituents in early lactation multiparous Holsteins. 4 J. A. Seminara subclinical hypocalcemia calcium Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy J. A. Seminara1, K. R. Callero1, I. R. Frost1, R. M. Martinez1, H. A. McCray1, A. M. Reid1, D. M. Barbano1, J. A. A. McArt1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY At the onset of lactation, increased physiological demand for calcium creates a homeostatic challenge for transitioning dairy cows. Dynamic responses to this challenge classify cows into 4 groups based on serum total calcium concentrations (tCa) at 1 and 4 DIM. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) at 1 and 4 DIM or 4 DIM only, classified as persistent (pSCH) or delayed SCH (dSCH), respectively, are at a greater risk of adverse health events and suboptimal production than cows experiencing SCH at 1 DIM only or not at all, classified as transient SCH (tSCH) and normocalcemic (NC), respectively. Our prospective cohort study objectives were to 1) characterize milk constituent profiles for cows in each calcium group using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of milk samples and 2) investigate the potential of these methods for classifying cows into groups at a clinically useful time point. We collected blood from 345 multiparous Holsteins on a dairy farm in Cayuga County, NY at 1 and 4 DIM, with proportional milk samples collected from 3 through 10 DIM. Diagnostic tCa cut-points were derived using receiver operating characteristic curves based on health and production outcomes and were 2.03 mmol/L at 1 DIM and 2.25 mmol/L at 4 DIM. Individual milk constituents at 3 DIM were compared between calcium groups using linear regression with the fixed effect of parity and a parity-group interaction. Calcium group differences were found for daily milk yield (P < 0.001), lactose % (P < 0.001), protein % (P < 0.001), milk urea nitrogen (P = 0.03), de novo fatty acid (FA) g/100 g milk (P < 0.001), mixed FA relative % (rel%, P = 0.04), preformed FA g/100 g milk (P = 0.03), and preformed FA rel% (P < 0.001). Calcium groups differed by parity for de novo FA rel% (P = 0.03) and milk predicted blood nonesterified FA (P = 0.02). Though further work is needed to overcome the limitation of measurement on a single farm, our conclusions provide evidence that calcium dynamic groups may be differentiated using milk FTIR methods.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86617 Watch 2402V Changes in uterine metabolome associated with metritis development and cure in lactating Holstein cows. 5 E. B. de Oliveira metabolomics uterine health disease E. B. de Oliveira1,2, J. V. M. Pereira2,3, D. R. Williams1,2, H. F. Monteiro1, P. Menta4, V. S. Machado4, F. S. Lima1 1Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 2Veterinary Medicine Teaching Research Center, Tulare, CA, 3Federal University of Viçosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil, 4Department of Veterinary Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX The objective was to characterize the changes in the uterine metabolome associated with metritis development, cure, and antimicrobial treatment. This prospective cohort study was conducted in 2 dairies located in CA and TX. Vaginal discharge was evaluated and collected using the Metricheck device. Cows were examined for metritis at 4, 7, and 9 DIM. Cows with fetid, watery, and reddish-brown uterine discharge were classified as having metritis and randomized to receive ceftiofur (n = 10) or remain untreated (n = 7). The cure was defined as an absence of fetid, watery, reddish-brown uterine discharge at 14 d after enrollment. Vaginal discharge samples were collected from 86 cows within 6 h after parturition, at 4 and 7 DIM, at metritis diagnosis, and at 4 and 7 d after metritis diagnosis. Cows with metritis (MET; n = 17) were paired with counterparts without metritis (NoMET) of similar DIM and parity (n = 49). Uterine metabolome was evaluated using untargeted gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Metabolomic data were analyzed using the MetaboAnalyst software. Data were log-transformed and auto-scaled for normalization. Univariate analysis, including fold change, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were performed. At calving, 12 metabolites were upregulated, and 1 was downregulated in NoMET compared with MET. The number of significant different metabolites (P < 0.05) at 4 and 7 DIM were 51 and 74, respectively. After metritis development, 3 and 5 metabolites were upregulated in cows that cured and in cows that received treatment and cured, respectively. In all scenarios, the metabolites lignoceric, malic, and maleic acids, ornithine, and hypotaurine, which are associated with arginine/aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and taurine/purine metabolism, were upregulated in NoMET cows. This study demonstrates that metritis was associated with changes in the uterine metabolome. Also, cows not recovering from metritis had significant changes in the uterine metabolome independent of receiving ceftiofur or remained untreated.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86446 Watch 2403V Transcriptome analysis reveals the essential roles of alternative splicing regulation in heat-stressed Holstein cows. 6 L. Hu heat stress dairy cow alternative splicing L. Hu1,2, Q. Xu3, G. Guo4, L. F. Brito2, Y. Wang1 1China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 2Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 3Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Sunlon Livestock Development Company Limited, Beijing China Abstract: Heat stress negatively impacts the production and health of dairy cows, which is more concerning as the severity and frequency of high-temperature events increase. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mechanism influencing transcriptome diversity and consequently, the molecular regulation of heat stress response. The current study was conducted to identify changes in AS and its potential functions in dairy cows following heat stress. A total of 36 healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected as experimental animals, and their blood samples were collected in the heat-stress period (HS, n = 19) and thermoneutral period (Non-HS, n = 17), respectively, followed by paired-end RNA-sequencing. All clean reads were mapped to the latest bovine reference genome using the STAR v2.7.5c. The AS events were identified based on the changes in intron usage using the Leafcutter v0.2.9 package. Differential alternative splicing (DAS) between Non-HS and HS was determined with the threshold of adjusted P-value <0.05 after Bonferroni correction. We then performed the gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses. In total, 3,470 DAS events corresponding to 3,143 unique genes were identified, among which the top 10 DAS contained 11 genes, including TYROBP, AGTRAP, MAP3K8, RasGAP3L, BCAP31, JPT1, NT5C, CCDC107, ILK, HNRNPF, and VAMP5. Functional annotation for all DAS genes showed that they were mainly involved in the immune system, metabolism, gene expression, and cellular transportation. Of these, 94 genes and 55 genes were significantly enriched in the mRNA splicing and spliceosomal complex, respectively, suggesting that DAS events could regulate the functions of splicing factors themselves. In addition, only 87 DAS genes were determined to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating the complementary functions of DEGs and DAS genes in response to heat stress. In summary, AS plays a crucial role in changing the transcriptome diversity of heat-related genes in multiple pathways, and provides a different regulation mechanism from DEGs.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86419 Watch 2404V Effect of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) strategy and level of dietary calcium on peripartum mineral status of multiparous Holstein cows. 7 G. Graef calcium dietary cation-anion difference transition cow G. Graef1, A. Kerwin1, L. Ferro1, S. Ordaz-Puga1, C. Ryan1, T. Westhoff1, K. Glosson2, K. Zanzalari2, J. Chapman2, T. Overton1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ Periparturient hypocalcemia can be mitigated by reducing prepartum dietary DCAD; however, neither the extent of DCAD adjustment nor the level of dietary Ca fed with negative DCAD have been evaluated fully. The objective was to determine the effect of 2 levels of DCAD and 2 levels of dietary Ca on cow peripartum mineral status. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 98) were enrolled in a covariate period 32 d before expected calving. Cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments at 26 d before expected calving in a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Main effects were DCAD (PART: −2.6 mEq/100 g DM vs. FULL: −10.3 mEq/100 g DM) and dietary Ca (HIGH: 1.50% vs. LOW: 0.70% DM). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Urinary ammonium (UNH4) and Ca (UCa) excretion were analyzed peripartum at −14, −7, 1, 2, 3 DIM. Blood ionized Ca (iCa), serum total Ca (tCa), Mg, and P were measured once weekly prepartum and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 DIM. Statistical analysis was conducted using mixed models and repeated-measures analysis when applicable. Interactions of main effects were not significant. Back-transformed means showed cows fed FULL had greater prepartum UNH4 than cows fed PART (0.7 vs. 0.3 mg/L; P < 0.01); cows fed LOW tended to have higher prepartum UNH4 (0.4 vs. 0.5 mg/L; P = 0.10). Cows fed FULL excreted more UCa g/d (7.94 vs. 4.38 g/d; P < 0.01); cows fed LOW excreted more UCa g/d (6.88 vs. 5.45 ± 0.49 g/d; P = 0.04). Urinary Ca:creatinine (Ca:Creat) ratio was greater for cows fed FULL (0.34 vs. 0.19 ± 0.02; P < 0.01). The iCa and P during d 0–3 tended to be increased for cows fed FULL (0.98 vs. 0.94 ± 0.02 mM and 1.51 vs. 1.42 ± 0.04 mM; P = 0.07 and P = 0.09 respectively). Cows fed HIGH had lower iCa and tCa during d 0–3 than cows fed LOW (0.97 vs. 1.01 ± 0.02 mM and 2.10 vs. 2.20 ± 0.04 mM; P = 0.02 and P = 0.04). Overall, prepartum UCa, Ca:Creat and UNH4 were greater in cows fed FULL compared with PART but were not affected by dietary Ca.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86429 Watch 2405V Effects of α-amylase enhanced corn silage on silage fermentation and total-tract nutrient digestibility early post-harvest when fed with different starch concentrations to lactating dairy cows. 8 K. C. Krogstad forage carbohydrates digestibility K. C. Krogstad1, B. J. Bradford1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Forages constitute ~50% of dairy lactation rations, making forage genetics critical for sustainable milk production. Corn silage with enhanced endogenous α-amylase activity (Enogen [ENO], Syngenta Seeds LLC, Downers Grove, IL) may improve silage fermentation profile and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. We conducted an 8-week randomized complete-block experiment with 44 cows to evaluate effects of corn silage hybrid and dietary starch concentration on total-tract nutrient digestibility. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design; factors were ENO corn silage or control (CON; same background hybrid) included at 40% of diet DM, and 25% (LO) or 30% (HI) dietary starch. Silage was fed 41 d after ensiling and samples were collected weekly during the experiment to assess fermentation profiles. Digestibility was analyzed with a linear mixed model including corn silage, starch, week, and their interactions as fixed effects and block and cow as random effects. Fermentation profiles were analyzed using t-tests. Silage dry matter was similar (P = 0.32) but starch was 40.4 ± 1.38% for ENO and 37.5 ± 3.35% for CON (P = 0.06). Total VFA and acetic acid concentrations were greater in ENO silage (P < 0.04). Silage pH was 3.9 ± 0.06 and 4.0 ± 0.12 for ENO and CON, respectively (P = 0.26). Dry matter digestibility (DMD) was affected by the interaction of silage × week (P < 0.01); ENO had greater DMD during wk 1 (P < 0.01) but not wk 6 (P = 0.22). An interaction of silage, starch, and week (P < 0.01) affected NDF digestibility (NDFD). LO consistently had greater NDFD than HI (P < 0.01) and ENO improved NDFD by 8.0 ± 0.93% in wk 1 (P < 0.01) but its effect diminished to 2.4 ± 0.93% in wk 6 (P = 0.06). Starch and CP digestibility were affected by interactions of silage × week (P < 0.01); starch and CP digestibility were greater for ENO during wk 1 (P < 0.07) but not during wk 6 (P > 0.22). Use of an α-amylase enhanced corn silage improved DM, starch, NDF, and CP digestibility after 6 wk but not after 11 wk of ensiling.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86380 Watch 2406V Effects of enriching maternal colostrum with bovine dried colostrum replacer on IgG absorption in newborn male calves. 9 A. J. Lopez calf colostrum IgG enrichment A. J. Lopez1, H. McCarthy1, T. T. Yohe1, J. Echeverry-Munera1, M. Nagorske2, D. L. Renaud3, M. A. Steele1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, Animal Science and Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2The Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelp, Guelph, ON, Canada Increased serum IgG levels in newborns require ingestion of a higher total IgG mass. This could be achieved by adding colostrum replacer (CR) to maternal colostrum (MC). The objective of this study was to investigate if low and medium-quality MC can be enriched with bovine dried CR to achieve adequate serum IgG levels. Male Holstein calves (n = 80;16/TRT) with a birth BW of 40–52 kg were randomly enrolled to be fed 3.8L of: 30 g/L IgG MC (C1), 60 g/L IgG MC (C2), 90 g/L IgG MC (C3), C1 enriched with 551 g of CR (60 g/L; 30–60CR), or C2 enriched with 620 g of CR (90 g/L: 60–90CR). All MC and CR were provided by the Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd. (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). A subset of 40 calves (8/TRT) had a catheter placed and were fed colostrum with acetaminophen to estimate abomasal emptying rate per h (AB). Baseline blood samples were taken followed by samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h relative to initial colostrum feeding. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS v9.4. Results for all measurements are presented in the following order: C1, C2, C3, 30–60CR, and 60–90CR, unless otherwise stated. Serum IgG levels at 24 h were different (P < 0.01): 11.8, 24.3, 35.7, 19.9, and 26.9 mg/mL ± 1.02, respectively. Serum IgG at 24 h increased when enriching C1 to 30–60CR (P < 0.01) but not from C2 to 60–90CR (P = 0.40). Apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) values were different (P < 0.01): 42.4, 45.1, 43.2, 36.3, and 33.4% ± 1.93, respectively. Enriching C1 to 30–60CR did not decrease AEA (P = 0.06), but it was reduced by enriching C2 to 60–90CR (P < 0.01). The AB values were also different (P < 0.01): 0.2, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, and 0.1 ± 0.00; respectively. Enriching C1 to 30–60CR or C2 to 60–90CR reduced AB (P < 0.01). However, 30–60CR and 60–90CR have a similar AB as the reference meal of C3 (P > 0.05). Even though AB was reduced for 30–60CR, results indicate that C1 has the potential to be enriched and achieve acceptable serum IgG levels at 24 h without affecting AEA.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86355 Watch 2407V In vitro effects of sodium acetate and sodium propionate on the fermentation profile of dairy cows fed different forage-to-concentrate ratios. 10 J. Scott methane diet fermentation J. Scott1, R. Kohn1 1University of Maryland College Park, College Park. MD The concentrate to forage is a key factor influencing ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, enteric methane (CH4) production, and overall efficiency of dairy cow diets. This study was designed to investigate the role of thermodynamics and diet on enteric CH4 production and fermentation profiles in vitro. Rumen fluid was collected from 4 lactating Holstein cows fed either a high-forage (HF) or high-concentrate (HC) diet for 21 d. Rumen fluid (30 mL) from each cow was incubated in anaerobic glass bottles (n = 32) with Timothy hay (0.14 ± 0.01 g) and media (10 mL) containing sodium acetate (NaAc) at 4 levels (0, 90, 120, 180 mM) or sodium propionate (NaProp = 0, 40, 60 or 100 mM). Airtight glass bottles were incubated at 39°C and sampled for VFA, H2, CH4 and CO2 after 10 min of shaking (T = 0) and again after 4 h. The mixed model (JMP 14.1, SAS Institute Inc.) applied separately to acetate and propionate addition was Y = Diet (Cow) + Level + Diet*Level + Error, where level is the amount of acetate or propionate added. Initial propionate concentrations were higher (P = 0.003) for HC diets (27.85 mM) than HF diet (18.05 mM) and propionate concentration decreased (P = 0.03) for rumen fluid from HC diets unless NaAc was added. The addition of NaAc increased propionate (P = 0.008) and butyrate(P = 0.02) rate of formation (ROF) only for HC diet. Addition of NaAc to rumen fluid from HC-fed cattle decreased CH4 ROF (P = 0.04) from 0.043 to 0.025, 0.023 and 0.013 mM 40mL−1 hour−1. Incubating HF rumen fluid with NaAc, had no effect on rates of formation of VFA or gases. Adding NaProp tended (P = 0.07) to increase CH4 and butyrate formation on HC, and there was a diet by NaProp level interaction (P < 0.03) with CO2 formation decreasing by level for HC but increasing by level for FC. Consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, adding acetate shifted fermentation away from acetogenesis and toward propionate and butyrate production in the cows fed a high-concentrate diet. There was only a tendency for added propionate to shift fermentation toward other H2 utilizers such as CH4 and butyrate.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85973 Watch 2408V Effect of inclusion of different essential oils on wet corn gluten feed at ensiling. 11 L. Pereira aerobic stability by-product corn L. Pereira1,2, P. Rezamand2, B. Agustinho2, G. Vigne1, D. Volpi1, Q. Tavares1, N. Mello1, P. Schmidt1, M. Zopollatto1 1Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 2University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) is a by-product from corn processing produced during the extraction of starch and oil. Therefore, it contains a high concentration of protein and fiber and can be used in dairy cow diets. For preserving the quality of WCGF, it is necessary to use additives when it is stored as a silage. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of the inclusion of different essential oils on the fermentative losses, aerobic stability, and pH during aerobic exposure The experiment was a completely randomized design with 6 treatments: Control (without additive), thymol, carvacrol, Eugenol, Cinnamaldehyde, and Allyl with 99% purity (150, 400, 350, 100, 30 mg/kg of fresh matter of each respective compounds, respectively) with 5 replicates per treatment, totaling 30 experimental units. The additives were applied and homogenized to the material at ensiling. Each experimental unit consisted of one 8-L plastic bucket with a density of approximately 748 m3/ ton. Silos were opened 35 d after ensiling to evaluate the dry matter, fermentative losses, aerobic stability, and pH. Samples were collected after opening the silos (d 0) and every 2 d during 10 d of aerobic exposure. Data were analyzed using SAS with significance declared at P ≤ 0.05. Silage with carvacrol showed a greater dry matter (DM) content than silage with Allyl (41.9% DM vs. 40.8% DM, P < 0.03). Eugenol inclusion increased the production of effluents when compared with thymol (11.76% vs. 6.14%, P < 0.01), and had a greater DM loss when compared with carvacrol (7.96% vs. 5.63%, P < 0.04). Carvacrol inclusion increased the aerobic stability compared with that for Control (22 vs. 15 h, P < 0.01). The Allyl inclusion caused a greater gas production compared with that for carvacrol (P < 0.01; 6.9% vs. 4.84). However, losses after aerobic stability was not affected by the additives inclusion (P = 0.70). There was an treatment × days of aerobic exposure interaction on the pH (P < 0.01). Overall, the inclusion of essential oils at ensiling of WCGF affected the fermentative losses, aerobic stability, and pH during the aerobic exposure.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85997 Watch 2409V Heat stress and total-tract gastrointestinal permeability in lactating dairy cows. 12 M. Ellett leaky gut sucralose M. Ellett1, M. Hanigan1, C. Parsons1, R. Rhoads1, K. Daniels1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA To distinguish between direct and indirect effects of heat stress (HS) on total-tract gastrointestinal permeability (GIP), 16 multiparous Holstein cows (100 + 14 DIM; 632 + 12 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete-block design experiment with 2 cohorts. Cows were fed a TMR to meet nutrient requirements twice daily (0900h and 1800h). Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. After 5 d acclimation to tie-stall housing, cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: pair-fed thermoneutral (PFTN, n = 8) or HS (n = 7). In period 1 (4 d), both treatments had ad libitum access to TMR and were exposed to a daily temperature-humidity index (THI) of 64. In period 2 (4 d), HS cows were exposed to cyclical heat stress with daily THI from 74 to 80. In period 2 for PFTN, DMI was matched to HS and THI remained 64. Cows were milked twice daily at 0700 and 1900 h. Milk yield and composition were recorded for each milking. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates were recorded before each milking. Body weight was recorded on d 4 of each period. Urine recovery of orally dosed sucralose (0.4 g sucralose/kg BW; diluted in water, 2 L/cow) was used to measure GIP on d 3 of each period. All urine produced within 24 h of dosing was collected by catheter. Sucralose concentrations in pooled 24 h urine samples were determined by HPLC-MS; limit of detection was 25 µg/L. A repeated-measures analysis was used to determine fixed effects of day, treatment, cohort and 2-way interactions; period 1 data were used as covariates for period 2. The sucralose model did not include day effects. The random effect in both models was cow within treatment and cohort. HS lowered DMI (30%) and ECM (24%), and elevated rectal temperatures and respiration rates. Neither urine volume nor sucralose concentration were impacted by HS. Thus, 24h urine sucralose recovery did not depend on treatment and averaged 31 mg but large individual variation was noted. Urine sucralose recovery is reported to increase with increased GIP in nonruminants. Under conditions of this experiment, 4 d of cyclical HS did not directly cause leaky gut in dairy cattle; perhaps with more cows per treatment a difference could be noted.
ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition Poster Competition ADSA Production PhD Poster Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t85991 Watch 2410V Effects of magnesium sources and buffer inclusion on ruminal microbiome and fermentation in dairy cows. 13 R. R. Lobo alpha-diversity butyrate mineral source R. R. Lobo1, J. A. Arce-Cordero1, M. N. Marinho1, S. So2, A. D. Ravelo3, B. C. Agustinho4, J. Vinyard1, M. L. Johnson1, M. Soltis5, E. Sarmikasoglou1, H. F. Monteiro6, A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2National University of Battambang, Battambang, Cambodia, 3University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 4University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 5University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TX, 6University of California, Davis, CA The objective of this study was to evaluate Mg sources and buffer inclusion on the ruminal microbiome and fermentation in high-producing dairy cows. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and DIM into 5 blocks with 4 cows each in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Within blocks, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) MgO; 2) MgO + Na sesquicarbonate (MgO+); 3) Mg proprietary mineral formulation (PMF); 4) PMF + Na sesquicarbonate (PMF+). For 60, days cows were fed a corn silage-base diet (16.3% CP, 26.8% NDF, 31.8% starch, 0.67% Ca, and 0.27% Mg, on a DM basis) in individual Calan gates and treatments were top dressed. On d 27, 37, 47, and 57, ruminal content was collected via orogastric tube, for analyses of microbiome, VFA, lactate, and NH3-N. The microbiome was analyzed using a metabarcoding technique. Data were analyzed using SAS and the model included fixed effects of Mg source, buffer use, and interaction, and random effects of block and cow. Orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the effects of Mg source, buffer, and their interaction (S × B). The least squares means of the evaluated parameters are summarized in Table 1. Using the Shannon index, an increased diversity of the ruminal microbiome was observed in cows fed PMF. There was an interaction S × B for total VFA concentration. An increase in lactate, NH3-N, and butyrate was observed for animals fed PMF. An increase on butyrate was observed for animals fed buffer. In summary, the replacement of MgO with PMF had a positive effect on ruminal butyrate concentration and increased the ruminal microbiome diversity regardless of buffer supplementation. Table 1.
Item Treatment SEM P-value1
MgO MgO+ PMF PMF+ Source Buffer S × B
mM                
 Total VFA 93.2 103.3 102.1 99.6 3.07 0.42 0.25 0.04
 Lactate 0.24 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.01 0.07 0.32 0.14
 NH3-N 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.01 0.03 0.77 0.85
Molar proportion, %                
 Acetate 61.1 60.9 61.1 62.5 1.08 0.40 0.58 0.42
 Propionate 26.5 26.4 26.0 23.1 1.36 0.16 0.28 0.29
 Butyrate 8.86 9.33 9.41 10.7 0.42 0.03 0.05 0.32
Alpha-diversity                
 Chao1 358 370 382 412 29 0.54 0.45 0.76
 Shannon 4.17 4.24 4.34 4.68 0.14 0.05 0.18 0.35
1P-values of the contrasts for main effects of Mg source (S), buffer (B), and interaction (S × B).
ADSA Southern Branch Graduate Student Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Southern Section Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 s9985                  
ADSA Southern Branch Graduate Student Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Southern Section Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86180 Watch 1468V Effects of heat stress on inflammation and intestinal integrity in dairy calves. 1 Z. Yu heat stress tight junction inflammation Z. Yu1, J. M. Cantet1, A. G. Rius1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN Heat exposure can increase intestinal permeability and induce local and systemic inflammatory pathways in mammals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate how prolonged heat stress affects the integrity of intestinal epithelium and the expression of inflammatory response-related components in Holstein bull calves. Twelve week-old calves were individually housed in temperature-controlled rooms and assigned to 1) heat stress conditions and fed ad libitum (HS, ~36.0°C of ambient temperature for ~10 h/d, 26 to 45% relative humidity, n = 8) and 2) thermoneutral conditions and restricted starter intake (TN, constant ambient temperature of 19.5°C, 28 to 46% relative humidity, n = 8) for 7 d. Blood samples were collected to measure concentrations of plasma cytokines to assess the tone of systemic inflammation. Calves were euthanized and samples of jejunum, ileum and colon were harvested and flash-frozen to subsequently evaluate gene and protein expressions (RT-qPCR and automated Western Blots), activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and cytokine concentrations (Multiplex immunoassays). Plasma cytokine analysis were conducted using conventional ELISA. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure in SAS with treatment as the fixed effect. Relative to TN, HS increased the concentration of interleukin 36 receptor antagonist by 3.5-fold (P < 0.05). Conversely, HS decreased concentrations of IL-1α in jejunum and IL-6 in plasma (36% and 33%, respectively; P < 0.05) The expression of TJP1 decreased 70% in jejunum of HS calves (P < 0.05); however, the expression of HP2 tended (P = 0.098) to increase in HS calves. The expression of HSF-1 which plays a key role in the regulation of heat shock response was decreased in jejunum of heat-stressed calves (48.1%; P < 0.05). The activity of MPO was not affected by treatments. Our results suggest that 7 d of heat stress elicited an anti-inflammatory response which may alleviate some of the negative effects of heat stress in dairy calves.
ADSA Southern Branch Graduate Student Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Southern Section Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86274 Watch 1469V Effects of dry matter concentration, microbial inoculant and ensiling duration on fermentative profile and aerobic stability of annual ryegrass silages. 2 F. X. Amaro cool-season grass Lactobacillus buchneri Lactococcus lactis F. X. Amaro1, K. G. Arriola1, L. Mu1, S. Farooq1, C. A. N. de Guzman1, H. Sultana1, A. O. Oyebade1, A. T. Adesogan1, M. Wallau2, D. Vyas1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry matter concentration (DM), microbial inoculant (MI), ensiling duration (ED) and their interactions (DM × MI, DM × ED, MI × ED, DM × MI × ED) on fermentative parameters and aerobic stability of ryegrass silages. Study design was a completely randomized with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were 2 levels each for DM (Low vs. High; 30 and 40% DM, respectively), MI (Control vs. Inoculant), and ED (30 vs. 90d). Harvested forage was allowed to wilt until reaching Low and High DM levels. Wilted forage was chopped and treated with either MI (1.5 × 105 cfu of Lactobacilus buchneri LB1819 and Lactococcus lactis O224/g of wet forage, SiloSolve FC) or the same amount of distilled water. Forage was ensiled in vacuum bags for 30 and 90 d. Silage samples were collected and dried for DM and DM recovery estimation. Fresh samples were diluted to 1:10 (silage:0.1% peptone water, wt/vol) and mixed for 1 min in a stomacher blender. Yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were counted using selective media; malt extract agar and MRS agar, respectively. Aerobic stability was estimated with dataloggers that measured temperature every 30 min. Silages were considered spoiled when internal temperature increased 2°C relative to ambient temperature. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS for main effects of DM, MI, ED, and their interaction. Significance was declared when P < 0.05 while tendency was declared when 0.10 > P > 0.05. Longer ED increased silage pH (3.69 vs. 4.11; P < 0.01) while tendencies were observed for DM × MI and DM × ED interactions. Dry matter and MI increased LAB counts, while ED decrease them (P < 0.01), however, interactions DM × ED and MI × ED were significant (P < 0.05). Microbial inoculant and High DM increased silage aerobic stability (145.3 vs. 213.9 h and 147 vs. 212.2 h, respectively; P < 0.05). Ammonia-N decreased with High DM (1.01 vs. 0.77 % of DM; P < 0.05). In conclusion, microbial inoculation and High DM improved aerobic stability of silages with no changes on DM recovery, pH, and yeast counts.
ADSA Southern Branch Graduate Student Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Southern Section Oral Competition (Graduate) 1/1/2000 0:00 t86684 Watch 1470V Dry period environmental impact on colostrum volume and quality. 3 K. Alward THI photoperiod colostrum K. Alward1, A. Nin-Velez1, J. Duncan1, R. Cockrum1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Proper dry period management is critical to produce high quality and volume of colostrum post-calving. Failure of passive transfer from inadequate quality or quantity colostrum occurs in 19% of calves and accounts for 1.79 million pre-weaned calf deaths per year. We hypothesized that seasonal and environmental variations impact colostrum volume and quantity in dry cows housed on pasture. To test this hypothesis, colostrum data were collected from Jersey cows (n = 177) and Holstein cows (n = 150) from 3 farms in Virginia in 2018 and 2019 and compared with the photoperiod length and THI that the dams were exposed to during the dry period. All farms had similar diets and management procedures. Dry period length ranged from 30 to 90 d with an average of 58.1. Daily light exposure and average daily THI was determined via local weather station sunrise and sunset data and temperature and humidity data respectively. At calving, colostrum volume was measured, and quality tested with a Brix refractometer. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 and PROC MIXED was used to determine the effect of photoperiod and THI on colostrum volume and Brix score. Random effects included were farm, breed, calving year, parity, season and dry period length. Day length averaged 763.5 ± 98.2 min with a range of 581.7 to 890.0. THI averaged 56.2 ± 18.8 with a range of 24.7 to 79.0. THI did not affect colostrum volume or Brix score (P < 0.10). Photoperiod was significant (P = 0.01) for colostrum volume and trending for Brix (P = 0.07), with the top 50% of animals by average photoperiod exposure producing more colostrum but having a reduced Brix score. The top 50% averaged 17.0 lbs. ± 0.7 for colostrum volume and 21.9% ± 0.4 for Brix, while low THI animals averaged 15.6 lbs. ± 0.8 and 24.6% ± 0.3 for colostrum volume and Brix. This data indicates that environmental variations may not play a role in colostrum quality, but rather other cow factors are more important. In addition, photoperiod may impact colostrum volume, but not THI. However, the lack of extreme THI to induce heat stress (>80) due to location of the study may mask the role of THI in colostrum production.
Dairy Records Management Workshop In-Person Workshop NULL 6/19/2022 8:00 s10019                  
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 s9991                  
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t85877 Watch 2000M Efficacy of bacteriophage biocontrol of Escherichia coli in soft and hard raw milk cheese during production and storage. 1 S. Kandil food safety food-borne Egyptian cheese S. Kandil1,2, J. Powles1, K. Farag1, L. McIntyre1 1Harper Adams University, Newport, United Kingdom, 2Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Raw milk cheeses such as Karish and Ras are among the most consumed soft and hard cheeses in Egypt and have been linked to numerous E. coli outbreaks. However, improving their safety without compromising their sensorial quality requires an alternative to chemical antimicrobials. Bacteriophages are a promising natural tool that can specifically kill dairy pathogens without affecting the beneficial microbiota. This work aimed to quantify inactivation of E. coli during Karish and Ras manufacture and storage using previously characterized broad-host-range E. coli phage NCIMB 10360. To mimic Egyptian production conditions, Karish and Ras were manufactured in triplicate from temperature-abused raw skimmed and raw whole cows’ milk, respectively, with initial microbial populations of 5 to 6 log cfu/mL. Milks were inoculated with 104 cfu/mL E. coli NCIMB 10243 and 108 pfu/mL phage; control cheeses without phage addition were also manufactured. In Karish, phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) inoculated and naturally present E. coli to 2.2 log cfu/g in curd (after 24 h), compared with control (6.6 log cfu/g). A continuous reduction (P < 0.05) to 1.3 log cfu/g was achieved at the end of 15 d of storage at 4°C, whereas 5.3 log cfu/g E. coli was still detected in control. In Ras, a reduction (P < 0.05) to 2.6 log cfu/g of inoculated and naturally present E. coli occurred in curd (after 3 h) compared with control (6.3 log cfu/g). At the end of 90 d of ripening at 9 - 12°C and 85% relative humidity, E. coli had continued to reduce (P < 0.05) to 2 log cfu/g, while 4.3 log cfu/g was present in control. Despite pH reductions to 4.2 and 5.9 in Karish and Ras cheese, respectively, it is noteworthy that a phage titer loss of only 2 log pfu/g occurred in the presence and absence of E. coli. This research shows that bacteriophages can be applied as effective biocontrol agents against E. coli without affecting the cheese fermentation process. To our knowledge, this is the first study focused on the use of E. coli phages as a biocontrol agent in raw milk cheese manufacture.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86040 Watch 2001M Monitoring heat-induced conformational changes and binding between milk fat globule membrane and β-lactoglobulin using quartz crystal microbalance. 2 S. Fishel   S. Fishel1, J Ortega-Anaya1, H. Huellemeier1, R. Jiménez-Flores1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has proteins and lipids linked to neurodevelopment and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) has essential amino acids and enhances immune function. Individually, these compounds have health benefits. It is unclear how thermal processing influences intermolecular association, important to understand when developing products and elucidating mechanism of action on health. The objective of this work was to explore effect of temperature on MFGM and β-LG interactions via quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measuring changes in molecular interactions by shifts in frequency and dissipation. The quartz crystal’s frequency changes with thickness measuring mass ad- and desorption. The sensor oscillates and energy lost from dampening corresponds to film rigidity. Native MFGM and β-LG were evaluated at 25–80°C (n = 3), 50 min. Analysis of variance compares effect of temperature on difference in frequency (ΔF = ΔFβ-LG-ΔFMFGM) and dissipation shifts (ΔD = ΔDβ-LG-ΔDMFGM) before (t = 15min) and after (t = 45 min) addition of β-LG to MFGM. As expected, temperature significantly affected ΔF and ΔD (Table 1). Choice of temperature is significant. At 60°C, β-LG is in R-state, a lone thiol group exposed and available for reaction. Above 60°C, β-LG is in a molten-globule state, native equilibrium. At 80°C aggregates form that shift equilibrium further from native β-LG explaining significant difference at 70 and 80°C. Note ΔF and ΔD shifts for entire run are not portrayed (Table 1). Our experiments are a model system to understand β-LG and MFGM interactions and effect on bioavailability. Results indicate effect of processing conditions on nascent interactions of MFGM, β-LG induced by heat treatment. Table 1. Least square mean values of QCM-D ΔF and ΔD from β-LG to MFGM 25-80°C
Temperature1 (°C) ΔF (Hz) ΔD (1E-6)
25ab 1.04 −0.133
40ab 0.528 −0.112
60ab 0.887 −0.599
70a 17.6 −10.0
80b −15.3 2.85
1Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (p<0.05; Tukey HSD) +ΔF denotes mass lost and -ΔF mass added; +ΔD signals increased elasticity and -ΔD increased rigidness. ΔF exhibits ad- and desorption and ΔD translates conformational change.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86081 Watch 2002M Impact of gas ultrafine bubbles on the efficacy of antimicrobials for eliminating 72-h Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on a dairy processing surface. 3 P. Unger ultrafine bubbles biofilms Listeria monocytogenes P. Unger1, A. Sekhon1, S. Sharma1, A. Lampien1, M. Michael1 1Washington State University, Pullman, WA Ultrafine bubble (UFB; also known as nanobubble technology) is a novel concept in food safety that can improve the efficacy of antimicrobials against biofilms. This research was conducted to evaluate the impact of gas [air, carbon dioxide (CO2), or nitrogen (N2)] UFBs incorporation in chlorine (Cl2; 50, 100 and 200 ppm) and peracetic acid (PAA; 20, 40, and 80 ppm) solutions to eliminate 72 h Listeria monocytogenes (LM) biofilms on stainless steel. This study was conducted as a randomized 2 factorial design (antimicrobial and gas types as factors) with 3 replications. The LM biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons (2.54 × 7.62 cm) through static incubation at 25 °C for 72 h by immersing in LM inoculated brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. All coupons (treated and untreated) were first rinsed in deionized water, and allowed to air dry for 5 min. Treated coupons were then treated by dipping in antimicrobial solutions with or without UFBs for 1 min. All coupons (treated and untreated) were then swabbed into Dey-Engley neutralizing broth, serially diluted using 0.1% peptone water, and subsequently spread plated on BHI agar in duplicates. The log reductions for the respective antimicrobial treatments were calculated by subtracting posttreatment biofilm bacterial populations from untreated biofilm bacterial populations. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test was used to determine significant differences amount the mean values at P ≤0.05 using Minitab 19. Overall, antimicrobial solutions with air, CO2, and N2 UFBs resulted in greater log reductions (3.6, 3.5, and 3.5 Log cfu/cm2, respectively) in LM biofilms compared to antimicrobials solutions without UFBs (2.8 Log cfu/cm2). The 200 ppm Cl2 UFB solution (4.24 Log cfu/cm2) resulted in significantly larger log reductions than 50 ppm Cl2, 40 ppm PAA, and 20 ppm PAA solutions (3.53, 2.81, and 1.83 Log cfu/cm2). These results showed that the incorporation UFBs has the potential of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial solutions against 72 h LM biofilms.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86142 Watch 2003M Metagenomic comparison of kefir grains and milk kefir and identification of antimicrobial peptides. 4 B. D. Gonzalez-Orozco kefir microbiota metagenomics antibacterial peptides B. D. Gonzalez-Orozco1, I. García-Cano1, A. Escobar-Zepeda2, R. Jimenez-Flores1, V. Alvarez1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Parker Food Science and Technology Building, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2EMBL-EBI’s Microbiome Informatics team, Hinxton, United Kingdom Kefir is the fermentation product of milk or water by a consortium of bacteria and yeast from kefir grains. Kefir microbiota is a well-known source of bioactive compounds. Among them, peptides have triggered interest since they have shown antibacterial effect. The objective of the present work was to assess the microbial community of kefir grains and milk kefir by Next-Generation Sequencing and identify potential antibacterial peptides among significant members of the microbiota. The analysis of the microbial community of an artisanal kefir grain and the fermented product was assessed by shotgun metagenomic analysis. A multivariate ANOVA was performed with the Vegan R package for the community analysis. Individual microorganisms were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA and 5.8S rRNA for bacterial and yeast gene sequencing, respectively. The analysis of the production of antibacterial peptides was assessed by SDS-PAGE and zymography in 2 biological replicates. Protein identification was performed by capillary LC-MS/MS and MASCOT database was used to obtain the amino acid sequence. Metagenome sequenced assembly revealed a higher bacterial and fungal diversity in kefir (12.9Mbp) compared to the kefir grain (9.6Mbp) and higher abundance in both samples of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Lactobacillus helveticus. Kluyveromixes marxianus was the most abundant yeast in grain. Zymograms showed proteins with lytic activity from the Lactobacillus kefiri-bdgo-ANA6, L. kefiranofaciens bdgo-6 and L. helveticus bdgo-AK. Protein sequences showed a cell wall-associated hydrolase from L. kefiranofaciens bdgo-6, and S-layer proteins from L. kefiri bdgo-ANA6, that have been reported to have antibacterial activity. The results from this work open the opportunity to understand the microbial diversity in kefir and grain microbial consortia and their potential as a source of bioactive peptides.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86207 Watch 2004M Predicting the phase stability of reconstituted UHT milk using vibrational spectroscopic techniques–Phase 1: Proof of capacity of spectroscopic techniques. 5 Y. Shao UHT milk FTIR Raman spectroscopy Y. Shao1, L. He2, H. Zheng1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA The market for ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been expanding. However, in UHT-RSM, age gelation is a major quality defect, which is caused by 2 mechanisms, enzymatic degradation and physicochemical changes. The latter one is difficult to eliminate since no effective method has been developed to characterize UHT-RSM after processing regarding its age gelation probability. The objective of phase 1 of this study is to investigate the capability of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to discriminate UHT-RSM products based on chemical fingerprints and physicochemical changes induced by UHT. Seven RSM samples were prepared in duplicate using different lots of nonfat dry milk provided by 2 suppliers. After UHT treatment (140°C for 4s), each replicate was scanned 5 times by Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were pre-processed using secondary derivative transformation and normalization, and then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Physicochemical properties (pH, particle size, z-potential, and ionic calcium content) of samples were measured, and results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Both PCA plots of Raman and ATR-FTIR spectra showed clear separation between data from each supplier. The significant band variations were found at 2,930 cm−1 (C-H stretching) in the Raman spectra, and between 1,500 – 1,700 cm−1 (amide I and II region) in the ATR-FTIR spectra. Separation between samples within a supplier was also observed in the PCA plot of the ATR-FTIR spectra. Moreover, samples from each supplier were different in pH, particle size, and ionic calcium content (P < 0.05) that also confirms the variations among samples. Therefore, vibrational spectroscopic techniques are capable of characterizing and distinguishing UHT-RSM products with different physicochemical properties that may attribute to age gelation. In the next phase of the study, the relationship between age gelation and specific spectra regions will be investigated and a model for predicting phase stability of UHT-RSM will be constructed.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86255 Watch 2005M The role of protein and fat on the physical properties and flavor of ultrafiltrated milk beverages. 6 A. J. Hernandez protein beverages milk ultrafiltration A. J. Hernandez1, T. Truong1, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The protein beverage category continues to grow and consumers are seeking variety. As such, understanding the role of milk components on milk beverage physical and sensory properties are crucial. Our objective was to progressively remove lactose and other low molecular weight soluble compounds from milk (ca. 0, 30, 70 and 98% removal) using ultrafiltration (UF) in combination with diafiltration to determine the impact of 4 fat levels (skim, 1%, 2% and 3.5% fat) and 3 protein levels (3.4, 6.5 and 10.5% true protein) on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of milk-based beverages. These experiments were replicated twice followed by instrumental analysis (proximate analysis, color, viscosity) and trained panel profiling. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with means separation. Instrumental color (L-values, whiteness) increased with lactose removal (P < 0.05), but the effect of increasing fat and protein concentration on L-value was larger than lactose removal. Yellowness scores and b*-values decreased with increasing lactose removal (P < 0.05). Apparent viscosity decreased with increasing lactose removal (P < 0.05) but the magnitude of decrease was small. Titratable acidity (TA) decreased (P < 0.05) from about 0.17 to 0.04% with increased lactose removal at all fat levels. TA increased with increasing protein concentration (P < 0.05). TA at all protein levels decreased with increased lactose removal (P < 0.05). At the different fat and protein levels, the pH of the UF retentate at 20°C increased from about 6.6 to 7.3. Lactose removal increased sensory whiteness and decreased yellowness (P < 0.05), concurrent with instrumental analysis. Lactose removal decreased sweet aromatic flavor and sweet and salty tastes while opacity and viscosity increased with increasing protein and fat concentration (P < 0.05). Increased protein also increased astringency (P < 0.05). With removal of lactose and other low molecular weight compounds, the liquid UF beverages were whiter in appearance and blander in flavor, making UF milk an ideal base to adjust sweetness and add novel flavors while providing lactose free beverages over a range of fat and protein concentrations.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86210 Watch 2006M Evaluating consumer perception and liking of sweeteners in yogurt. 7 E. Crown yogurt sugar reduction sweetener E. Crown1, C. M. Racette1, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY During the pandemic, yogurt sales in the US have continued to increase. Consumers are interested in reduced sugar products, a trend that has been attributed to consumers connecting high-sugar foods with diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. It is important to understand how consumers perceive label claims regarding sugar and other sweeteners and how sweetener type impacts liking of yogurt. The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer perception of sugar reduction in yogurt both conceptually and for liking of actual products. An online survey (n = 1,290) was conducted to evaluate consumer perception of sweeteners used in commercial yogurts. Consumers who purchased yogurt at least once in the past 3 mo were shown Maximum Difference questions regarding sugar claims and sweeteners in yogurt. Subsequently, vanilla yogurts with 1% milkfat were formulated to isosweet taste intensity with either sucrose, stevia, allulose, a blend of sucrose/honey or a blend of sucrose/stevia/allulose using magnitude estimation scaling followed by paired comparison tests with consumers (n = 30). A consumer acceptance test (n = 229) was then conducted using 5 vanilla yogurts. Half of participants (n = 115) were primed with specific information about the sweeteners and the other half were not. Conceptually, consumers preferred the claim “naturally sweetened” over a reduced sugar claim in yogurt. Honey was preferred over other sweeteners, followed by agave nectar and cane sugar. Allulose was the least preferred sweetener conceptually. During tasting, yogurt sweetened with sucrose was the most liked and yogurt sweetened with stevia was the least liked, regardless of priming (P < 0.05). Priming with sweetener type positively impacted yogurt sweetened with a sucrose/honey blend (P < 0.05), but had no impact on the other sweeteners or sweetener blends (P > 0.05). Consumers are interested in healthy yogurts that are naturally sweetened, and flavor remains the driving force for liking and purchase. The use of a natural nonnutritive sweetener that delivers the sensory experience of sucrose is ultimately more important than familiarity with the actual sweetener.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86258 Watch 2007M Effect of dietary palmitic acid supplementation and milking frequency on cheese-making properties of milk. 8 M. Blouin   M. Blouin1,2, M. Landry1,2, C. Vaubaillon3, É. Paquet1, P. Y. Chouinard1,2, R. Gervais1,2, G. Brisson1,2, J. Chamberland1,2 1Université Laval, Quebec, Canada, 2STELA Dairy Research Center, Institute on Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Quebec, Canada, 3Institut Agro Rennes-Angers, Rennes, France Palmitic acid supplementation and greater milking frequency can increase fat yield and milk production in dairy cows, but the impacts of those practices on milk processing are still unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid, thrice-daily milking frequency, and their interaction on cheese yield and composition. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (45 ± 14 DIM) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design including 4 periods of 21 d, with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows received a diet with or without palmitic acid (0 or 2% on a DM basis) and were milked twice- or thrice-daily, at regular intervals. At each period, milk from consecutive milkings of d 18 and 19 was collected from each cow and pooled by treatment in 250-L refrigerated bulk tanks and transferred to the Université Laval for cheese manufacture at pilot scale (10-L vats). No difference between treatments was observed for raw milk free fatty acid concentration (0.61 ± 0.18 mEq/100 g of milk fat), casein micelle size (156.2 ± 7.7 nm), and fat globules diameter (d3,2 1.52 ± 0.88 µm; d4,3 3.80 ± 0.33 µm). Before Cheddar cheese manufacture, milk was standardized to a constant casein:fat ratio (0.779 ± 0.009), and casein (3.27 ± 0.03%) and fat (4.20 ± 0.02%) contents. Cheese moisture in nonfat substances (52.2 ± 1.1%) and fat in dry matter content (48.5 ± 0.4%) were similar among treatments. Similarly, treatments had no effect on moisture-adjusted yield (12.5 ± 0.1%) and fat recovery (93.5 ± 1.0%). A tendency was observed for a greater protein recovery in cheese from thrice-daily milking (83.6% vs. 82.2%; P = 0.10). Results suggest that with a standardized cheese-making procedure, palmitic acid supplementation and milking frequency do not affect cheesemilk performance. Further results should include the effects of palmitic acid supplementation and milking frequency on cheese composition and properties during ripening.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86301 Watch 2008M The impact of heat process and dipotassium phosphate on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of milk protein beverages. 9 H. Hoyt protein beverage dipotassium phosphate physical properties H. Hoyt1, J. Pranata2, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objectives were to determine the impact of dipotassium phosphate (DKP) and heat process (no heat, HTST:72°C for 15 s, and UHT:140°C for 2.3 s) on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of 7.5% milk protein-based beverages made with liquid skim milk protein concentrate (MPC) and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) produced by filtration at 50°C. MPC was produced using a polymeric membrane and MCC was produced using a 0.1µ ceramic membrane. Two DKP concentrations were used (0 and 0.15% wt/wt) within each heat exposure. No other additives were used. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties were measured after 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 d storage at 4°C. A general linear model was applied to evaluate significant main effects and interactions. The MCC beverages were higher (P < 0.05) in casein as percent of protein (ca. 93 vs 83%) and lower in serum protein concentration than MPC. All MCC and MPC beverages with and without added DKP ran through all thermal processes without coagulation. Heat and DKP had different effects on beverage properties for MCC versus MPC. Apparent viscosity (AV) was higher (P < 0.05) with lower heat exposure and higher (P < 0.05) with added DKP. Both AV and sensory viscosity increased with storage and addition of DKP (P < 0.05), but this effect was larger in MCC than MPC. Viscosity was lower (P < 0.05) and did not change with time without added DKP for both MCC and MPC. Sensory opacity and L-value (whiteness) were decreased (P < 0.05) by DKP and time for both MCC and MPC. Cooked/milky flavor and astringency both increased (P < 0.05) with increasing heat treatment but not by DKP addition. MCC beverages at all heat exposures had no detectable sulfur/eggy flavor, while this flavor was found in DSI-MPC beverages. More protein aggregation was produced with DSI compared with HTST. Added DKP reduced protein particulate formation in MCC more than in MPC for the DSI treatment. Without added DKP, about 10% of the particle volume was in aggregates for both MPC and MCC by DSI heat treatment. Addition of DKP does not affect flavor but does impact the appearance and viscosity of protein beverages, and these effects are distinct for MPC versus MCC. Understanding the role of added beverage ingredients, such as DKP, is crucial to facilitate removal of these ingredients and manufacture of clean-label dairy protein beverages.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86325 Watch 2009M In vitro antimicrobial effect of lactose oxidase against dairy spore formers. 10 M. Valdiviezo antimicrobial spore formers lactose oxidase M. Valdiviezo1, D. DeRiancho1, S. Alcaine1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) is a natural antimicrobial system present in milk. LPS is activated in the presence of H2O2, which is produced during the oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid by lactose oxidase (LO). The application of LO to improve the efficacy of the LPS and inhibit microbial growth is an approach that can be used to enhance the shelf life of dairy products. Previous research has shown that lactose oxidase can effectively control organisms such as Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, molds, and yeast. However, it is still unknown if this antimicrobial system is also effective against spore formers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of LO in the LPS against 28 strains of frequent dairy spore formers isolated from dairy products and facilities, and to determine the effective concentration for growth inhibition. For this aim, an overlay inhibition assay was performed. LO was applied in different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/L) to Brain Heart Infusion and Reinforced Clostridial Media agar containing 2.5% wt/wt lactose, added to the media before sterilization. Plates were then overlaid with inoculated agar and incubated at optimal growth temperatures. The average radius of the inhibition zone for each concentration and strain was calculated and differences between the control and the different LO concentrations were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). All experiments were performed in biological triplicates. Results indicated that 15 out of 28 strains were inhibited by the lowest LO concentration (0.1 g/L), 10 additional strains showed inhibition at 1 g/L, and the 3 remaining strains were inhibited at the highest LO concentration of 10 g/L. This latter group was composed of bacteria from the genus Bacillus species subtilis, paralicheniformis, and gibsonii, which were the most resistant strains, inhibited only by the highest LO concentration. In conclusion, LO proved effective as a growth inhibitor of dairy spore formers and can contribute to enhance the shelf life of milk and other organic dairy products, when added in early production stages.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86405 Watch 2010M Use of educational messages to influence dairy consumption behavior in inadequate dairy consumers. 11 J. S. Myers dairy consumption consumers educational messages J. S. Myers1, S. Clark2, K. A. Schmidt1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Iowa State University, Ames, IA Nearly 90% of the US population consumes less than the 3-cup, equivalent of dairy foods/day. The objective of this study was to determine if providing educational messages (EM) to a target population of inadequate dairy consumers (IDC) could alter dairy foods consumption behavior. IDCs were invited to attend a nominal modified focus group (MFG), in which researchers presented either (1) a primary EM on reading nutrition facts panels or (2) the primary EM plus a secondary EM on one of these 3 topics – milk’s 9 essential nutrients, lactose maldigestion, or prebiotics and probiotics. To collect data on dairy consumption, IDCs completed surveys at the start of the MFG and 1 mo later on questions concerning demographics, health perceptions, and dairy foods consumption. Answers to dairy foods consumption were adjusted to estimate the number of dairy foods servings/week/person using FDA published data on serving sizes. Eighty IDCs completed the study, of which 15 received the primary EM, and 65 received the primary and secondary EM (n = 20 for the 9 essential nutrients of milk, n = 17 for lactose maldigestion, and n = 28 for the prebiotics and probiotics message). To determine if the MFG affected dairy foods consumption, the pre-survey servings/person were subtracted from the one-month follow-up survey data. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P < 0.05) were used to determine if consumption behavior changed as a function of attending the MFG. Panelists reported an increase of 1.57 dairy foods servings/week/person as a result of attending an MFG, which was significant. When considering EMs, panelists who received the primary EM reported an increase of 1.27 dairy foods servings/week/person of dairy foods, and panelists who received the primary and secondary EM reported an increase of 1.69 dairy foods servings/week/person. Panelists who received the primary plus prebiotics and probiotic or lactose maldigestion EM increased dairy foods consumed by 2.09 and 2.15 servings/week/person, respectively. Overall, these results help to understand how EMs can increase dairy food consumption of IDCs to the recommended servings/day.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t86478 Watch 2011V Optimization of skim milk fermentation parameters for maximum galactose yields. 12 L. Wise skim milk galactose pH L. Wise1, S. Alcaine1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Decline in the demand for skim milk due to high prevalence of lactose intolerance has caused major challenges for the dairy industry, leading to skim milk waste and reduction of its use in foods, despite its nutritional quality. Value-added products can be generated from the fermentation of lactose in skim milk. In fact, several yeast species can ferment lactose into ethanol. Alternatively, when lactose is hydrolyzed into glucose and galactose, Brettanomyces claussenii can selectively ferment glucose into ethanol, leaving behind galactose. The galactose residue is beneficial as a functional ingredient in low glycemic index snacks, rare sweeteners, and health-promoting galactooligosaccharrides. Previous screening studies assessing galactose and ethanol production from skim milk fermentations by Brettanomyces claussenii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Kluyveromyces marxianus andSaccharomyces cerevisiae showed that, without the addition of lactase, B. claussenii and K. marxianus performed very similarly and produced as much as 2.6% ethanol. However, with lactase, residual galactose levels in B. claussenii were low and inconsistent across replicates. Additional skim milk fermentation trials were then conducted with the aim of increasing and stabilizing residual galactose yields from B. claussenii. To achieve this, skim milk was first diluted to 2.5% solids nonfat (~15g/L lactose) and acidified below pH 3.45, thus replicating acidified substrates where prior research identified higher galactose yields. The fermentation performance of the same 4 yeast species was evaluated, each pitched at a 5 × 106 cfu/ml rate into 2 bottles, one with lactase, the other without, making for 8 total bottles. These fermentations were performed in triplicate and showed higher and more consistent residual galactose outputs. In fact, an average of 4.9 ± 2.3 g/L, representing a near 65% galactose recovery, was obtained. ANOVA accompanied by a Tukey's test will be run once triplicate data is obtained to determine whether residual galactose yields in an acidified medium are significantly different from those in regular skim milk. Further research will attempt to assess other parameters that affect galactose yields in skim milk fermentations, and its variation across replicates. Some of these parameters include solid content in the skim milk substrate as well as the starting yeast inoculum concentration. Understanding the fermentation parameters that maximize galactose yields from skim milk fermentation with B. claussenii is critical in the quest to better harness the power of this yeast to derive value from dairy waste streams.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t87002 Watch 2012M Effect of different molecular weight hyaluronic acid on functional properties of skim milk. 13 R. Joshi hyaluronic acid milk functional properties R. Joshi1, A. Aditya1, S. G. Sutariya1, P. Salunke1 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide and it is approved to use as food ingredients or food additives and/or as a health supplement in many countries. HA forms a highly viscous gel in an aqueous solution and affects functional properties. Commercially, HA is available in various molecular weight (MW). It has been reported that this difference in MW has a significant effect on the physicochemical and functional properties of the product in which they are used. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of different MW hyaluronic acid on the functional properties of skim milk (SM). Pasteurized skim milk was divided into 3 equal parts and microbiologically derived food-grade HA with different MW (8kDa, 320 kDa, 980 kDa) was added separately at 0.25% in each sample. The solutions were homogenized at 25,000 rpm for 3 min and stored overnight at refrigerated temperature. The pH of the milk was adjusted to 6.7 before analyzing various functional properties such as water holding capacity (WHC), emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), foaming activity (FA), and foaming stability (FS). The experiment was replicated twice, and the statistical differences (P < 0.05) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test in Minitab. The WHC of the SM increased significantly (P < 0.05) for the 980 kDa (18.75%) and 320 kDa (15.67%) samples as compared with the 8 kDa samples (0.13%). A significant (P < 0.05) increase in EA was observed as the HA molecular weight in the SM increased (39.37% for 8 kDa, 53.75% for 320 kDa, and 88.75% for 980 kDa). Similarly, ES significantly (P < 0.05) increased for 980 kDa (77.75%) as compared with 320 kDa (42.5%) and 8 kDa sample (38.75%). The FA was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the SM samples treated with 980 kDa (60%) as compared with 320 kDa (100%) and 8 kDa (130%). However, the SM sample with higher molecular weight HA (980 kDa and 320 kDa) showed very stable foam during the total storage period of 24 h (at 30°C) as compared with the lower molecular weight sample (8kDa). In conclusion, the study shows that the MW of HA significantly affects the functional properties of SM.
ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) Poster Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Poster Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 7:30 t87065 Watch 2013M Effect of varying pH on the cold gelling behavior of highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC). 14 N. Pougher casein gelation rheology N. Pougher1, P. Sharma1 1Utah State University, Logan, UT Using highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC) as a food ingredient could yield positive effects in the dairy industry. As more consumers become ingredient conscious, a dairy based stabilizer for dairy foods could be a promising alternative to gum-based ingredients currently used in the dairy industry. With a protein content ranging from 19 to 23%, it can form a cold gel without any modifications to the casein, however added ingredients can significantly improve the gel strength. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of varying pH levels on the cold gelling behavior of HC-MCC. Rheological tests were conducted to observe the sol-gel transition point of HC-MCC via time and temperature sweeps on a model MCR302 rheometer. These tests utilized a multiple waveform technique with the application of Winter-Chambon criteria. This criterion is considered more accurate than the traditional crossover point of G” and G’, as it relies on the convergence of the loss factor at multiple frequencies to determine the true gelation point. Additionally, HC-MCC samples were modified via dilution to a minimum protein content where gelation still occurred. This formed the basis for observing changes in cold gel temperature at varying pH (5.2-6.6) by adding glucono-delta-lactone stepwise from 0.5-2% wt/wt. All measurements were conducted in triplicate. The minimum protein concentration which could form a cold gel was determined to be 16.8%. Addition of the acid significantly increased the temperature of sol-gel transition (P <0.01), and increased storage modulus values for low pH samples. Increases in storage modulus values indicates an increase in gel strength. In addition, even highly acidified samples returned to a liquid state upon heating, indicating thermoreversibility. Overall, this study explored the possibility of modifying HC-MCC to utilize it in the future as a dairy based thickener or stabilizer. Adding a dairy based stabilizer to another dairy product could improve consumer preference rather than using polysaccharide-based gums for similar purposes
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 s9983                  
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86894   2015M Environmental effects on milk yield and daily activity of lactating Holstein and Jersey cows. 1 A. Bazzell heat stress environment A. Bazzell1, J. Carter1 1Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN Heat stress is an animal’s response to an increase in thermal environment that causes the animal to inadequately dissipate heat out of the body. This stress occurs at temperatures over 25°C when cows are unable to cool themselves down. This increase in heat stress causes a decrease in milk production because more energy is needed to cool down, so there is less energy focused on producing milk. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum temperature that allows each breed of cow to produce the maximum amount of milk. A wireless thermometer was placed in the compost bedded pack barn to measure ambient temperature and relative humidity each minute to compile a daily average. Milk yield, daily activity and conductivity were measured from the MTSU lactating herd (n = 48) using an electronic tracking system by a pedometer on each cows’ front leg. Temperature, relative humidity, milk yield, activity, and conductivity were measured for 3 6-wk periods from February to September 2021. These time frames were chosen to represent average temperatures found in the winter, spring, and summer seasons. All cow data and environmental temperature data were analyzed using a mixed model with SAS (v9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the main effects of temperature on breed and season. Cows produced more milk during the spring period (P < 0.0001) and all milk samples were higher in conductivity during the summer (P < 0.0001). Jersey cows were more active than Holsteins through each season (P < 0.0001). Using the ambient temperature and relative humidity data, a temperature-humidity index (THI) score was calculated. It was determined that mild heat stress occurred in the summer with an average THI of 76.3. The optimum temperature range that allowed the Jerseys to produce the most milk occurred during the spring period (18°C average temperature), while the optimum temperature that allowed Holsteins to produce the most milk occurred during the winter period (8.5°C average temperature). Currently, more data are needed over multiple seasons to determine optimum environmental conditions.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86609 Watch 2016M Effect of prophylactic calcium supplementation on regulators of calcium homeostasis in multiparous Holstein cows. 2 I. R. Frost hypocalcemia calcium supplementation parathyroid hormone I. R. Frost1, C. R. Seely1, K. R. Callero1, J. A. Seminara1, H. A. McCray1, R. M. Martinez1, A. M. Reid1, C. N. Wilbur1, K. J. Koebel1, J. A. A. McArt1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Postparturient subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) in dairy cows, a common metabolic disease which arises from the increased calcium demands of early lactation, has been associated with decreased milk production and negative health outcomes. Our objective was to determine how postpartum calcium supplementation methods, and the timing of their administration, affect blood calcium concentrations and regulators of calcium homeostasis, specifically parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. We conducted a randomized controlled trial on 62 multiparous dairy cows on a commercial dairy in Cayuga County, New York. Each cow was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups immediately after calving: 1) control (CONT; no calcium supplementation, n = 15); 2) conventional bolus (BOL-C; 43 g oral calcium bolus administered immediately after calving and 24 h later, n = 17); 3) delayed bolus (BOL-D; 43 g oral calcium bolus administered 48 h and 72 h after calving, n = 15); or 4) subcutaneous infusion (SQ; 500 mL 23% calcium borogluconate infused subcutaneously once immediately after calving, n = 15). Blood was collected at calving and every 8 h through 96 h, then at 120 and 168 h postpartum. Linear mixed models were created to analyze changes in serum total Ca (tCa) over the first 168 h after parturition and assess differences between treatment groups. Serum tCa was not different at the time of enrollment between treatment groups (P = 0.92), but mean tCa over 168 h postpartum differed between groups (P < 0.001). Cows in the BOL-C group had higher mean tCa (2.11 [95% CI = 2.05, 2.17] mmol/L) than SQ cows (1.99 [1.95, 2.05] mmol/L; P = 0.008); however, we did not observe differences in mean tCa between CONT cows (2.08 [95% CI = 2.02, 2.14] mmol/L) and cows in the BOL-D (2.07 [95% CI = 2.01, 2.14] mmol/L; P = 0.99), BOL-C (P = 0.75), or SQ (P = 0.16) groups. Our findings suggest that subcutaneous infusion of calcium at calving might interfere with calcium homeostasis postpartum, and analysis of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin might provide further insight into this disruption.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86719 Watch 2017M Does providing a nipple reduce pain behaviors in dairy calves after caustic paste disbudding? 3 R. Burno calf caustic paste pain behavior R. Burno1, K. Juckem1, K. Wichman1, K. C. Creutzinger1, A. C. Clark1, S. I. Kehoe1 1University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, WI Disbudding is a routine management practice applied to nearly all female dairy calves to prevent horn growth. The application of heat or caustic paste for disbudding results in acute and continuous pain, both of which are considered welfare concerns. Pain from caustic paste disbudding has traditionally been managed with the use of pharmaceuticals, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or a lidocaine block. However, one-time administration of these pharmaceuticals at disbudding only provides temporary pain relief. In other neonates, pain behaviors following painful procedures have been reduced by providing an object to suck on. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether providing dairy calves the opportunity to suck on a nipple after disbudding, along with NSAIDs and a lidocaine block, would reduce pain behaviors after the pharmaceutical pain relief wears off. Fifty-four female Friesian Holstein calves were individually housed and fed 2 times daily with 3L for the first 4 d and then 3 times daily with 3L until 56 d when milk feeding was reduced to one time daily for a week and then weaned. At 1 to 3 d of age, calves were randomized into blocks with the following treatments: caustic paste with available nipple (PN), caustic paste with no nipple (PNN), sham paste with available nipple (SN), and sham paste with no nipple (SNN). Before application of caustic paste or petroleum jelly, calves received a lidocaine block 10 min before treatment and NSAIDs immediately following treatment. Nipple use was evaluated for 2 weeks after treatment by using motion sensor trail cameras to record all activity at the nipple; activities were categorized as suck, lick, and touch. There were no differences between treatments for nipple use (P > 0.05). Three PN calves sucked on the nipple inconsistently on d0–3 and 2 SN calves sucked on the nipple, one on d3 and one on d9. The amount of time calves used the nipple varied in time of day and day after treatment without any consistency or significance (P > 0.05). In the current trial, calves may have been too young to use the nipple consistently. When considering this management practice, age of the calf should be taken into account.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86760 Watch 2018M Postmortem evaluation of placement of a lidocaine block for disbudding in dairy calves. 4 O. Horsman calf lidocaine block cornual nerve O. Horsman1, J. Haines1, V. Rakoczy1, A. A. Reyes1, S. I. Kehoe1 1University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, WI Pain management in a farm setting is becoming increasingly important. The use of a lidocaine block before disbudding is recommended by many organizations and individuals concerned with calf welfare. The proper placement of a lidocaine injection for maximum pain reduction during disbudding in dairy calves has not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this preliminary research was to first identify the cornual nerve then track the dispersion of a lidocaine injection relative to the cornual nerve. Using 4 dead Holstein calves under 2 wk of age acquired from a local dairy farm, 2 injection sites were identified that are commonly used for lidocaine block injections on the farm. The first was chosen based on literature recommendation where an 18-gauge, 35-mm needle was inserted caudal to the eye and ventral to the temporal ridge. The second was chosen based on farm employee observation where the needle was inserted proximal to the corner of the eye where there is a depression then pointed up toward the horn bud. Preliminary results show both needle placements resulted in dispersal of lidocaine into the frontal and sphenoid sinuses while also covering part of the cornual nerve. These preliminary results may indicate that local anesthetic positioning needs to be further evaluated and is crucial to providing successful pain management for dairy calves during the disbudding process.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86785 Watch 2019M Assessment of the effects of prepartum anti-inflammatory therapies on body condition score, daily milk yield, and daily rumination time in Holstein dairy cows. 5 S. Spring acetylsalicylic acid meloxicam prepartum period S. Spring1, E. Jimenez1, M. Martinez1, E. Hovingh1, J. Lawhead2, A. A. Barragan1 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Millerstown Veterinary Associates, Millerstown, PN The objective of this study was to assess the effects of pre-partum administration of anti-inflammatory therapies on body condition score (BCS), daily milk yield and daily rumination time for the first 100 DIM in Holstein dairy cows. At 14 d before the expected calving date, cows (n = 64) and heifers (n = 24) were blocked by BCS category (optimal = 3.25–3.5; high ≥3.75) and parity (nulliparous; parous), and randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment groups: 1) ASA (n = 29) = receive one oral treatment with administration of acetylsalicylic acid (4 boluses; 480 grain/bolus); 2) MEL (n = 31) = receive one oral administration with meloxicam (1mg/kg of BW), or 3) PLC (n = 29) = receive one oral treatment with 4 gelatin capsules filled with water. Body condition score was assessed weekly starting 1 week before treatment until 3 weeks after calving. Daily milk yield and rumination time were collected from on-farm computer records. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedure of SAS as a randomized complete-block design. On average enrolled cows received treatment administration 10 d before actual calving date (standard deviation = 5.10 d). There was no difference on BCS between study groups (ASA = 3.78 ± 0.04 pts.; MEL = 3.74 ± 0.04 pts.; PLC = 3.69 ± 0.04 pts.; P = 0.38). There was an interaction between treatment and day in daily milk yield (P = 0.09), where MEL cows produced more daily milk (average = 5.38 kg/d) for 13 d, starting at 64 DIM, compared with ASA and PLC cows. There was no difference in daily rumination time between study groups (P = 0.81). These findings suggest that treatment with pre-partum anti-inflammatory drugs might have positive effects on daily milk yield. Further studies with larger data sets are needed to confirm association observed in this trial.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86830 Watch 2021M The effects of reducing time from follicle emergence to luteolysis in lactating dairy cows. Part 2: Characteristics of estrus. 6 P. Gibb ovulatory follicle luteolysis estrus P. Gibb1, S. McBeth1, S. Wilkinson1, T. Minela1, J. R. Pursley1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Automated activity monitors (AAM) are becoming popular to manage reproduction of dairy herds. Certain characteristics of estrus expression collected with AAM were associated with greater fertility in lactating dairy cows. Our objective was to determine if reducing time from onset of the ovulatory follicular wave to luteolysis would enhance estrus expression. We hypothesized that reducing time from wave emergence to luteolysis would result in greater percentage of cows in estrus and increased peak activity. Lactating dairy cows receiving 1st service were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 2 treatments. During the final Ovsynch of Double Ovsynch, cows were treated with 1.0 mg cloprostenol sodium 5 (n = 41; D5) or 7 d (n = 42; D7) after initial GnRH. An additional dose of cloprostenol sodium (0.5 mg) was administered 24 h later to ensure luteolysis. Blood for E2 (d 0, 1 and 2) and follicle diameter (d 2) were collected in relation to treatment. Estrus characteristics (activity peak, estrus index, estrus duration and interval between estrus and activity peak) were recorded using SCR technology. There was no difference between D5 and D7 in percent of cows detected in estrus (80.5 vs. 64.3%; P = 0.09). However, activity peak was greater in cows D5 compared with D7 (94.9 vs. 88.1; P = 0.03). Additionally, interval between initiation of wave to onset of estrus was reduced in cows treated with D5 compared with D7 (9.2 ± 0.17 vs. 10.6 ± 0.19; P < 0.01). Average estrus duration (P = 0.54), interval between estrus to peak activity (P = 0.97), nor estrus index (P = 0.75) were different between treatments. Greater concentrations of E2 at d 1 (P = 0.03) and 2 (P = 0.04) posttreatment increased the predicted probability of estrus expression but not at d 0 (P = 0.51). Overall, treatment with D5 decreased time to 1st service compared with D7 (80.5 vs. 85.1 DIM; P = 0.03). In summary, decreasing antral age of follicles at time of induced luteolysis resulted in decreased time from initiation of the ovulatory follicular wave to estrus, greater estrus activity peak and decreased DIM to 1st service.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Poster Competition SAD Poster Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research POSTER Competition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86832 Watch 2020M The effects of reducing time from follicle emergence to luteolysis in lactating dairy cows. Part 1: Ovulatory follicle size, E2, and P4. 7 S. McBeth ovulatory follicle estradiol follicle diameter S. McBeth1, P. Gibb1, S. Wilkinson1, T. Minela1, J. R. Pursley1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Automated activity monitors (AAM) are gaining in popularity in the US Gaining a greater understanding of how to enhance the outcomes from these systems is needed to improve PR/AI outcomes. Ovulatory follicle size and circulating concentrations of E2 around AI clearly impact fertility of cattle. Manipulating follicular development may help to improve outcomes with AAM systems. Our objective was to determine if reducing time from onset of the ovulatory follicular wave to luteolysis would enhance subsequent levels of E2. We hypothesized that reducing time from wave emergence to luteolysis would result in increased circulating concentrations of E2 near time of estrus from a smaller ovulatory follicle. Lactating dairy cows receiving 1st service were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 2 treatments. During the final Ovsynch of Double Ovsynch, cows were treated with 1.0 mg cloprostenol sodium 5 (n = 41; D5) or 7 d (n = 42; D7) after initial GnRH. An additional dose of cloprostenol sodium (0.5 mg) was administered 24 h later to ensure luteolysis. Blood for E2 (d 0, 1 and 2) and follicle diameter (d 2) were collected in relation to treatment. D5 reduced ovulatory follicle diameter measured 2 d following induction of luteolysis compared with D7 (13.5 ± 0.4 vs. 15.0 ± 0.4 mm). There were no differences between treatments in P4 on d 0, 1 and 2 from treatment. Ovulation rate did not differ between D5 and D7 (84.7 vs. 75.5%; P = 0.30). Double-ovulation rate was not different between treatments, but 2nd and 3rd parity cows had greater rates of double-ovulations compared with 1st parity cows (44.4 and 45.0 vs. 7.4%; P ≤ 0.01). Reducing antral age of the ovulatory follicle at time of induced luteolysis resulted in greater E2 at treatment (P = 0.03), but not 1 and 2 d posttreatment. There was no effect of treatment on P4 at 11, 12 and 13 d postestrus (P = 0.96). This study indicates that shorter reducing time from the onset of the ovulatory wave until induced luteolysis did not affect E2. Thus, reducing this period may not enhance estrus expression.
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 s9919                  
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 t86155 Watch 2022M The associations between feeding behaviors collected from automatic milk feeders and disease in group-housed preweaned dairy calves. 1 R. Perttu behavior health welfare R. Perttu1, M. Peiter1, T. Bresolin2, J. Dórea2, M. Endres1 1University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 2University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI In the United States, most dairy herds house preweaned dairy calves individually to minimize the risk of disease. However, housing calves in pairs or small groups has proven to be beneficial for the calf’s affective or mental state. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow producers to fulfill calves’ nutritional requirements on an individual basis while housing calves in groups. Research has shown that calf feeding behavior changes recorded by AMF software can be used as an indicator of disease. However, most previous studies had small sample sizes or were conducted at multiple sites. Therefore, the objective of this observational study was to investigate the association between feeding behaviors and disease in preweaned group-housed dairy calves fed with AMF at a single large dairy. The study farm was visited on a weekly basis from May 2018 to May 2019. During the farm visit, study personnel visually scored calves for health eventsand collected AMF software feeding behavior data. Calf health scores included calf attitude, ear position, ocular discharge, nasal discharge, hide dirtiness, and cough score. Associations between feeding behavior and disease were identified using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) approach. The final GAMM (n = 599 calves) included the fixed effects of rewarded visits (with milk being offered), unrewarded visits (without milk), total milk intake (mL per day), average milk intake per visit (mL/day), drinking speed (mL per min), interval between visits (min), visit duration (min), and calf age (day). Total intake per day, drinking speed, interval between visits, age, and rewarded visits were associated with dairy calf health status (P < 0.05). In the field, a calf grower could use the behavioral traits collected by AMF as a potential indicator of calf disease. Finally, GAMM showed to be an appropriate approach to model calf health status, as this approach was able to identify interactions that we suggest will aid in the development of a robust predictive model that can be used to flag a sick calf days before a clinical disease event.
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 t87074 Watch 2023M Condition of surplus dairy calves at livestock dealers in Ohio: A cross-sectional study. 2 H. Maggard calf health livestock market surplus dairy calf H. Maggard1, M. Moran2, G. Habing2, D. Renaud3, K. Proudfoot4, D. Wilson3, J. Pempek1 1Department of Animal Sciences, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 4Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada Surplus dairy calves are sold soon after birth, often through livestock markets, dealers, or both. Our previous work demonstrated veal calves arrived to growing facilities with a high prevalence of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) and signs of disease, but little is known regarding calf condition at livestock dealers. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of FTPI and poor health outcomes in surplus calves at livestock dealers. Two livestock dealers in Ohio were visited 2 to 3 times per week, with approximately 28 calves enrolled in the study per visit for a total of 1,063 calves. One blood sample per calf was obtained to evaluate FTPI by measuring serum total protein (using a cutoff < 5.1 g/dL). Health examinations included an evaluation of signs of navel inflammation, depression, dehydration, fever, diarrhea, respiratory disease, and arthritis; health outcomes were dichotomized using clinically relevant cut-points. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of calves with poor condition at arrival. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine if calf sex or source were risk factors for poor health outcomes. Seventy-eight percent (826/1063) of calves were male and 22.3% (237/1063) were female. Twenty-one percent (227/1063) of calves had FTPI, and those sold directly from the dairy farm were more likely to have FPTI compared with those purchased from livestock markets or dealers (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02). Upon clinical examination, 70.5% (748/1060) of calves were dehydrated, 26.7% (283/1059) had navel inflammation, and 7.1% (76/1062) were depressed. Seventeen percent (98/573) of calves from dairy farms that had FPTI were also dehydrated, while 14% (42/303) of calves from livestock markets or dealers had both health concerns. Male calves were more likely than female calves to have navel inflammation (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–3.0; P = 0.0003) and depression (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 0.94–4.4; P = 0.07). This research highlights the opportunity for improvements throughout the surplus calf production chain to improve calf condition before transport.
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 t86811 Watch 2024M Can lactating dairy cows housed in tie-stalls be monitored by a behavior-monitoring collar? 3 A. E. Varney precision tie-stall wearable technology A. E. Varney1, M. W. Setser1, P. H. Luimes2, J. H. C. Costa1, T. A. Burnett2 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus, Ridgetown, ON, Canada Tie-stall farms are still highly prevalent in North America, but the use of technology with this system is less common than with loose-housed dairies. Thus, the aim was to validate a behavior-monitoring collar (BMC) for rumination, activity, and inactivity time using visual observation of lactating dairy cows housed in tie-stalls. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (Lact = 2.3 ± 0.4; DIM = 159.4 ± 9.2) housed in a tie-stall barn with pasture access for 2 h daily were randomly selected at the University of Guelph’s Ridgetown Campus dairy. Cows were fitted with a BMC (CowMed, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil). A total of 24 h per cow of video data and behaviors were scored for ruminating (i.e., continuous movement of the jaw), activity (i.e., feeding and moving in the stall), or inactive/resting (i.e., idle standing or lying down). Observational data were converted into mins/h and classified into 2 parts of the day, morning (00:00 to 14:00h) and afternoon (14:00 to 24:00h), excluding time on pasture. Rumination, activity, and inactivity time observations recorded by the BMC were compared with visual observation using Pearson correlation, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots (BAP). Data from the BMC were considered precise if the correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were high (>0.70), and mean bias from the BAP included zero within the 95% interval of agreement. We found very high Pearson correlation coefficients for rumination (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and inactivity (0.70, P < 0.01), but low coefficients for activity (0.23, P < 0.28). The BAP were deemed acceptable and without bias. The BAP mean differences ± SD (BMC – observation) were −1.74 ± 4.31, −2.22 ± 5.54, and 3.61 ± 4.67 min per hour for rumination, inactivity, and activity, respectively. The BAP 's 95% interval of agreement encompassed 100% of the observations of inactivity and activity time and all but one cow's observations for rumination time. The slope of the linear regression, however, was different than 1 for all behaviors. In summary, this study validates the high precision of rumination and inactivity, but not activity for dairy cattle housed in tie-stalls.
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 t86721 Watch 2025M Effects of early social housing on longer-term performance and age of onset to estrus in dairy heifers. 4 E. E. Lindner dairy heifer estrus social housing E. E. Lindner1, T. Martins1, S. B. Doyle1, E. K. Miller-Cushon1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Despite evidence of performance benefits of social housing for dairy calves, there are gaps in knowledge of longer-term effects on growth and development. In other species, early life social contact affects aspects of reproductive development, suggesting that social rearing of dairy calves may affect age at puberty. The objective of this study was to assess effects of social housing on dairy heifers performance, expression of estrus behavior, and age at puberty. In a preliminary data set, heifers were housed either individually (IH; n = 19 heifers) or in pairs (PH; n = 18; 1 focal heifer/pair) from birth until 9 weeks of age. Beginning at 6 mo of age (202.2 ± 15.7 d of age, mean ± SD), body weight, hip height, and anogenital distance (AGD) were recorded weekly until breeding at 12.5 ± 0.57 mo of age. Heifers were placed with an Estrotect breeding indicator (Estrotect, Spring Valley, WI), which was examined 3 times/week for evidence of mounting and standing estrus (score 1–4 based on color change indicating rubbing; 1 = no change, 4 = solid color change). Ultrasounds were performed the week following a positive Estrotect reading (score 3 or 4) to confirm the presence of a CL. Previously pair-housed heifers tended to be taller (129.3 vs. 128.0 cm; PH vs. IH; SE = 0.52; P = 0.07) with no treatment by week interaction (P = 0.46), and body weight did not differ (287.6 vs. 294.3 kg; IH vs. PH; SE = 5.2; P = 0.37). We found no effect of previous housing treatment on AGD (12.6 vs. 12.6 cm; IH vs. PH; SE = 0.13; P = 0.9) or age of onset of estrus in these heifers (344 vs. 340 d of age; IH vs. PH; SE = 8.7; P = 0.71). Estrotect scores during the month coinciding with the first confirmed cycle suggested similar expression of estrus behavior between treatments (2.2 vs. 2.2; IH vs. PH; SE = 0.18; P = 0.86), with scores decreasing following the first confirmed estrus (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our observed tendency for greater heights suggests potential long-term growth advantages associated with social housing with no significant effect on reproductive performance outcomes in calves reared individually or in pairs.
Animal Behavior & Well-Being Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 7:30 t86766 Watch 2026M Personality is associated with performance in individually housed crossbred Holstein × Angus calves. 5 E. Michalski beef-on-dairy behavior temperament E. Michalski1, M. Woodrum1, G. Mazon1, H. Neave2, J. Costa1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2Aarhus University, Aarhaus, Denmark The aim was to investigate association between performance and behavioral responses of individually housed calves to standardized personality tests. Crossbred Holstein x Angus individually housed calves (n = 29) had free access to water and calf starter. Weight was measured weekly and calf starter intake was recorded daily. Calves underwent 3 personality tests in 2 blocks at 80.7 ± 2.0 d of age. Calves engaged in a novel person test, and novel object/startle test. The novel person test introduced an unknown person in the calf pen for 10 min. The novel object and startle test were combined into one using a remote-controlled car that was stationary and moved across the pen when approached or at the lapse of 5 min with another 5 min observation after movement. Behaviors recorded were grooming, licking, touching, interacting with environment, inactivity, attentiveness toward object/person, object/person and locomotion play, and latency to approach or reapproach person/object. A principal component analysis (PCA) was done to reduce correlated measures of tests. Spearman’s correlations assessed relationship between individual performance and PCA scores. The PCA yielded 3 factors explaining 76.1% variance. Factors were labeled as factor 1 “fearful,” factor 2 “inactive,” and factor 3 “bold” based on behaviors extracted in each. Overall, calves ate 1.29 ± 1.43 kg of grain on a dry matter basis with an ADG of 0.97 ± 0.57 kg/d for the study. The overall mean total grain DMI was 99.51 ± 32.56 kg. Factor 1 had a negative association with ADG (“fearful”; F1,19 = 26.35; P ≤ 0.001) and mean DMI (F1,20 = 25.47; P ≤ 0.001). Time spent licking, or non-nutritive oral manipulation of buckets/walls, had a positive correlation with factor 2 (“inactive”; F1,22 = 7.43, P = 0.01). Factor 3 (“bold”) had no significant association with performance measures. These results indicate that fearful calves during personality testing had lower average daily gain and calf starter intake and inactive calves had more time doing non-nutritive oral behaviors. There is evidence to suggest that personality scoring is related to individual performance in this study.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 s9924                  
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86974 Watch 2028M Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with altered eating behavior and lower feed intake of transition cows. 1 P. D. French DMI inflammation transition P. D. French1, S. A. Hagerty1 1PHD R&D, Fort Atkinson, WI The objective of this study was to determine if inflammation status as defined by elevated haptoglobin (Hp) or low metabolic health index (MHI) is associated with feeding behavior and DMI during the transition period. Ninety-five, group housed and individually fed (BioControl CRFI, Rakkestad, NO) multiparous cows at the time of calving from a transition (−21 to +21 DIM) experiment were retrospectively assigned to one of 3 groups (L = low, M = medium, or H = high) based on plasma Hp at 7 DIM and also to one of 3 groups (L, M, or H) based on MHI calculated from plasma albumin, cholesterol, and bilirubin determined at 7 DIM. Four cows each between the L-M and M-H breaks were removed creating 3 distinct 29 cow groups for Hp (1.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 2.7 ± 0.4, 4.7 ± 1.2 mg/ml for L, M, and H, respectively) and 3 distinct 29 cow groups for MHI (−2.4 ± 1.2 (SD), 0.2 ± 0.4, 2.3 ± 0.9 for L, M, and H, respectively). Daily DMI and eating behavior were analyzed separately for Hp and MHI using the mixed model of JMP. Prepartum (PRE) and postpartum (POST) DMI differed (P < 0.05) for Hp group with lower levels having higher DMI (PRE DMI 14.2, 13.7, and 12.8 ± 0.3 kg/d; POST DMI 22.8, 22.2, and 20.6 ± 0.4 kg/d, for L, M, and H, respectively). PRE eating time (ET) followed a similar pattern as DMI, decreasing as Hp increased (193, 183, and 167 ± 4 min/d for Hp L, M, and H, respectively; P < 0.05). POST ET was similar for Hp L and M (189 ± 4 min/d), which were greater (P < 0.05) than H (169 ± 4 min/d). PRE eating rate (g DM/min) was less (P < 0.05) for Hp L vs M and H, whereas POST ET did not differ. Hp H had fewer (P < 0.05) feedbunk visits PRE but similar POST. Although POST DMI increased with increasing MHI (20.4, 22.1, and 23.3 ± 0.4 kg/d, for L, M, and H, respectively; P < 0.05), PRE DMI was only greater for H (13.3, 12.9, and 14.0 ± 0.3 kg/d for L, M, and H, respectively). PRE and POST ET was greater (P < 0.05) for MHI H vs L and M. MHI H made fewer (P < 0.05) visits to the feedbunk PRE and M and H had more (P < 0.05) visits POST. In conclusion, cows in better metabolic status as measured by Hp and MHI at 7 DIM spent more time at the feedbunk which led to greater DMI.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t87069 Watch 2029M Assessment of the effects of prepartum anti-inflammatory therapies on cow health and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. 2 E. Jimenez acetylsalicylic acid meloxicam prepartum period E. Jimenez1, J. Spring1, M. Martinez1, E. Hovingh1, J. Lawhead2, A. A. Barragan1 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Millerstown Veterinary Associates, Millerstown, PN The objective of this study was to assess the effects of pre-partum administration of anti-inflammatory therapies on β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB] concentration, incidence of postpartum diseases and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. At 14 d before the expected calving date, cows (n = 64) and heifers (n = 24) were blocked by BCS category (optimal = 3.25–3.5; high ≥3.75) and parity (nulliparous; parous), and randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment groups: 1) Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA; n = 29) = one oral treatment with administration of acetylsalicylic acid (4 boluses; 480 grain/bolus); 2) Meloxicam (MEL; n = 31) = one oral administration with meloxicam (1mg/kg of BW), or 3) Placebo (PLC; n = 29) = one oral treatment with gelatin capsules filled with water. At 7 ± 3, 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 DIM blood samples were collected to assess BHB concentration, and clinical metritis was assessed using a Metricheck device. A BHB cut-off of ≥ 1.2 mmol/L was used to determine subclinical ketosis. Clinical disease events in the first 60 DIM and reproductive performance parameters for the first 120 DIM were collected from on-farm computer records. The data were analyzed using MIXED, GLIMMIX, and FREQ procedures of SAS as a randomized complete-block design. On average enrolled cows received treatment administration 10 ± 5.1 d before actual calving date. There was no difference on BHB concentration between study groups (ASA = 0.71 mmol/L, 95% CI = 0.57–0.88; MEL = 0.67 mmol/L, 95% CI = 0.55–0.82; PLC = 0.65 mmol/L, 95% CI = 0.53–0.80; P = 0.78). However, cows treated with MEL tended to have higher incidence of subclinical ketosis at 21 ± 3 DIM compared with PLC cows (ASA = 24.4 ± 12%; MEL = 50.9 ± 15.7%; PLC = 6 ± 6.3%; P = 0.08). Cows treated with ASA had lower incidence of retained placenta compared with MEL and PLC cows (ASA = 0%, n = 0/29; MEL = 19.35%, n = 6/31; PLC = 17.24%, n = 5/29; P = 0.03). There was no difference in the reproductive performance parameters assessed. These findings suggest that treatment with pre-partum anti-inflammatory drugs might have positive effects on postpartum cow health. Further studies with larger data sets are needed to confirm association observed in this trial.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86399 Watch 2030M Association of passive transfer of immunity, measured by serum total protein, with health measures and serum metabolites in female Jersey calves. 3 P. Rezamand passive transfer total protein serum metabolites M. Mazinani1, B. J. Tverdy1, C. Y. Tsai1, W. J. Price2, P. Rezamand1 1Animal, Veterinary, and Food Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Statistical Programs, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of failure of passive transfer, measured by serum total protein (TP), with morbidity and serum metabolites. A total of 1,290, one-day-old Jersey female calves from a commercial calf grower farm in the Western US were enrolled. Health data were collected by Feedlot Health Management Services (Okotoks, Alberta Canada), proprietary software iFHMS system, on an individual animal level, from arrival to shipping or death. Blood samples were collected from each calf at 48 ± 6 h postarrival and centrifuged, and serum was obtained for further analyses. Serum TP was measured using a digital refractometer. Calves were categorized based on proposed USDA guidelines into Poor (TP <5.1 g/dL; n = 51), Fair (TP ≥5.1 - 5.7 g/dL; n = 106), Good (TP 5.8 - 6.1 g/dL; n = 201), and Excellent (TP ≥6.2 g/dL; n = 932). Serum samples were analyzed for α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol using HPLC. Serum glucose and BHBA concentration were determined using enzymatic assays. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX and logistic regression models. Incidence of diseases in overall TP categories were 49.5%, 75.8% and 57.7% for respiratory, diarrhea and otitis, respectively. A difference was noted between Poor vs. Fair, and Good vs. Excellent category (P = 0.003) in serum β-carotene. Serum retinol showed differences comparing Excellent vs. Good and Excellent vs. Fair (P = 0.02). Serum glucose differed among serum TP classes (P = 0.05). Overall differences among serum TP classes were noted for respiratory diseases (P = 0.003). The odds of receiving treatment for respiratory disease, but not other diseases tested, were lower (P = 0.003) for the Poor vs. Excellent category (OR = 0.42, CL = 0.24, 0.75) indicating incidence of respiratory disease was lower in Poor compared with Excellent. Overall, our data suggest associations exist between failure of passive transfer of maternal antibodies with morbidity, some lipid soluble vitamins, and serum metabolites.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86308 Watch 2031M Dexamethasone improved productivity of heat-stressed dairy calves. 4 J. M. Cantet heat stress calf J. M. Cantet1, Z. Yu1, M. R. R Nair1, A. G. Ríus1 1University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN Heat stress (HS) can compromise dairy cattle performance. Therapeutics such as dexamethasone (DX) decreased the deleterious effects of HS on rodents. However, physiological changes caused by DX in heat-stressed calves remain elusive. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of DX in dairy calves exposed to diurnal HS. Thirty-two Holstein bull calves (41 ± 4.8 d old, with 68.5 ± 3.62 kg of BW) were housed in individual pens in the Johnson Research and Teaching Unit (UTIA) in 2 cohorts (16 animals/cohort) and were allowed to adapt to facilities for 5 d. Calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments as follow: heat stress (HS, ~40°C ambient temperature, from 0800 to 1900 h/d) or thermoneutral conditions (TN, ~20°C ambient temperature, 24 h/d) for 5 d (i.e., 1 to 5) and the intramuscular administration of DX (0.05 mg/kg BW) or saline solution (Sal) on d 1 and 3. Commercial milk replacer was provided twice daily (0.68 kg DM, in 4 L/d) and starter once daily ad libitum. Water was provided daily ad libitum. Individual calf feed intake was recorded daily and BW was recorded on d 0, 2, 4, and 5. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured daily at 0630, 1400, and 1800 h (GLA M700 digital thermometer). Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS as CRD using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (environment (env) and therapeutic (ther)), using cohort as a random effect, and time as a repeated measure. LSD method was used for multiple comparisons. Significant effects were declared at P < 0.05. HS-Dex calves increased RT 0.4°C at 1400 and 0.7°C at 1800 h, compared with HS-Sal counterparts, (env × ther × time interaction; P = 0.044). There was an env × time interaction showing that HS calves peaked water intake at d 3 whereas TN water intake remained unchanged (P < 0.03). Dex calves increased water intake compared with Sal (P = 0.044). Heat-stressed animals decreased DM intake at d 5 (env × time interaction P < 0.02). Dex increased ADG (P = 0.040) and improved feed efficiency (ADG/DMI, P = 0.025) compared with Sal. These results suggest that dexamethasone improved productive parameters of calves but this response did not improve heat stress-mediated changes in RT and DM intake.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86292 Watch 2032M A pilot study evaluating use of a beneficial biofilm product in individual calf housing. 5 C. A. Reynolds calf biofilm environment C. A. Reynolds1,2, R. A. Scuderi3, A. L. Skidmore3, S. Y. Morrison1 1William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY, 2University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 3Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI A novel, beneficial biofilm product was evaluated in calf housing for preventing surface recolonization by enteric pathogens. Calf hutches measuring 3.3 m2 were cleaned and then assigned to one of 3 treatments (n = 10/treatment) in a randomized, complete-block design with a 21-d treatment period. Treatments applied 24 h after cleaning were 1) no application (NC), 2) application of chlorine-free, distilled water (PC), or 3) application of a beneficial biofilm product at a rate of 0.04g/m2 of hutch floor space (BF). Calves (17.1 ± 12 d of age) were placed in the hutches 24 h after treatment application, and monitored daily. Environmental surface samples were collected with swabs from 5 unique locations within the hutch interiors at 5 time points over the 21-d period. Standard plate count (SPC) for each hutch was performed for overall bacterial presence, and quantitative PCR analysis for detection of 3 diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli spp., and Cryptosporidium parvum. Also, NC and BF were applied to hutch pieces (n = 6/trt/time) in vitro, and SPC was used to evaluate biofilm formation after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation at 28°C. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4. Hutch was experimental unit, and model included fixed effects of treatment by time, with block as a random effect. The in vitro model included hutch piece as experimental unit, with fixed effects of treatment by time. A treatment by time interaction (P < 0.001) was observed for total cell counts, with a tendency (P = 0.06) for a treatment effect among the NC, PC, and BF treatments (3.93, 4.13, and 4.30 ± 0.10 log cfu/cm2, respectively), with PC higher than NC. Presence of Salmonella, E. coli, and C. parvum (log copies DNA/µg) were all below limits of detection across treatments. A significant treatment by time interaction was observed in vitro, confirming biofilm formation 24–48 h postapplication. Further study is necessary to elucidate the natural calf hutch microbiota and effects of beneficial biofilms, potential health outcomes in calves, and broader applicability within calf-rearing operations.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86197 Watch 2033M Parenteral antioxidant supplementation at birth improves the response to intranasal vaccination in newborn dairy calves. 6 A. Abuelo oxidative stress mucosal immunity micronutrients A. Nayak1, A. Abuelo1 1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Newborn calves experience oxidative stress throughout the first month of their life, which is known to decrease lymphocyte functions relevant to vaccine responsiveness. Thus, this study aimed to determine the extent to which parenteral antioxidant supplementation given at birth improves the response to an intranasal viral vaccine in the first month of life of newborn dairy calves. For this, 21 calves were randomly assigned at birth to one of 2 commercially available antioxidant micronutrient supplements or a placebo group receiving 0.9% sterile saline (n = 7/group). Serum and nasal secretion samples were collected before administration of treatments and an intranasal vaccine against respiratory viruses (bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine syncytial respiratory virus, and parainfluenza 3), and once weekly for the first 4 weeks of age. Systemic redox balance was determined in serum. Immunoglobulin A specific for bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine syncytial respiratory virus was quantified in nasal secretions as a proxy to intranasal vaccine responsiveness. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures, including treatment (supplement A, supplement B, or control), time (wk 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of age), and their interaction as main effects and calf sex as a random effect. Our results showed that parenteral administration of antioxidants at birth improved calves' redox balance. Additionally, calves receiving antioxidant supplementation had higher concentrations of immunoglobulin A in their nasal secretions than calves in the control group. Thus, we conclude that supplementation of calves with antioxidants at birth could be a practical strategy to improve intranasal vaccine response. Future larger studies should evaluate the extent to which this increased mucosal response to intranasal vaccination could result in decreased calf morbidity and mortality.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86082 Watch 2034M The effect of long-distance transportation on growth of surplus dairy calves. 7 H. M. Goetz veal industry dairy-beef male dairy calf H. M. Goetz1, D. F. Kelton1, J. H. C. Costa2, K. C. Creutzinger3, C. B. Winder1, D. L. Renaud1 1Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 3Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, WI It is not well understood how time in transit impacts subsequent growth of surplus dairy calves. The objective of this randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of variables such as duration of transport, age, sex, breed, and transfer of passive immunity status (TPI) on growth after arrival to a commercial veal facility. Calves enrolled at birth on 5 commercial dairy farms (n = 175) were examined daily before transportation, and randomly assigned to 6, 12, or 16 h of continuous road transportation. A blood sample was also collected within 24–48 h of birth to assess TPI. Calves were weighed at birth, before and immediately after transportation, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h after unloading. Calves were also weighed 14 and 50 d following transport. Repeated-measures mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of duration, age, breed, sex, and TPI on growth following transportation. Calves transported for 16 h had significantly lower weights immediately following transportation compared with those transported for 6 h (- 3.51 lbs, P = 0.04; 95% CI −6.83- −0.20), however, no significant differences were found at subsequent time points. Female (−2.69 lbs, P = 0.04, −5.27- −0.12) and Holstein (−3.44 lbs, P = 0.02, −6.28- −0.60) calves had lower growth for 50 d after transportation compared with male and dairy-beef calves, respectively. Additionally, calves transported at 7–11 d (5.64 lbs, P < 0.01, 2.96–8.32), 12–14 d (11.55 lbs, P < 0.01, 8.33–14.77), and 15–19 (13.44 lbs, P < 0.01, 10.58–16.30) d old experienced greater growth than calves transported at 2–6 d old over the 50 d after transportation. Receiving excellent (IgG ≥25.0 g/L) transfer of passive immunity was positively associated with growth for 50 d following transportation compared with calves who received poor transfer of passive immunity (5.20 lbs, P = 0.02, 0.67–9.72). Our findings highlight important factors associated with optimal performance following transportation, such as providing excellent colostrum management to calves and transporting calves at older ages.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t85952 Watch 2035M Association between bovine respiratory disease and hematological variables during the preweaning period in dairy calves transported to a calf-raising facility. 8 L. P. Bielamowicz bovine respiratory disease (BRD) blood calf L. P. Bielamowicz1, M. L. Celestino1, L. Fernandes1, P. R. Menta1, M. A. Ballou1, R. C. Neves2, V. A. Machado1 1Department of Veterinary Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 2Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Our objective was to investigate the association of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) with blood cell counts and circulating concentration of metabolites, minerals, and acute-phase proteins throughout the preweaning period in dairy calves raised in a calf-raising facility. Data from 305 calves enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a metaphylaxis approach to reduce BRD were used. Calves were transported from dairies in MN to a calf-raising facility in NM and were housed in individual hutches. Blood samples were collected at 7, 17, 34, and 56 d of life for the analysis of cell counts, biochemistry, and the concentration of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid-A (SAA). The BRD diagnosis was based on a scoring system that assesses 6 clinical signs (cough, eye discharge, abnormal respiration, nasal discharge, ear droop or head tilt, and rectal temperature ≥39.2°C). A series of mixed general linear models accounting for repeated measures were fitted to the data using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The independent variables BRD and time of blood collection were included in all models, and dairy of origin and metaphylaxis treatment were included as random variables. The BRD incidence was 11.1%. Blood cell counts variables and circulating concentration of SAA were not associated with BRD incidence (P ≥ 0.11). The average Mg concentration throughout the 4 sampling days was 0.04 mEq/L lower in calves diagnosed with BRD in comparison to healthy counterparts (P = 0.04). The association of BRD with blood P, urea nitrogen (BUN), Na, K, Cl, Zn, and Hp were conditional to day of blood sampling (P < 0.05). Calves diagnosed with BRD had greater blood P at 7 d of life, greater BUN and Cl at 17 d of age, and lower K and Zn at 17 d of age in comparison to healthy calves. Additionally, circulating Hp concentration was greater at 7 d of age and lower at 56 d of life for BRD calves in comparison to healthy counterparts. In conclusion, several hematological variables were associated with BRD diagnosis in dairy calves.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t85932 Watch 2036M The influence of immune response on colostral IgG in US and Canadian Holstein dairy cows. 9 T. Altvater-Hughes IgG genetics colostrum T. Altvater-Hughes1, L. Wagter-Lesperance1, D. Hodgins1, C. Bauman2, S. Larmer3, B. Mallard1 1Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Semex, Guelph, ON, Canada Colostral immunoglobulin G (IgG) is crucial for the protection of calves as they are born essentially agammaglobulinemic. Maternal IgG protects against pathogens the dam has previously encountered. Estimated breeding values (EBV) and genomic parent averages (GPA) are used to select high immune response (IR) cows and help improve colostrum quality. The IR is measured by antibody- (AMIR, measured by antibody response) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR, measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity response) and ranked as high, average, and low. The objective of this study was to assess the association of AMIR and CMIR rank with colostral IgG concentrations. High IR cows were expected to have higher colostral IgG concentrations than average or low IR cows. Colostrum was collected from Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy herds in California, United States (US, n = 590 cows, herd sizes: herd 1 n = 4,740, herd 2 = 3,270, herd 3 = 2,300 milking cows) and one Canadian research herd (n = 275 cows) at the Ontario Dairy Research Centre. Total colostral IgG concentrations (IgG1 and IgG2) were measured by radial immunodiffusion, analyzed using SAS general linear models, and least squares means were reported. In U.S. herds, CMIR GPA rank was significant (p = 0.04). High CMIR cows produced colostrum with significantly greater IgG concentrations (117.13 ± 11.48 SEM g/L) than low CMIR cows (101.05 ± 10.86 g/L, p = 0.03), with average CMIR cows having intermediate IgG concentrations (114.73 ± 10.20 g/L). There were no significant differences in colostral IgG among high, average, and low AMIR cows (108.96 ± 10.75 g/L, 111.94 ± 10.32 g/L, and 119.20 ± 11.68 g/L, respectively). In the Canadian herd, high CMIR cows based on EBV rank had greater mean colostral IgG (105.11 ± 6.06 g/L) than average CMIR (103.41 ± 2.74 g/L) and low CMIR cows (93.72 ± 5.65 g/L), but the differences were not significant. There were no significant differences in colostral IgG among high (99.30 ± 5.92 g/L), average (102.33 ± 2.86 g/L), and low AMIR (103.14 ± 4.98 g/L) cows. Selecting for high CMIR rank, along with AMIR, is expected to help improve colostral quality and support neonatal health.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t85905 Watch 2037M A cross-sectional study on antimicrobial use and calf management practices in Canadian preweaned dairy calves. 10 T. Uyama transition milk heifer T. Uyama1, D. Renaud1, D. Léger2, D. Rizzo2, E. Morrison1, E. de Jong3, K. McCubbin3, H. Barkema3, S. Dufour4, J. Sanchez5, L. Heider5, J. McClure5, S. LeBlanc1, C. Winder1, D. Kelton1 1Department of Population Medicine, ON Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, 5Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada The objective of this study was to estimate antimicrobial use and investigate the relationship with calf management practices in pre-weaned heifer calves on Canadian dairy farms. This study was part of a multi-year project (Canadian Dairy Network for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance). A convenience sample of 147 dairy farms across 5 provinces were visited to administer a questionnaire and collect calf health records. Questions focused on herd demographics, colostrum, and calf management practices. Calf records were retrieved from electronic and paper records. Antimicrobial treatments were obtained from heifer calves up to 60 d of age born in the last 12 mo. For animals that left the herd, age at removal was used to calculate the number of days-at-risk. The defined daily doses (DDD)/calf-year was calculated for each antimicrobial class. In addition, the total number of antimicrobial treatments/calf-year was calculated for each farm and log-transformed as a dependent variable. A multivariable linear regression model was built to assess the relationship of calf management practices with the number of antimicrobial treatments/calf-year. A complete set of calf records was retrieved from 74 farms with 7,817 newborn calves, including 2,310 calves treated with antimicrobials. A total of 7,307 antimicrobial treatments were obtained. Florfenicol (33%), penicillin (23%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (18%) were the most used antimicrobials followed by macrolides (10%), fluoroquinolones (4%), aminoglycosides (3%), sulfonamides (3%), tetracyclines (2%), ceftiofur (1%), and others (3%). Florfenicol and macrolides (175 DDD/100 calf-years each) were most used with ceftiofur (7.3 DDD/100 calf-years) being the least. Farmers who checked colostrum quality had higher antimicrobial treatments/calf-year than those who did not check the quality. Farmers who did not feed transition milk had higher antimicrobial treatments/calf-year than those who fed transition milk to calves. Most antimicrobial treatments of pre-weaned calves used drugs in categories 2 (high) and 3 (medium) but not very high importance to human medicine.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86663 Watch 2038M Navel healing in male and female Holstein calves over the first 14 days of life: A longitudinal cohort study. 11 T. E. von Konigslow Holstein calf navel healing navel diameter T. E. von Konigslow1,2, T. F. Duffield1, K. Beattie1, C. B. Winder1, D. L. Renaud1, D. F. Kelton1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objectives of this study were to 1) describe navel healing in male and female neonatal Holstein calves over a 14-d observation period, and 2) determine the associations of dam parity, calving factors, and calf factors with navel measurements and time to healing. Sixty-eight Holstein calves (43 female / 25 male) were enrolled at birth between July 3 and October 17, 2018. Navel healing outcomes (cessation of navel discharge, navel cord remnant drying, navel cord remnant drop-off) and navel stump measurement outcomes (proximal diameter, distal diameter, length) were recorded every 24 +/− 1 h for 14 d. Data were also collected for dam parity, calving factors (time of birth, calving ease), and calf factors (calf sex, calf vitality at birth, birth weight, average daily gain, serum total protein, medical treatment(s)). The mean time to navel cord remnant drying was 2.4 +/− 0.1 d. Fifty-six percent of calves retained their navel cord remnant beyond 14 d. No associations were identified between navel healing outcomes and dam parity, calving, and calf factors. Navel measurement outcomes were associated with calving and calf factors. Specifically, proximal navel stump diameter was associated with day of observation (decreased from d 5–14), calf sex (smaller in female calves), time of birth (larger in calves born overnight as compared with the morning), and birthweight (larger in birthweights >44.1 kg compared with <38.5 kg). Distal navel stump diameter was associated with an interaction between sex and day of observation (larger in male calves on d 3 – 7, d 9, d 12), and sex and medical treatment (larger in untreated male calves, no difference between treated male and female calves). Navel stump length was associated with time of birth (longer in calves born overnight as compared with any other time) and the interaction of birthweight and day of observation (longer in birthweights >44.1 kg compared with 38.6 – 41.5 on d 3, d 8 – 10, d 13 and 41.6 - 44.0 kg on d 3, d 5, d 7 – 8, d 13). The wide range in time to navel drying and drop off suggest that these measures may not be an adequate indicator of calf age.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t87070 Watch 2039M Evaluating the efficacy of colostrum as a therapy for diarrhea in young calves. 12 H. S. Carter morbidity treatment preweaned H. S. Carter1, M. A. Steele1, J. H. C. Costa2, M. Nagorske3, D. L. Renaud1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 3Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Diarrhea is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding colostrum to pre-weaned dairy calves at the onset of diarrhea on the duration and severity of the diarrhea bout. At a calf-raising facility, calves (n = 109) were enrolled based on a fecal score > 2 on a scale of 0 to 3. Calves were then randomly allocated to receive one of 3 treatments: Control (CON) 8 feedings over 4 d of 2.5 L of milk replacer at 130 g/L, 2) Short-term colostrum supplementation (STC) 4 feedings over the first 2 d of 2.5 L of a mixture of milk replacer at 65 g/L and colostrum replacer at 65 g/L followed by 4 feeding over 2 d of 2.5 L of milk replacer at a concentration of 130 g/L, or 3) Long-term colostrum supplementation (LTC) 8 feedings over 4 d of 2.5 L of a mixture of milk replacer at 65 g/L and colostrum replacer at 65 g/L. Serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated upon facility arrival, body weights (BW), days to enrollment since facility arrival (DTE), and severity of diarrhea (SD) were recorded at enrollment and daily health exams were performed for 28 d thereafter. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of CON, STC, and LTC, and explanatory variables (SD, IgG, and BW) on days to resolution of diarrhea. Resolution was improved by 1.23 d (P = 0.01) in the LTC group while IgG had no effect (0.20). There was a positive association with BW and the length of disease (P = 0.01), signifying that calves who are larger at the onset of diarrhea will resolve more rapidly. SD was negatively correlated with days to resolution of diarrhea (P = 0.01), suggesting that the duration of disease was increased for calves with more severe diarrhea. Additionally, average daily gain was assessed with a linear regression repeated-measures model. Calves receiving the LTC treatment had higher growth rates compared with calves in the control group by 98 g/d (P = 0.04). These results suggest that colostrum may be an effective therapy for diarrhea in pre-weaned calves.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86839 Watch 2040M Survey of bacterial pathogens in calves from dairies across the United States. 13 S. Paszkiewicz calf pathogens S. Paszkiewicz1, J. Thompson1, A. Smith1, T. Rehberger1 1Church and Dwight, Waukesha, WI Pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella are known to cause enteric disease in calves. C. perfringens is a gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that is often associated with acute enteric disease in ruminants, specifically necro-hemorrhagic enteritis in calves. E. coli and Salmonella are gram-negative bacteria that interfere with the normal function of the gut, causing diarrhea in newborn and colostrum deficient calves. The objective of this survey was to determine pathogenic bacterial levels and prevalence across different age groups in calf fecal samples. From November 2015 to June 2021, 3,221 fecal samples were collected by a fresh fecal grab per healthy calf from 97 farms across 18 states. The calf age groups compared were weeks: < 1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–8, 8–12, and 12–20. C. perfringens was enumerated from 3,045 calf fecal samples by count of the α-toxin gene out of the number of isolates collected per sample and 69.6% had C. perfringens counts greater than 1.0 × 101 cfu/g. Calves < 1 week and 1–2 weeks old had significantly higher levels of C. perfringens compared with every other age group (P < 0.01) using one-way ANOVA. Levels of C. perfringens were higher in wk 8–12 compared with wk 12–20 (P < 0.05). Escherichia coli was determined to be pathogenic by screening against a panel of virulent genes and adjusting the counts based on how many isolates collected from the sample contained one or more toxin genes. From a set of 2,689 samples, 73.0% had detectable levels of pathogenic E. coli above 1.0 × 101 cfu/g; and calves < 1 week to 2–3 weeks had significantly higher (P < 0.01) levels than all other groups. At 12–20 weeks, pathogenic E. coli levels increased compared with wk 8–12. Across 2,479 samples tested, 210 were positive for Salmonella (8.5%). Of the < 1 week samples, 19.0% were positive for Salmonella followed by 10.5% of the 1–2 week samples. Weeks 2–3, 3–4, 4–8, 8–12, and 12–20 had a Salmonella prevalence of 7.7%, 3.5%, 4.7%, 8.2%, and 8.9%, respectively. This data indicates the highest pathogenic challenge occurs when calves are < 1 week of age and can be used for future research to improve solutions for pathogen control in calves.
Animal Health Posters 1 In-Person Poster Animal Health 6/20/2022 7:30 t86151 Watch 1112M Effect of systemic ceftiofur therapy on metritis cure, reproductive performance, culling, and milk yield in metritic cows. 14 P. R Menta ceftiofur metritis therapy performance P. R Menta1, E. B. Oliveira2, J. G. Prim3, K. N. Galvao3,4, F. S. Lima2, M. A. Ballou1, N. R. Noyes5, V. S. Machado1 1Department of Veterinary Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 2Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 4D. H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 5Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ceftiofur treatment on metritis cure, milk yield, reproductive performance, and culling during the first 180 DIM. A total of 427 Holstein cows diagnosed with metritis from 4 different farms located in TX, CA, and FL were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Cows were examined for metritis using the Metricheck device at 4, 7, and 10 DIM. Cows identified by farm employees as possible metritis cases were also evaluated for metritis. Cows diagnosed with metritis (fetid, watery, reddish/brownish uterine discharge) were blocked by parity and randomly allocated to receive 2 subcutaneous injections of 6.6 mg/kg of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid 72 h apart (CEF) or to remain untreated (CON). Metritis cure was evaluated at 5 and 14 d after diagnosis and was defined as the absence of metritis signs. Data regarding milk yield, culling, and reproduction was extracted from the farms’ database software. Milk yield, culling and reproduction, and metritis cure data were analyzed using the procedures of SAS MIXED, PHREG, and GLIMMIX, respectively. The variables DIM, BCS and rectal temperature at diagnosis, parity, stillbirth, vulvovaginal laceration, and biologically plausible interaction terms were offered to all models. Treatment was forced into all models, and farm was included as a random variable. Cows treated with CEF were at 1.7 (P < 0.01) and 1.6 (P = 0.04) higher odds of being cured from metritis than CON cows at 5 and 14 d after diagnosis, respectively. The effect of CEF on milk yield during the first 6 mo of lactation was conditional to parity (P < 0.01). Among primiparous cows, the milk yield for CEF and CON was 33.4 and 31.9 kg/d (P = 0.06), respectively. However, for multiparous cows, the milk yield was 41.6 and 43.3 kg/d for CEF and CON cows, respectively (P = 0.04). Ceftiofur therapy did not influence hazard of pregnancy (P = 0.86) and culling (P = 77). In conclusion, CEF increased metritis cure, but overall benefits to productivity and longevity were not observed.
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 s9927                  
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 t86780 Watch 2042M Investigating environmental robustness and fertility in dairy cattle using automated sensor data and meteorological observations. 1 P. L. Rockett fertility heat stress robustness P. L. Rockett1, C. M. Rochus1, F. Malchiodi2, C. F. Baes1,3 1Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Semex Alliance, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Institute of Genetics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Robustness is the ability of an individual to perform well under a wide range of environments. For example, a dairy cow that maintains its fertility and production under a large range of ambient temperatures could be considered more robust. Novel sensor technologies, such as automated activity monitors, have been implemented to detect estrous in dairy cattle. These activity-based measurements of estrus expression have been associated with reproductive performance. Our goal is to identify robust and fertile dairy cattle by using automated sensor activity data and environmental descriptors. To study robustness in dairy cattle in terms of fertility, our objectives are: 1) to compile high-quality temperature and humidity data sets from the nearest weather station for each research herd; 2) to estimate temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds for sensor-derived estrous indicator traits, classic fertility traits, and production traits; and 3) to perform a genetic evaluation of sensor-derived traits while accounting for heat stress. We downloaded hourly weather observations from the National Centers for Environmental Information that were recorded from 2019 to 2021 at multiple weather stations. Observations that were flagged as erroneous or had a value of “9999” were removed from the data set. The maximum distance between the final weather stations and research herds was less then 35 km. Therefore, the weather data from these weather stations should be an adequate representation of the herd’s thermal environment. Finally, we calculated daily THI values using ambient temperature and dewpoint temperature. This weather data will be combined with breeding and activity data to determine the THI threshold that negatively affects sensor-derived traits such as maximum estrous strength, mean estrous strength, and estrous duration. We will perform a genetic analysis of these sensor-derived traits at high and low THI to evaluate the possibility of using genetic selection to improve robustness and fertility in dairy cattle.
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 t86701 Watch 2043M Residual feed intake and its genetic parameters in preweaning calves. 2 K. Hoeksema feed efficiency calf genetics K. Hoeksema1, K. Houlahan1, H. R. Oliveira1,2, F. Miglior1,2, F. S. Schenkel1, C. F. Baes1,3 1Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Lactanet, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Feeding calves is one of the largest on-farm expenses for dairy producers and can impact the lifetime productivity of a cow. A potential solution to reduce the expense of feeding calves, without compromising their productivity as cows, is to genetically select calves that have better growth performance without increasing their feed consumption. Limited genetic research on preweaning Holstein calf feed efficiency has been conducted until now, therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of feed efficiency in preweaning Holstein calves. The data consisted of 40,441 total feed consumption (calf starter + milk replacer) records and 1,987 body weight records on 675 Holstein calves measured from birth to 65 d of age, raised at the Ontario Dairy Research Centre (Elora, ON, Canada) born between December 2015 and December 2021. Calves were fed a milk replacer containing 15% dry matter and weaned to an 88% dry matter pelleted calf starter. Body weight records were taken at birth, one month of age, and 2 mo of age. Feed efficiency will be measured using residual feed intake, calculated as the fixed linear regression of dry matter intake on metabolic body weight (body weight0.75), average daily gain, and age. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in preweaning calves will be estimated, and further research will be warranted to determine if there is a genetic relationship between preweaning feed efficiency and lactating feed efficiency.
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 t86879 Watch 2044M Variation in fecal potentially degradable NDF and associations with genetic merit in Holstein heifers and cows. 3 C. D. Dechow pdNDF genomic selection feed efficiency C. D. Dechow1, I. W. Haagen1, L. Han1, K. J. Harvatine1 1Penn State University, University Park, PA The objectives of this study were to contrast fecal potentially degradable neutral detergent fiber (pdNDF) in Holstein cows and heifers, and to determine the association of fecal pdNDF with genomic PTA (gPTA) for milk yield and components. Fecal samples were collected in the morning and afternoon from 392 lactating cows and 148 bred heifers from Penn State University and 4 collaborator herds. Fecal samples were dried at 55°C in a forced-air oven for 72 h and morning and afternoon samples were combined on an equal dry-weight basis and ground. The combined samples were evaluated for NDF and undigestible neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) following a 240-h in vitro digestion at a commercial laboratory to derive pdNDF, which was defined as neutral detergent fiber – uNDF. gPTA for milk, fat yield and %, and protein yield and % were available for 373 lactating cows and 52 heifers. Cow and heifer fecal pdNDF were first analyzed jointly with a linear model that included effects of lactation (0, 1, 2, ≥ 3) and herd. Cow and heifer were analyzed separately in subsequent analyses with linear models that included herd, lactation (cows only) and gPTA for a single trait. Least squares means (LSM) of pdNDF from lactation 0 (23.6%) and 1 (24.7%) were lower (P < 0.001) than from lactations 2 (26.8) and ≥ 3 (26.7). The effect of herd was significant (P < 0.001) with LSM that ranged from 21.1% to 29.2%. For lactating cows, higher gPTA for milk was associated with higher fecal pdNDF, whereas gPTA for fat % and protein % were associated with lower fecal pdNDF (P < 0.05); fat and protein yield gPTA were not significantly associated with fecal pdNDF. No gPTA were associated with fecal pdNDF in the heifer analyses. Higher fecal pdNDF indicates less efficient fiber digestion and heifers and young cows had favorable fecal pdNDF levels compared with mature cows. Higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with elevated fecal pdNDF, whereas higher genetic merit for milk fat % and milk protein % was favorably associated with fecal pdNDF. Nutrient analysis of feces can identify differences in digestive efficiency and could have utility for nutritional management and genetic selection for feed efficiency.
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 t86791 Watch 2045M Association of telomere length with genetic merit for fitness in Holsteins of different ages. 4 T. Muratori telomere length dairy cattle fitness T. Muratori1, I. W. Haagen1, A. Shabtay2, M. Cohen-Zinder2, C. D. Dechow1 1Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Newe Ya’ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Ramat Yishay, Israel Telomere length (TL) is a potential health and welfare biomarker that has not been fully developed in dairy cattle. The study’s aim was to examine genetic variation and association with health and fitness genetic evaluations. We collected 1,235 telomere length (TL) measures from 747 genotyped animals in 2 herds with records stratified into pre-calving (PC; n = 603), lactating cows (LC; n = 635), and all (ALL) ages. TL was ascertained using multi-plex quantitative PCR. Each trait was evaluated with a univariate single-step genomic model that included age, herd, and random effects of animal and permanent environment. TL declined as age increased (P < 0.05) with wide variation in TL among animals of the same age. Heritability estimates were 0.12 ± 0.09%, 0.21 ± 0.10%, and 0.20 ± 0.04% for PC, LC, and ALL, respectively. Estimated breeding values (EBV) for PC, LC, and ALL were extracted for both sires and cows and correlated with genomic PTA from national genomic evaluations. Increased sire EBV for ALL (n = 482) and PC (n = 85) was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with higher livability, productive life, and resistance to mastitis, metritis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. Significant associations of cow genomic EBV for ALL (n = 393) and PC (n = 102) included favorable correlations with livability, resistance to displaced abomasum, and ketosis; PC was also favorably correlated with productive life, mastitis resistance, and somatic cell score. EBV for LC were generally not strongly correlated with longevity or fitness. In conclusion, telomere length is a promising candidate trait for multiple-trait selection programs. This novel trait is heritable, available early in life, and correlated with longevity and health.
Breeding & Genetics Posters 1 In-Person Poster Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 7:30 t86952 Watch 2046M Breed differences between Montbéliardes, Holsteins, and their crosses for production, body condition score, stature, and telomere length. 5 I. Haagen telomeres crossbreeding I. Haagen1, T. Muratori1, C. Dechow1 1Penn State University, University Park The objective of this study was to compare breed differences for telomere length (TL), linear scores, and production among Holsteins (HO), Montbéliardes (MO), and F1 Holstein x Montbéliarde (MH) crosses. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences on chromosome ends that shorten during life and may be a biomarker to assess welfare. Three herds in the United States with HO, MO, and MH were visited annually for 2 years. Animals consisted of MO sired females with at least 2 additional generations of MO sires, MH females with a MO sire and an additional 2 generations of HO sires, and age matched HO controls. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and lactating animals were scored for BCS and stature. First-lactation 305-d mature equivalent milk, fat, and protein were extracted from PCDart or DHIPlus. There were 33 MO, 27 MH, and 65 HO, ranging in age from 0 to 88 mo of age, with telomere length estimated using qPCR. There were 128 BCS and stature evaluations on 34, 31, and 63 MO, MH, and HO, respectively. Production records were from 34 HO, 31 MH, and 66 HO. The model for TL included the fixed effects of herd, age, breed group and random cow. Stature and BCS were analyzed using a model that included herd, DIM, lactation group (1, ≥ 2), breed group and random cow. Production data were analyzed using a model that included herd-year at calving and breed group. Telomere length decreased with age (P < 0.05), but breed group differences were not significant. For BCS and stature, there were no significant differences between MO (BCS = 3.97; stature = 145.3 cm) or MH (BCS = 4.14; stature = 145.8 cm); however, HO were taller (148.1 cm; P < 0.05) and had lower BCS (3.27; P < 0.05). Holsteins tended to produce more fat than MH (+29.0 kg; P = 0.07), and there were no significant differences in either milk or protein yields between HO and MH. Montbeliardes produced less milk than HO and MH (HO = −1,167.3 kg; MH = −1,228.2 kg; P < 0.05), less fat than HO (−31.7 kg; P < 0.05), and less protein than MH (−28.1 kg; P < 0.05). Crossing MO with HO increases BCS and had negligible impacts on production.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 7:30 s9934                  
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86977 Watch 2047M Bacillus mosaicus contamination in milk processed with microfiltration. 1 T. T. Lott contamination milk spore T. T. Lott1, N. H. Martin1, M. Wiedmann1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Bacillus mosaicus is a recently described genomospecies that includes emetic B. cereus. While Bacillus contamination of fluid milk is typically assumed to originate from raw materials, there is increasing evidence that Bacillus and other sporeformers may also be introduced into fluid milk from environmental sources in processing plants and processing equipment. The purpose of this case study was to test the hypothesis that Bacillus mosaicus identified in microfiltered fluid milk originated from the processing environment. Raw milk was subjected to microfiltration with a 1.2 μm membrane before HTST pasteurization at 75°C for 20 seconds. Isolates were obtained from samples stored at 3, 6.5, or 10°C at the end of tested shelf life (63 days) from 7 different batches of milk. Identification of isolates was performed by PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing of a 632-nucleotide fragment of the rpoB gene. Following the identification of B. mosaicus as the most frequently isolated species from the milk described above, to test the microfiltration unit for Bacillus persisting after sanitation, UHT milk was circulated in the microfiltration unit for 30-minutes before samples were collected from the permeate and retentate valves. Of the isolates gathered from the extended shelf life milk, 32 of 38 (84%) isolates were characterized into 4 different rpoB allelic types belonging to the B. mosaicus group. B. mosaicus also represented 6 of 11 isolates (55%) obtained from the UHT milk that was circulated through the microfiltration unit after sanitation. Allelic types 59 and 194 were isolated from both the extended shelf life milk and UHT milk. Our findings further support that processing plant environment and equipment must be considered as sources of sporeforming spoilage organisms and pathogens.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t87049 Watch 2048M Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy processing environments over 10 years in British Columbia, Canada. 2 A. Domen antimicrobial resistance Listeria monocytogenes food safety A. Domen1,3, J. Porter1, J. Waite-Cusic1, L. McIntyre2, J. Kovacevic3,1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 2BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Food Innovation Center, Portland, OR Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen of concern in dairy products, where the processing environment often serves as the route of contamination. Isolates recovered from these environments have been reported to possess antimicrobial resistance to one or more antibiotics relevant to human health. We have assessed 68 L. monocytogenes strains from 5 facilities for resistance to 20 different antimicrobials using the VITEK2 AST-75 card (Biomerieux). The strains were resuscitated in tryptic soy broth (37°C for 24 h), followed by streaking on Harlequin Listeria chromogenic agar (37°C for 48 h). A single colony was transferred onto tryptic soy agar (37°C for 24 h) and prepared according to VITEK2 instructions. All strains were similar in sensitivity (MIC below lowest concentration) to 11 of the antibiotics tested, including ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and did not demonstrate inducible clindamycin resistance. Fifty strains were resistant to oxacillin (MIC > 4 ppm). For tigecycline, linezolid, clindamycin, and nitrofurantoin, differences in susceptibility were limited to one 2-fold dilution factor, whereas more variation was observed for levofloxacin (MIC 0.5–2.0 ppm) and moxifloxacin (<0.25–1 ppm). Approximately, half of the tested strains had a MIC of 1 ppm to vancomycin (33/68), ciprofloxacin (30/68), and doxycycline (58/68). Notably, 75% of strains possessing resistance (MIC 256 ppm) to nitrofurantoin were recovered from the same facility over a period of 3 years. The diversity in antimicrobial resistance profiles for strains originating within similar environments over a decade is indicative of different potential contamination sources and/or selective pressures encountered in dairy processing facilities.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86891 Watch 2049M FD&C Red No. 40 dye degradation in strawberry milk by Paenibacillus odorifer. 3 A. Torres strawberry milk Paenibacillus odorifer spoilage A. Torres1, C. Rush1, J. Waite-Cusic1 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Color degradation of high-temperature-short-time (HTST) strawberry milk before end of shelf life has been problematic for fluid milk processors. This event is characterized by the abrupt loss of FD&C Red No. 40 color in milk, changing from pink to white. By using 6 distinct P. odorifer strains (L2, L3, U1, 150, 363, #3), this study aims to evaluate the growth of each P. odorifer strain in strawberry milk and their FD&C Red Dye #40 color degradation capabilities. These isolates were cultured and reinoculated at 2 log cfu/ml into fresh strawberry milk and stored at 7°C for up to 8 d. Changes in cell density were determined every 2 d using standard serial dilution and plate counting on TSAYE with incubation at 25°C for 48 h. Qualitative changes in milk color were also noted at each sampling time. After 4 d of incubation, color loss was noted in strawberry milk inoculated with P. odorifer L2, L3 and #3 that had increased to 5.8, 4.1, and 4.2 log cfu/ml, respectively. After 6 d of incubation, all strains had caused full color degradation, leaving milk samples white. Cell densities ranged between 5.8 log cfu/ml and 7.6 log cfu/ml. P. odorifer L2 had the fastest growth rate, followed by P. odorifer U1 and P. odorifer L3. When observing samples, pink rings remained on the top (1 cm) after color degradation had occurred in the bulk milk, suggesting that color degradation is inhibited in the presence of oxygen. Color degradation of FD&C Red No. 40 is observed in strawberry milk when P. odorifer cell density is above 4.1 log cfu/ml. Key factors such as cell density and an anaerobic environment are essential for the spoilage event to occur. Future work will evaluate whether color degradation is a function of extracellular or intracellular enzymes that are responsible for azo dye degradation associated with P. odorifer.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86895 Watch 2050M Mycological counts and aflatoxin M1 levels in whey powder-based supplements for seniors. 4 V. F. Moebus whey protein fungi aflatoxin M1 B. C. S. F. Pereira1, V. F. Moebus1, M. Aronovich2,3, L. A. M. Keller1, R. M. Franco1 1Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Phileo by Lesaffre, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 3Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - PESAGRO/RJ, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Food supplements can be used to remedy or alleviate senior’s natural immunological deficiency. Whey protein powder is a good source of protein but microorganisms and toxins can be present, with regular evaluations being necessary to attest quality. The aim of this study was analyze mycological quality and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in supplements for seniors (whey powder). The analyzes were carried out according to Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (APHA); Pitt; Hocking in Fungi and food; mycotoxins handbooks of JECFA. AFM1 extraction was based on modified QuEChERS, following methodology by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (2007). Screening was done using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. A VICAM? Series-4EX fluorimeter evaluation was performed for quantification and analyses. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.013 μg kg −1 and 0.055 μg kg −1, respectively. Analyses were done in the State Center for Food Research laboratories (PESAGRO-RJ). A total of 64 samples, 4 brands with 16 lots each, were collected. Most fungal contamination was above recommendations of both Brazilian and the United State Pharmacopeia. Minimum and maximum counts were: DRBC (1.0 × 102 to 9.0 × 103 cfu/g); DG18 (1.0 × 102 to 2.0 × 104 cfu/g); YPD (1.0 × 102 to 8.0 × 103 cfu/g); DCPA (1.0 × 102 to 3.3 × 103 cfu/g). Analysis of variance test was establish and Tukey test was performed. The statistical differences between the brands and lots (P ≤ 0.005) and variation between groups of data obtained were also observed. Fungal identification resulted in mostly Aspergillus sp. (50.92%), Penicillium sp. (16.56%) and Fusarium sp. (13.49%), with mycotoxigenic capacity observed in Aspergillus sp. and P. citrinum isolated strains (50% each). All AFM1 levels were bellow Brazilian and US limits (0.5 µg/kg), however approximately 27% of the samples were above European standards (0.05 µg/kg). The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies AFM1 as carcinogenic to humans. Overall the high fungal counts and risk of AFM1 production can make frequent consumption of supplements detrimental to seniors’ health. Future studies are suggested to quantify the risk and assure food safety.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86677 Watch 2051M Exploring environmental reservoirs for Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis. 5 N. Mishra nonstarter lactic acid bacteria cheese N. Mishra1, M. Culumber1, K. Mann1, C. Oberg1, D. McMahon2 1Weber State University, Ogden, UT, 2Utah State University, Logan, UT Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis is a nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) preferentially utilizing ribose sugar, which can liberate carbon dioxide from 6 carbon sugars such as galactose. This organism is a primary cause of late gas defect in cheese resulting in postprocessing problems and consumer rejection. Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis is a contaminant in the cheese industry but its environmental source is unknown. Previous work showed P. wasatchensis does not survive pasteurization, and it was not detected in a microbial survey of the manufacturing facility, but closely related Paucilactobacillus species have been isolated from silage and compost. We hypothesize that P. wasatchensis resides in the environment around the dairy cows, contaminates the milk, and perhaps the processing facility during milk transfer. Samples of corn silage, hay silage, pre-compost manure, post compost manure, and sugar beetroot pulp were collected at the USU Caine Dairy Farm. Samples were homogenized, diluted, and plated on 2 agar media (MRS+1% ribose and MRS+1% ribose + 10 mg/ml vancomycin) and incubated anaerobically at 25°C. Visible colonies were marked on plates after 2 d then plates were incubated for 7 more days. Unmarked colonies were selected and incubated in gas detection broth (MRS+0.3% ribose + 0.7% galactose) containing a Durham tube for 72 h to identify gas-producing isolates. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified from these isolates with sequences analyzed using BLAST. While P. wasatchensis was not found in the samples, isolate PCRV2 from pre-compost samples was 94.98% similar. API 50CHL results for PCRV2 also indicate the organism was not P. wasatchensis but another species of Paucilactobacillus. Analysis of DNA extracted directly from the same environmental samples using 16S rRNA gene sequencing also showed negative results for the P. wasatchensis. Our results did not find P. wasatchensis in any silage or compost samples, which have been suggested as the source of this organism based on the previous isolation of closely related species (P. hokkaidonensis and P. vaccinostercus), therefore indicating the need to examine additional habitats related to milk production and processing.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86883 Watch 2052M Microbiota evaluation and aflatoxin M1 detection in newborns food supplements. 6 V. F. Moebus food safety Infant formulas mycotoxins V. F. Moebus1, B. C. S. F. Pereira1, L. A. Pinto1, M. Aronovich2,3, R. M. Franco1, L. A. M. Keller1 1Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Phileo by Lesaffre, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 3Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - PESAGRO/RJ, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Premature newborns are more susceptible to several health problems, requiring the use of supplements in their diet, being introduced in the neonatal ICUs of hospitals. Considering their fragility, studies to monitor the microbiological and toxicological risks of the formulas offered by these units are very important. 36 samples of market-recognized brands, obtained from the Neonatal ICU of the University Hospital were analyzed, in 3 treatments: Treatment 1, powder formula; Treatment 2, reconstituted formula according manufacters instructions and Treatment 3, reconstituted formula according manufacters instructions, after 24 h of refrigeration storage (5°C). The analyses were carried out according to Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (APHA); Pitt; Hocking in Fungi and food; mycotoxins handbooks of JECFA at the Laboratory of Microbiological Control of Animal Products of Federal Fluminense University. The average and standard deviation of the samples are shown in Table 1, where it is observed statistically significant differences between the treatments, which amounted to total sample (P ≤ 0.005). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) evaluation demonstrated nondetectable values, being below the detection limit of the technique (0.013 μg kg−1). The reduction observed in the second treatment is the result of an effective resuspension as reported in the literature, the significant increase in the third treatment is associated with contamination during handling and reactivation of microorganisms already present in the sample. The absence of AFM1 in the samples suggests a gradual increase in mycotoxin prevention and control worldwide. Despite the samples being in compliance with legislation, long-term storage can lead to unwanted microbial growth as shown in this study. Table 1. Microbial count (log10 cfu g−1) for mesophilic aerobic (PCA), filamentous fungi (DRBC) and xerophilic fungi (DG18) in infant formulas
Sample PCA DRBC DG18
Treatment 1 2.70 ± 2.10a 3.15 ± 3.10a 3.60 ± 3.25a
Treatment 2 2.65 ± 2.65a 2.70 ± 2.55b 2.35 ± 2.10b
Treatment 3 4.00 ± 3.95b 2.70 ± 2.70b 3.55 ± 3.50c
a–cAverages with same letter in columns are equivalent, according to Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). LOD: ≤1.0 log10 cfu g−1.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86699 Watch 2053M Identification of antimicrobial fermentation products by Latilactobacillus curvatus. 7 D. Leatham antimicrobial lactic acid bacteria D. Leatham1, T. S. Oberg2, K. Stevenson2, R. Ward2, C. J. Oberg1 1Weber State University, Ogden, UT, 2Utah State University, Logan, UT Dairy food preservation has evolved over time through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to ferment lactose into lactate. Recently, LAB cultures have been identified which produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Latilactobacillus curvatus has been identified as a major organism in aged Cheddar cheese, and the potential to make antimicrobial products have been identified through whole-genome sequencing. These products include propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, and the intermediate 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which constitutes part of the antimicrobial reuterin. Reuterin has been well studied for its antimicrobial properties. This potential ability in Lat. curvatus to produce reuterin is unique. The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic capabilities of Lat. curvatus to synthesize these compounds when grown on different substrates. Latilactobacillus curvatus strains were incubated anaerobically using different carbon sources with and without vitamin B-12 for 7 d. Samples were taken on d 0, 1 and 7. Substrates included 1,2-propanediol, lactate, and glycerol. GC-MS was used to identify metabolomic compounds. Samples were derivatized with methoxamine hydrochloride in pyridine followed with N-Methyl-N-trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). Fatty acid methyl esters were also added as an internal standard and the samples were then analyzed on the GC-MS. Analytes were identified by comparing reference indices and mass spectral data to AMDIS and Shimadzu GC-MS libraries. Results showed that Lat. curvatus can produce propionate from 1,2-propanediol, but not from lactate. This indicates that the organism is missing the ability to convert lactate to 1,2 propanediol. Results also showed that Lat. curvatus can produce 3-hydroxypropionate from glycerol, and that the amount dramatically increases when B-12 is added to the media. These results illustrate the potential use of Lat. curvatus as a protective adjunct culture to decrease spoilage and potentially inhibit pathogenic organisms from growing in fermented dairy products.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86680 Watch 2054M Selective survival of dairy protective cultures to high-pressure processing by leveraging freeze-drying and encapsulation. 8 M. McGillin HPP protective cultures encapsulation M. McGillin1, S. Alcaine1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY High-Pressure Processing (HPP) is an increasingly adopted non-thermal treatment for food products. In food products where selected culture activity is desired (i.e., probiotic, starter, and protective culture activity), HPP’s non-thermal inactivation of vegetative cells becomes a limitation. This work demonstrated that commercially available protective cultures survive HPP (600 MPa, 5°C, 3 min) when freeze-dried (H-FD) but regained susceptibility if hydrated before HPP. Compared with non-HPP treated controls, there was a 1.23 log reduction in LAB counts following treatment, but H-FD survived HPP with high counts (10.13 log cfu/mL). An encapsulation system that protects the desiccated cells from rehydrating (by providing a lipid barrier against the migration of moisture) is essential for their application in high-moisture foods. At 24 H and 4 H before HPP, freeze-dried cells were encapsulated in cocoa butter (H-EN) and immersed in PBS buffer or skim milk to 1) gauge the range in which the encapsulation system is effective and 2) assess the application in a simple buffer compared with a more complex food milieu. Submersion in a liquid before HPP resulted in a reduction in LAB counts ranging from 1.7 to 2.8 logs compared with the non-HPP controls, with neither submersion time nor medium having a significant effect within the H-EN samples (H-EN-PBS24, H-EN-PBS4, H-EN-SKIM24, and H-EN-SKIM4). Overall, encapsulation prevents rehydration of the desiccated cells for up to 24 h before treatment and still yields high LAB counts post-HPP (>8 log cfu/mL). To ensure the H-EN cultures maintained their ability to acidify the food matrix, the pH and cell counts were monitored over a 48-h fermentation following immersion in MRS broth and HPP. For the first 24 h of the fermentation, the pH for H-EN significantly differed between pre-HPP immersion times (H-EN-MRS24 v. H-EN-MRS4). By 48 h, the HPP samples converged below a pH of 4, bearing no significant difference from the positive controls at 48 h. High LAB counts were observed throughout the fermentation across HPP-treated and non-HPP controls (>8 log cfu/mL).
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86257 Watch 2055M Antifungal activity of exogenous proteins produced by Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from an alpine Swiss-style cheese against recurrent mold strains in dairy facilities. 9 R. D. Melendrez-Alvarez antifungal Bacillus metabolites R. D. Melendrez-Alvarez1, I. Garcia-Cano1, A. Escobar-Zepeda2,4, A. C. Mayta-Apaza1, L. F. Osorio3, R. Jimenez-Flores1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom, 3Panamerican Agricultural School, Zamorano University, Valle de Yeguare, FM, Honduras, 4EMBL-EBI, Hinxton, United Kingdom Bacterial metabolites, especially proteins with antimicrobial activity can impact food safety and potentially replace the market share of artificial antimicrobial agents because of their easy production through fermentation, and a broad spectrum of inhibition. In this work, our aim was to isolate exogenous bacterial proteins that exhibited antifungal activity toward Mucor circinelloides and Aspergillus piperis, which are recurrent mold strains of concern in dairy facilities. First, we analyzed the microbial population of the surface of an alpine swiss-style cheese which previously exhibited empirical resistance to the growth of mold. After acquiring 1-2 mm of the surface, we extracted the total DNA and performed metagenomic analysis. Moreover, 21 bacterial strains were isolated using traditional microbiological techniques and tested for antifungal activity, which consisted of 2 methods: agar diffusion (AD) against A. piperis, where an inhibition zone was measured; and an in situ technique (IST) where plain yogurt was inoculated with M.circinelloides spores and the activity was determined in remaining cfu/well. Out of the 21 bacteria screened, 2 strains were chosen: Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus licheniformis due to their positive antifungal activity in both tests. To obtain an enriched fraction of exogenous proteins, the bacterial cells were removed from the medium by centrifugation followed by protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and resuspension in water to an approximate concentration of 400 μg protein/mL. The protein fractions from B. velezensis and B. licheniformis showed inhibition in AD of 11 and 10 mm, respectively. In addition, each protein suspension was tested with IST, reaching a reduction of 1 log by B.velezensis and 0.5 log by B. licheniformis after 8 incubation days (<0.05). Our results show that exogenous proteins from Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus licheniformis possess antifungal activity against molds found in dairy products and could have an industrial application.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86665   2056M Selective media for the isolation of Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis. 10 C. Wahlstrom nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) media C. Wahlstrom1, M. Domek1, M. Culumber1 1Weber State University, Ogden, UT, 2Utah State University, Logan The ability to quickly and accurately enumerate P. wasatchensis, especially when present at low concentrations compared with other bacteria in cheese, would benefit the dairy industry since the current protocol is time intensive and lacks sensitivity. The goal was to develop a plating media to detect P. wasatchensis within 72 h when as few as 103 CFUs per gram are present while inhibiting competing SLAB and NSLAB. Carbohydrate restricted MRS (CR-MRS) media with varying concentrations of vancomycin and 2-deoxyglucose, a glucose analog that inhibits glycolysis, were tested in triplicate using 24 well plates in a Tecan Infinite 2000 plate reader utilizing 5 SLAB and NSLAB strains along with the P. wasatchensis WDC04. Application testing was then conducted using CR-MRS agar plates containing 1% ribose, 5 mg/mL vancomycin, and various concentrations of 2-deoxyglucose (0.01–0.1%) incubated anaerobically for 72 h. WDC04 was not inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose or vancomycin in broth culture, but the SLAB and other NSLAB cultures showed inhibition by either 2-deoxyglucose and/or vancomycin. Lacticaseibacillus casei and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei showed the greatest level of inhibition between the control MRS broth (OD6001.28 at 28 h) and CR-MRS+2-deoxyglucose broth (OD600 0.60 and 0.54, respectively) after 28 h. The SLAB Lactococcus lactis showed nearly complete inhibition with 5mg/mL vancomycin. Agar plate results showed WDC04 growth was not inhibited by the experimental medium, while L. casei and L. paracasei showed limited inhibition and L. lactis was inhibited. However, the media can be used to differentiate L. casei and L. paracasei from WDC04 since they appear as pinpoint colonies. Incorporation of 0.01% 2-deoxyglucose and 5 mg/mL vancomycin into CR-MRS+1% ribose agar is a selective plating media for P. wasatchensis based on its selective and differential properties. This media could be used to determine the presence of P. wasatchensis in cheese when it is found in low concentrations (103 cfu per gram) versus the high concentration of SLAB (108cfu per gram) that obscure its detection with current isolation techniques.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86631 Watch 2057M Amino acid decarboxylation is a potential source of CO2 production by Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04 in cheese. 11 K. Sorensen lactic acid bacteria decarboxylation gas production K. Sorensen1, G. Barrera1, M. Culumber1, M. Domek1, C. Oberg1, T. Oberg2, D. McMahon2 1Weber State University, Ogden, UT, 2Utah State University, Logan, UT Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04 is a nonstarter lactic acid bacteria that is linked to unwanted late gas production in Cheddar cheese. This organism has the capability of producing gas from 6-carbon sugars, such as galactose, however, WDC04 can produce splits and cracks in Cheddar cheese in the absence of these sugars. In cheese production trials, more CO2 was released than can be accounted for by added carbon substrates. One possible source of gas production could be the decarboxylation of free amino acids with the formation of biogenic amines. The ability of lactic acid bacteria to decarboxylate amino acids varies greatly but can be used to generate proton motive force. Putrescine and cadaverine, the decarboxylation products of ornithine and lysine respectively, have been detected in cheese inoculated with WDC04. The purpose of this study was to determine if lysine and ornithine could be utilized for growth by WDC04 and if decarboxylation would lead to gas production. The P. wasatchensis WDC04 genome was analyzed for decarboxylation enzymes with an ornithine decarboxylase found, but not a lysine decarboxylase. Carbohydrate restricted MRS (CR-MRS) with 100–700 mM of lysine or ornithine was inoculated with WDCO4 in 24-well plates and incubated at 30°C. Oxyrase (2%) was added to create anaerobic conditions. Growth curves were monitored by measuring turbidity over 72 h on a Tecan Infinite M200 plate reader. Without the addition of ribose (1%), neither amino acid supported growth above the media alone. However, amino acid decarboxylation may still be the source of excess CO2 production without the amino acids being used as a growth substrate. Addition of lysine or ornithine did increase growth in CR-MRS with ribose compared with CR-MRS with only ribose. Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04 produced gas in the tube gas test from lysine and ornithine in CR-MRS supplemented with ribose, confirming growth curve results. Results show the decarboxylation of specific amino acids could contribute to gas release by P. wasatchensis WDC04.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86981 Watch 2058M Effect of high milk protein content on thermal inactivation of Salmonella during manufacturing of high milk protein chocolate chip cookies. 12 A. Singh Salmonella baking milk protein A. Singh1, L. Channaiah1 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Introduction: Salmonellacan survive in dry ingredients such as flour and milk protein powders for extended periods and could multiply when hydrated to make the cookie dough. Therefore, the inactivation of Salmonella during the baking step is critical to ensure the safety of baked food products such as cookies. PurposeTo validate a simulated commercial high milk protein chocolate chip cookie baking process as an effective kill step for controlling Salmonella. Methods and materialsThis study was designed as a completely randomized block design with 3 replications. Flour, the primary ingredient, was initially inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and dried back to pre-inoculation water activity (aw). Inoculated flour was weighed and mixed with milk protein concentrate (MPC 80), brown sugar, butter, egg, skim milk powder, vanilla extract, salt, sodium bicarbonate and water in a kitchen mixer for 2 minutes to prepare the cookie dough. Cookie doughs each weighing 30 g were baked at 350°F for 18 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of ambient-air cooling. Samples were drawn at 3 min intervals during baking and after 15 min cooling periods for microbial enumeration and aw analyses. Salmonella Typhimurium populations were enumerated using injury-recovery media (brain heart infusion agar overlaid with xylose lysine deoxycholate). ResultsInitial Salmonella Typhimurium populations in cookies dough were 6.21±0.26 log cfu/g and reduced to 1.55±0.18 after baking for 18 minutes. The aw significantly decreased over the entire baking process. Significance: This study validates that baking high milk protein chocolate chip cookies at 350°F for at least 18 minutes reduces at least 4.5 logs (cfu/g) Salmonella Typhimurium populations.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t85845 Watch 2059M Effect of extended storage on the survivability and thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in milk powders. 13 A.S. Sekhon Salmonella Listeria monocytogenes milk powder A.S. Sekhon1, Y. Yang1, P. Unger1, A. Singh2, M. Michael1 1Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 2University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Salmonella (SA) has unique ability to survive in the low water activity (aw) foods, such as milk powders, for prolonged time periods and can multiply quickly when hydrated. This study compared the survivability and thermal resistance of a 3-strain LM and 5-serovar SA cocktail in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and whole milk powder (WMP) stored for 180 d at ambient temperature (~22°C). The LM and SA studies were conducted as 2 independent experiments. Each study was designed as 2 factorial (storage and powder type) randomized complete-block design with 3 replications. Milk powders were inoculated with respective pathogen cocktail and dried back to original aw levels, and D- and z-values were determined every 30th day. Five grams of respective samples were transferred into thermal-death-time (TDT) disks, heat treated at set temperatures in hot water baths, and sampled at predetermined time intervals for determining the surviving microbial population. The samples were enumerated using injury-recovery media, and D- and z-values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test at P≤ 0.05 were used for statistical analysis. The LM and SA population decreased by 1.8 and 2.2 log cfu/g in milk powders, respectively, after 180 days of storage. The D-values of SA in WMP on day 1 were 18.9, 9.9 and 4.4 min at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively, which increased significantly to 29.4, 13.6 and 6.5 min at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively, on day 180. Whereas D-values of SA in NFDM on day 1 were 17.9, 9.2 and 4.4 min at 80, 85, and 90°C, respectively, and stayed similar during the storage. The D-values of LM in NFDM on day one were 13.1, 6.0, and 4.0 min at 75, 80, and 85, respectively. Whereas D-values of LM in WMP on day 1 were 12.0, 6.3, and 3.3 min at 75, 80, and 85, respectively. Overall, the D75°C and D80°C values of LM increased significantly in milk powders. However, at 85°C, the D-value of LM were similar (statistically nonsignificant) for milk powders. The z-values of LM and SA in milk powders were found to be similar during the storage period. The D- and z-values from this research can be employed for the validation of thermal processes to ensure the microbiological safety of milk powders.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86232 Watch 2060M Milk phospholipids modify adhesion of Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 to human goblet-like cells through changes in surface proteins. 14 E. Kosmerl adhesion surface protein E. Kosmerl1, I. García-Cano1, J. Ortega-Anaya1, D. Rocha-Mendoza1, R. Jiménez-Flores1 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Milk phospholipids (MPL), a key component of the membrane surrounding milk fat globules, have profound benefits to human health including improved neurodevelopment and influence over the gut microbiota. MPL also increase the adhesion of lactic acid bacteria to intestinal cells through modulation of surface protein expression. Another group of gram-positive probiotics, called bifidobacteria, are associated with a healthy gut and respond to MPL in vivo by an increase in abundance in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the effects of MPL on bifidobacteria adherence remains unclear. Bifidobacterium infantis is abundant in GIT of breast-fed infants and B. infantis ATCC 15697 has been shown to adhere to intestinal mucin. With the emerging interest in MPL and bifidobacteria, our objective was to determine the influence of MPL on B. infantis adhesion to goblet-like intestinal cells and characterize changes in bifidobacteria surface proteins. B. infantis was grown anaerobically in MRS+0.05% L-cysteine media with or without 0.5% MPL for 15 h at 37°C. Bacterial adherence to HT29-MTX cells was measured using plate counts. MPL significantly decreased adhesion of B. infantis to HT29-MTX cells from 42.4% to 6.77% (P < 0.05, Mann Whitney Test). 5M LiCl protein extraction, dialysis and analysis of the protein profile using 4–20% SDS-PAGE were used to identify changes in the surface proteins. Bands with the greatest changes in intensity were excised and sent for sequencing by LC-MS/MS. We identified a 47-kDa periplasmic trypsin-like peptidase domain-containing protein, corresponding to a 3.36-fold change in intensity, that is involved in the bacterial stress response, survival, and adhesion. A 60-kDa peptide ABC transporter substrate binding protein was also identified from a band that decreased 2.02-fold. The findings from this work suggest that MPL may be affecting bifidobacteria through alternative mechanisms than by the adhesion phenomenon. The next phase in the study of diet-microbiota interactions is to investigate the other potential means by which MPL lead to increased bifidobacteria abundance in the GIT.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86606 Watch 2477M Influence of background microflora on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in dairy plants. 15 B. Chowdhury Listeria monocytogenes background microflora persistence B. Chowdhury1,2, S. Minj1,2, S. Anand1,2, B. Kraus3 1Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Minneapolis, MN, 2Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Wells Enterprises Inc, Le Mars, IA Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a pathogen of great interest to the dairy industry. In the actual dairy plant environment, Lm would be accompanied by a range of background microflora, varying from site to site. We hypothesized that the background microflora could influence the presence of Lm by either competitively excluding it or supporting its growth. Hence, one site each from a dairy facility that was positive and negative for Lm presence was chosen. Swabs were collected from these sites and plated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) for 24–48h at 37° and 45°C. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF. A total of 8 isolates from the positive site (2 isolates of Pantoea agglomerans, and 1 isolate each of Aeromonas caviae, A. eucerophila, Rahnella aquatilis, Hafria alvei, Shewanella profunda, and Bacillus subtilis) and 7 from the negative site (4 isolates of P. agglomerans and 1 isolate each of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas koreensis, and Serratia liquefaciens) were identified. To examine the growth of Lm in the presence of these isolates, we grew them individually with Lm in a 1:1 ratio (3-log cfu/mL each) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth for 48h at 37°C. Total counts were obtained on TSA, and Lm counts on modified oxford agar (MOX). For the second study, we attempted to evaluate the role of dairy effluents in supporting Lm biofilms. So, we procured effluents from the same 2 sites and chemically analyzed them. These effluents were spiked with Lm (7-log cfu/mL) and used to grow biofilms on clay brick tiles (1x1inch2 dimensions) for 72h at 37°C. 3M quick swabs were used to obtain biofilm counts (log cfu/inch2) followed by plating on BHI agar and incubating at 37°C for 24–48h. All studies were performed in triplicate, and means were compared using one-way ANOVA. In the co-growth study, Lm was shown to grow in the presence of almost all the isolates. Hence, it can easily blend in with the microbial community. Also, growth and biofilm formation by Lm was equally promoted by effluents from positive (4.51 ± 0.01a) and negative (4.36 ± 0.01a) sites (P-value > 0.05). Thus, this research demonstrates that Lm is a part of the background flora and that dairy effluents can easily sustain their growth.
Dairy Foods Posters 1: Microbiology In-Person Poster Dairy Foods - Microbiology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86628 Watch 2479M Comparing Nanopore and MiSeq sequencing for genetic determinants of persistent Listeria in the dairy processing environment. 16 B. Chowdhury persistence genotype phenotypic B. Chowdhury1,2, S. Minj1,2, S. Anand1,2, J. L. Gonzalez Hernandez3, B. Kraus4 1Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Minneapolis, MN, 2Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Young Brothers Seed Technology Lab, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 4Wells Enterprises Inc, Le Mars, IA Studies have shown that some strains of Listeria spp., i.e., the pathogenic L. monocytogenes (Lm) and the nonpathogenic L. innocua (Li) and L. welshimeri (Lw), can persist in the dairy processing environment. Though phenotypic traits can be used to differentiate between these species on a strain level, genomic tools can help to uncover the genetic determinants that contribute to their resistant and sporadic nature. In this study, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 6 industrial Listeria isolates (3 Li, 2 Lw, and 1 Lm isolates) sourced from a dairy plant was performed using 2 approaches, viz. MiSeq (MS) and Nanopore sequencing (NPS). The Wizard DNA extraction kit was used to extract DNA from individual isolates. Following that, libraries were created using PCR amplification (for MS) and gDNA sequencing kit (for NPS) and fed into the Illumina and MinION platforms. The MS assemblies were constructed using the CLC Genomic Workbench, while Flye was used for NPS. In addition, Nanopolish and Racon were used to polish the constructed assemblies for NPS. Finally, using the RAST server, annotations were developed for both methods. The MS results revealed alleles in the isolates liable for 13 phenotypical traits. These alleles differed in the strain and species level. The following were a few responses found to play a role in persistence: cell signaling and attachment (NAG-IIA, NAG-IIB), osmotic (CadA), and oxidative (YRKL) stress resistance. Lm was found positive for all these attributes, while Lw and Li lacked genes for motility (ActA), biofilm formation (AgD), and acid tolerance (AdiA), rendering them less resilient. However, the improved contiguity seen through NPS helped in the completeness of the Listeria genome. The NPS results revealed additional gene variants in the isolates not identified before by MS. Motility, cell attachment, antibiotic, osmotic shock, and toxic compound resistance are the phenotypic expressions for those genes. Because of the longer reads of DNA fragments obtained by NPS, it is believed that it is a better method for obtaining more conclusive results for differentiating between persistent Listeria strains.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 s9939                  
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86326   2061M Aerobic stability of corn silage inoculated with different strains of Lactobacillus buchneri. 1 O. G. Pereira microbial inoculant pH yeasts G. D. O. Leite1, W. S. Alves1, A. J. S. Macedo1, V. P. Silva1, F. E. Pimentel1, C. L. Stanciola1, K. G. Ribeiro1, O. G. Pereira1 1Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil This study aimed to evaluate different strains of Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) on the aerobic stability (AE) of corn silages (CS) grown in different locations. We used a 4 × 5 factorial scheme (4 inoculants (I) and 5 locations (L)) in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The inoculants were: no inoculant (CONT), commercial inoculant (CI, LALSIL AS, Lallemand, Brazil), LB 45.22 strain, and LB 90.14 strain. CS was cultivated in 5 different cities. The strains LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 were previously isolated from sorghum silage. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 1 × 106 cfu g−1 of forage and manually compacted (density of 550 kg/m3) into 10-L plastic buckets, total of 80 buckets. After 60 d, silos were opened, silage was homogenized and 2 kg were returned to their respective buckets. These were stored in a room (±24°C) for 7 d, and a data logger was inserted in the center of the silage. Then, pH, maximum temperature (MT), WSC, organic acids and microbial populations were quantified. Data were analyzed using the SAS 9.4 GLM procedure. Means were compared using Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). The effect of the L × I interaction on AE, lactic acid (LA), acetic acid (AA), pH, molds, yeasts, and WSC was observed. MT was affected by L and I. AE was higher for inoculated silages in relation to CONT in L1, L3, and L5. Meanwhile, the LB 90.14 silage presented the highest AE in L2 and L4. LA was higher for CONT compared with LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 silages in L1. However, the CI silage showed the highest LA content in L3, and also, it was higher than CONT in L5. LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 silages showed higher AA in L1. The pH was higher for LB 45.22 silage compared with CONT in L1. The CONT silage had the highest pH in L3. The LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 silages had lower yeast count in L2 and L3. Mold was lower for inoculated silages in L1 and L5, however, it was lower for LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 silages in L3. WSC was higher for LB 45.22 silage in L1. The LB 45.22 and LB 90.14 strains improved the AE of CS and have potential use as inoculants. Supported by CNPq, CAPES, and INCT-CA
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86969 Watch 2062M A survey of berry processing score and nutrient content of sorghum silage on commercial livestock operations across the United States. 2 K. Raver sorghum silage berry processing score K. Raver1, J. Goeser1,2, S. Marshall3 1Rock River Laboratory Inc, Watertown, WI, 2University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 3Rock River Laboratory Texas, Edmonson, TX Sorghum silage is increasingly fed on dairy farms due to decreased water availability and increase in water costs. Much remains unknown about the availability of starch in this feed. Research has shown berry processing can increase the in situ rumen starch digestibility in sorghum silage. Berry processing scores (BPS) using 1.7 and 2.36mm screens have been developed to quantify the degree of processing. The objective of this study was to better quantify the BPS on commercial operations. To accomplish this, ensiled sorghum samples were collected from commercial operations (n = 53) from January 2022 to February 2022 and submitted to Rock River Laboratory Texas (Edmonson, TX) for analysis. Samples were analyzed for BPS and nutrient content by near infrared (NIR) analysis. Briefly, dried, unground samples were sieved using a Ro-Tap machine through the following screens (mm) 9.5, 6.7, 4.75, 4, 3.35, 2.8, 2.36, 1.7, 1.18, 0.6, and pan. Samples were divided into coarse (>2.36mm), medium (1.7mm) and fine (<1.7mm) portions, starch was measured using NIR for each portion, and 1.7 and 2.36mm BPS were calculated. Data were evaluated for mean, 15 and 85th percentiles to describe population distributions in R Studio v4.0.4. The resulting population statistics for 1.7mm BPS were as follows, mean = 10.6, standard deviation (SD) = 8.5, coefficient of variation (CV) = 80%, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 44.8, and 15th and 85th percentiles = 3.5 and 16.9, respectively. Population statistics for BPS using 2.36mm screen were as follows, mean = 20.0, SD = 10.8, CV = 54%, minimum = 7.2, maximum = 54.8, and 15th and 85th percentiles = 8.9 and 28.3, respectively. Nutrient content in sorghum silages was as follows, dry matter (DM) mean = 38.7%, CV = 24%, starch (%DM) mean = 11.6%, CV = 62%. The greater than 50 and 80% CV in both 1.7 and 2.36mm BPS scores, respectively, suggests a wide spread in commercial sorghum berry processing. The low mean in BPS suggests berry processing by commercial forage harvesters is marginal. Assuming that greater berry processing corresponds to improved starch digestion the 85th percentile may represent a goal.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86812 Watch 2063M Evaluation of pasture biomass from cool-season and Kernza pastures with satellite imagery compared to an electronic plate meter. 3 L. D. Clemente rising plate meter pasture satellite images L. D. Clemente1, B. Heins1 1University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN Evaluation of pasture biomass measurements aids producers in knowing the availability of cool-season grass in in pasture for cattle grazing. The objective of this study was to compare pasture forage biomass from satellite imagery and an electronic plate meter. The study was conducted at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN grazing dairy from May 2021 to October 2021. The pasture system was composed of cool-season perennials and included mixtures of meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehmann), meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (T. repens L.), and intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium). Grazing height and forage availability were measured weekly in 9 pastures with a Jenquip pasture plate meter (Jenquip, Feilding, New Zealand). Pastures ranged in size from 2.55 ha to 9.7 ha. Satellite images were from Planet Labs PBC (San Francisco, CA) and average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated weekly for the area inside each pasture. Pearson correlations were from PROC CORR of SAS 9.4 and determined associations of forage biomass from the plate meter and satellite imagery. Forage biomass was analyzed with PROC MIXED and included the fixed effects of pasture (9 pastures) and week with repeated effects. Across the summer grazing season, mean forage biomass was 3,267 kg DM/ha (range was 2,864 to 3,622 kg DM/ha; P < 0.05) from the plate meter and 2,325 kg DM/ha (range was 985 to 3,321 kg DM/ha; P < 0.05) from NDVI satellite images. The correlations for specific pastures of the rising plated meter and the satellite image NDVI ranged from 0.074 to 0.91 (P < 0.05) and the average correlation was 0.58. Correlations were greater with greater forage availability in the pastures. Alternative methods to calculate the biomass of pastures may provide more advantages for farmers to determine grazing management of pastures.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t87027 Watch 2064M Effect of inclusion of different essential oils at ensiling on fermentative profile of wet corn gluten feed. 4 L. Pereira aerobic stability by-product corn L. Pereira1,2, P. Rezamand2, B. Agustinho2, G. Vigne1, D. Volpi1, Q. Tavares1, N. Mello1, P. Schmidt1, M. Zopollatto1 1Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 2University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) is a by-product from corn processing produced during the extraction of starch and oil. Therefore, it contains a high concentration of protein and fiber and can be used in dairy cow diets. For preserving the quality of WCGF, it is necessary to use additives when it is stored as a silage. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of the inclusion of different essential oils on the fermentative losses, aerobic stability, and pH during aerobic exposure period. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 6 treatments: Control (without additive), thymol, carvacrol, Eugenol, Cinnamaldehyde, and Allyl with 99% purity (150, 400, 350, 100, 30 mg/kg of fresh matter of each compounds, respectively) with 5 replicates per treatment, totaling 30 experimental units. The additives were applied and homogenized with the material at ensiling. Each experimental unit consisted of one 8-L plastic bucket with a density of approximately 748 m3/ ton. Silos were opened 35 d after ensiling to evaluate the dry matter (DM), fermentative losses, aerobic stability (AS), and pH. Samples were collected after opening the silos (d 0) and every 2 d during 10 d of aerobic exposure. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with significance declared at P ≤ 0.05. Silage with carvacrol showed a greater dry matter (DM) concentration than silage with Allyl (41.9% DM vs. 40.8% DM, P < 0.03). Eugenol inclusion increased the production of effluents when compared with thymol (11.76% vs. 6.14%, P < 0.01), and had a greater DM loss when compared with carvacrol (7.96% vs. 5.63%, P < 0.04). Carvacrol inclusion increased the aerobic stability compared with that for Control (22 vs. 15 h, P < 0.01). The Allyl inclusion caused a greater gas production compared with that for carvacrol (P < 0.01; 6.9% vs. 4.84). However, DM losses after AS were not affected by the additives inclusion (P = 0.70). There was a treatment × day of aerobic exposure interaction on the pH (P < 0.01). The inclusion of carvacrol increased DM recovery and aerobic stability compared with other treatments. However, DM losses after aerobic stability were not evaluated by the addition of essential oils.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86335   2065M Fermentation profile of soybean silage harvested at 2 stages of maturity treated with microbial inoculants. 5 O. G. Pereira ammonia crude protein lactic acid bacteria O. G. Pereira1, A. J. S. Macedo1, K. G. Ribeiro1, D. N. Coutinho1, H. R. O. Santos1, V. P. Silva1, J. P. S. Roseira1, J. O. Alves1 1Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative profile and microbial population in whole-plant soybean silages harvested at 2 maturity stages (R5 and R6) and treated with microbial inoculants at different fermentation periods (3, 14, 30, and 60 d). The inoculants evaluated were: commercial inoculant (CI) Sil-All 4 × 4 (Lallemand, Brazil), the strain of Lactiplantibacillus pentosus (LP) isolated from alfalfa silage (AV14.17), and Control (CTRL), without inoculant. The inoculants were applied at a dose of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/g, diluted in 50 mL of distilled water. In the CTRL material, the same amount of water used in the dilution of the inoculants was applied. A 500-g sample was placed in nylon-polyethylene bags (25.4 cm × 35.56 cm) for ensiling. Data were analyzed in a randomized block design, in a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement [maturity stage (ME) × inoculant (INOC) × fermentation period (FP)], with 4 replications, adopting the level of statistical significance P ≤ 0.05. There was an effect (P ≤ 0.05) of the INOC × ME × FP interaction on water-soluble carbohydrates and enterobacteria (ENT). The NH3-N concentrations was affected by the interactions INOC × ME, INOC × FP, and ME × FP. There was an effect (P ≤ 0.05) of the ME × FP interaction on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast (YEA), and molds (MOL). The pH was affected (P < 0.01) only by the isolated effects of INOC, ME, and FP factors. The LP inoculant had the least pH value.The YEA population was affected (P < 0.01) by INOC, and the soybean inoculated with LP had the least YEA count. Effect of ME (P < 0.01) was observed on the concentrations of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, and cellulose. No ENT was detected at 60 d of fermentation in plants ensiled at stage R5. However, for soybean harvested at R6, the silage treated with LP had a lower ENT count compared with the others at 60 d of fermentation. Therefore, microbial inoculant application to soybean harvested at the R6 stage improves silage quality. Supported by CNPq, CAPES, and INCT-CA
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t85841   2066M Degradability and in situ ruminal kinetics of the residues of 3 varieties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis). 6 I. Espinoza ruminal parameter ruminant agricultural residues I. Espinoza1, A. Sanchez1, E. Torres1, D. Romero1, M. Medina1, H. Miranda1, L. Montenegro1, A. Barrera1, G. Alvarez1 1Universidad Tecnica Estatal de Quevedo, Quevedo, Los Rios, Ecuador The in situ ruminal kinetics and degradability of dry matter DM in 3 residues of passion fruit varieties were studied; T1: yellow, T2: red and T3: yellow and red. The experimental design employed was randomized complete-block design with 3 treatments and 3 blocks (cattle with fistulated rumen), in 7 incubation times 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, for the differences between means of treatments used Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The in situ degradability of DM for all treatments was similar up to 24 h. After 48 and 72 h of incubation in the rumen, T2 exceeded treatment T1 and T3 (66.85 and 54.06%, respectively). In ruminal kinetics, T1 was significant in the soluble fraction (A) with 10.09%, T2 was higher in the potentially degradable fraction (B) with 57.27%, while the ruminal degradation rate (C) was similar in all treatments. However, the ruminal degradation potential analysis (A+B) was greater for T2 (62.01%) than T3 and T1 (56.73 and 53.55%, respectively). Regarding the passage rate (k0.02), T2 was higher with 46.06% at 2%/hour in relation to T1 and T3 (41.57 and 42.40%, respectively). The use of red passion fruit waste presents the best in situ ruminal degradation dynamics of DM.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86030 Watch 2067M Ration content of undegradable and physically effective neutral detergent fiber and its relationship with dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield of Holstein cows. 7 M. Farricker undegradable fiber physically effective fiber dry matter intake M. Farricker1, J. Darrah1, A. Pape1, M. Miller2, R. Grant1 1William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY, 2J.D. Heiskell & Co, Buffalo, NY Undegradable neutral detergent fiber following 240 h of in vitro fermentation (uNDF240) can be multiplied by the fraction of feed particles ≥1.18 mm with dry sieving (physical effectiveness factor; pef) to calculate physically effective uNDF240 (peuNDF240). Our first objective was to expand existing data on the relationships between uNDF240 and calculated peuNDF240 with DMI and ECM. Twenty-two treatment means from 7 experiments conducted at the William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute in Chazy, NY were analyzed using linear regression in R version 3.6.3. Dietary forages included corn silage, haycrop silage, timothy hay, and wheat straw. Cows in the studies averaged (mean ± SD) 100.2 ± 14.5 d in milk, 28.0 ± 1.2 kg/d DMI, and 49.6 ± 2.5 kg/d ECM yield. Our second objective was to measure the difference between calculated peuNDF240 and the directly measured uNDF240 content of the pef fraction. Three studies from the database with existing diet samples (10 treatments) were analyzed for in vitro uNDF240 content of the pef fraction to determine a directly measured peuNDF240. The dietary uNDF240 had a moderately negative (P < 0.001) relationship with DMI and ECM (r = −0.69 and −0.73 respectively). Calculated peuNDF240 had a stronger relationship with DMI (y = −1.044x + 33.3; r = −0.85; P < 0.001) but a slightly weaker relationship with ECM (y = −1.697x + 58.2; r = −0.66; P < 0.001). For the second objective, there was a strong linear relationship between the 2 measures (y = 1.67x + 0.7; r = 0.87; P = 0.001) suggesting that measured peuNDF240 may be reliably predicted from the calculated value. Theoretically, the measurement should be equal to calculated peuNDF240; however, we observed a ratio of 1.8. More data with a wider range of dietary NDF sources is required to confirm this relationship. However, the use of peuNDF240 to predict DMI and ECM, whether calculated or directly measured, shows promise as a means to combine the effects of dietary particle size and undegradability.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86054 Watch 2068M Can additives overcome the deleterious effects of delayed sealing on the fermentation of alfalfa silage? 8 X. Liu silage butyric acid delayed filling X. Liu1, C. Mellinger1, G. Weiner1, L. Kung Jr.1 1University of Delaware, Newark, DE Delayed sealing of ensiled forages can cause a loss of fermentable substrates and may lead to a clostridial fermentation. Our objective was to determine if additives could overcome the deleterious effects of delayed sealing. Alfalfa was wilted to 38% DM, chopped and untreated (CT) or treated with potassium sorbate (PS, 0.05% fresh weight basis), glucose (SU, 2% DM basis), or their combination (PS+SU). Ten polyethylene bags (25 × 36 cm, about 2 kg wet forage) were filled for each treatment. Half of the bags were vacuum sealed immediately (IM) and the other half were sealed 18 h later (DL). Bags were stored at 30°C for 3, 7, 45, and 90 d. On d 3 to 45, bags were opened, subsampled, and resealed within 1 min of opening and continued to ensile. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments (4 additive treatments x 2 sealing times x 4 ensiling d) using JMP with significance declared at P < 0.05. Average pH was 6.07 at harvest, but it was 0.54 and 0.28 higher in CT and PS after delayed sealing, with smaller increases for SU (0.11) and PS+SU (0.01). At the time of sealing, the reducing sugar concentration decreased (P < 0.01) in DL (0.98%) compared with IM (2.89%). Lactic acid concentration was numerically higher for IM than DL during ensiling and pH stabilized after 7 d (final pH <4.38) whereas the pH of DL did not stabilize until 45 d with a higher final range of pH (4.58 – 5.07). Butyric acid was not present in any treatment that was immediately filled but it was 1.86% in DL-CT and 1.42% in DL-PS at 45 d, which were higher (P < 0.01) than all other additive treatments (ranging from 0.06% to 0.47%). These findings were similar after 90 d. The NH3-N concentration was higher (P < 0.01) in DL than IM after 90 d and SU and PS+SU had lower (P < 0.01) NH3-N concentration after delayed sealing. Delayed sealing resulted in a clostridial fermentation regardless of additive treatment, but it was less extensive when SU was added. These findings reemphasize the need to seal silos immediately after chopping because the loss of fermentable substrates is difficult to overcome.
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86091   2069M Ethanol and organic acid content in sugarcane silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri. 9 G. B. Neto ethanol Lactobacillus buchneri organic acids G. B. Neto1, A. W. P. Freitas1, R. B. Botelho1, C. A. Rosa2, J. P. Sampaio3 1Animal Science Institute of Department of Agriculture and Food Supply, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 3Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Although sugarcane produces large amounts of energy per hectare, ethanol produced by wild yeasts fermenting sugar and organic acid compromises silage quality. The ethanol and organic acid content of sugarcane silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri (2.5 × 10−10 cfu/g) was measured. The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivar IAC-SP93–3046 (28.3° Brix, 36% DM) was cut, sprayed or not with the inoculant, and ensiled in 20 l plastic buckets with Bunsen valves, with 4 replicates. These silos were sealed and weighed both after filling and after the ensiling period to assess gravimetric DM losses (DML). DML were calculated using this equation: DML = (FMs – FMo) × 100 / FMs, whereby DML = dry matter losses (% of DM); FMs = weight of forage mass at sealing; FMo = weight of forage mass at opening. After 114 d, the silos were opened. The silage was homogenized and approximately 200 g silage was extracted with a hydraulic press (2 kgf/cm3). The presence of organic acids and ethanol in the extract was determined using gas chromatography; 5 mL of the extract was transferred into test tubes containing 1 mL formic acid. Lactic acid content was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. The 3M Petrifilm yeast and mold count plates were incubated at 30°C for 48 h to determine yeast concentrations. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis (GLM) and means were compared with the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the addition of L. buchneri increased acetic and lactic acids levels, whereas ethanol production was decreased. The additive was capable of reducing ethanol production and dry matter losses. Table 1. Ethanol, organic acids, yeast, and dry matter losses of sugarcane silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri
Item Control L. buchneri SEM P-value
Acetic, mM 58.65 152.44 10.312 <0.001
Propionic, mM 0.00 1.34 0.376 0.018
Butyric, mM 0.79 0.36 0.142 0.020
Isobutyric, mM 0.72 0.68 0.062 0.556
Lactic (%DM) 1.60 2.13 0.383 0.165
Ethanol (%DM) 8.27 3.89 0.489 <0.001
Yeast (0 h), log cfu g−1 4.79 2.95 0.986 <0.001
Yeast (24 h), log cfu g−1 6.00 4.47 0.212 0.391
DM losses, (%DM) 32.26 19.68 5.260 0.042
Forages & Pastures Posters 1 In-Person Poster Forages and Pastures 6/20/2022 7:30 t86121 Watch 2070M Effect of neutral detergent fiber source in low forage diets on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility of Holstein dairy cows. 10 S. Y. Morrison low forage alternative fiber S. Y. Morrison1, H. Uchihori2, K. Hirano2, J. W. Darrah1, C.S Ballard1, H. M. Dann1, R. J. Grant1 1The William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY, 2ZEN-NOH National Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Associations, Tokyo, Japan Multiparous cows (16 enrolled and 15 used in data set), averaging 126 ± 13(SD) days in milk, were used in a crossover design study with 28-d periods to evaluate the effect of feeding a lower physical effectiveness factor (% dry particles ≥1.18-mm sieve; pef), higher undegradable neutral detergent fiber at 240 h of in vitro fermentation (uNDF240) forage [0.99; 23.3% dry matter (DM); pelleted oat straw] or a higher pef, lower uNDF240 forage (0.66; 15.8% DM; chopped timothy hay) on lactation performance, behavior, and total-tract digestibility (TTD). Two low forage diets (42.4% of diet DM) were formulated to contain:1) 10% chopped timothy hay, 0.43 pef, 35.0 aNDFom, 24.3 starch, and 9.7 uNDF (% diet DM; TIM); or 2) 10% pelleted oat straw, 0.49 pef, 35.1 aNDFom, 24.9 starch, and 8.9 uNDF (% of diet DM; POS). Cows were housed in tie-stalls, fed 1x/d, and milked 3x/d. On d 19–28 of each period, DM intake (DMI) and milk yield were measured. Milk composition was determined from d 19–20. Behavior was recorded every 5 min on d 19–21 and samples for TTD taken on d 22–25. Data were summarized by period and analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS (v.9.4) with model fixed effects of diet and period. Cow within sequence was a random effect. Pelleting inflated actual pef of pelleted oat straw forage. Cows fed the POS diet had higher DMI and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), but lower FCM/DMI compared with cows fed the TIM diet. The lower uNDF in the POS diet elicited ~1.4 h/d less total chewing than the higher uNDF TIM diet. The TTD of aNDFom was unaffected by diet. Pelleted high-uNDF240 oat straw can replace lower uNDF chopped hay in rations formulated to be lower in uNDF although some loss in dairy efficiency occurs. Table 1.
Item TIM POS SE P-value
DMI, kg/d 28.4 30.1 0.5 <0.01
Milk, kg/d 46.1 47.8 1.0 0.01
Fat, % 3.89 3.80 0.13 0.10
Fat, kg/d 1.78 1.81 0.06 0.27
True protein, % 3.09 3.11 0.05 0.32
True protein, kg/d 1.42 1.48 0.03 0.01
FCM, kg/d 48.9 50.0 1.1 0.05
FCM/DMI, kg/kg 1.72 1.66 0.03 <0.01
Chewing time, min/d 836 761 15 <0.01
Chewing time, min/kg of DMI 29.6 25.4 0.8 <0.01
Chewing time, min/kg aNDFom 86.8 74.5 2.2 <0.01
TTD NDFom, % DM 49.7 49.9 1.5 0.40
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 s9948                  
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t85846 Watch 2071M The role of lactation stage on nutrient partitioning in response to acetate supply. 1 N. Urrutia nutrient partitioning lactation stage acetate supply D. Urrutia1,2, C. Muñoz2, E. M. Ungerfeld3, K. J. Harvatine4, N. Urrutia2 1Universidad de Chile, La Pintana, RM, Chile, 2Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias - Remehue, Osorno, Los Lagos, Chile, 3Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias - Carillanca, Temuco, Araucanía, Chile, 4The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Acetate is the main source of energy and carbon for milk fat synthesis in the dairy cow, and recent studies have suggested that exogenous acetate supply may stimulate energy partitioning toward milk synthesis, however, it is not known if this occurs at any time of lactation or at a specific stage. Whole-body insulin resistance is a nutrient partitioning mechanism described in lactating cows, and it is evaluated through intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of lactation stage on plasma indicators of nutrient partitioning in response to acetate supply. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 Latin square design, repeated at 3 lactation stages (n = 8): early: 25 ± 6 DIM; peak: 60 ± 7 DIM; mid: 163 ± 19 DIM. Treatments were 5 d rumen infusion of 10 moles/d of sodium chloride (control) or 10 moles/d of sodium acetate with a 7 d washout period between treatments. On d 3 of treatments at each lactation stage, plasma samples were obtained before feeding (AM) and 6 h after feeding (PM). Glucose tolerance tests were performed on d 4 of infusion (0.25 g glucose/kg BW, IV), 60 min before feeding. Data were analyzed with the random effects of cow and period, and fixed effects of treatment, lactation stage, time and their interactions. No treatment effect or treatment interactions were observed for any response variable. A stage by time interaction was observed for plasma NEFA and BHB, with NEFA being greater in AM than PM and BHB greater in PM than in AM in early and peak, but not at mid lactation (all P < 0.05). A tendency for greater NEFA was observed in the acetate treatment as compared with control (P = 0.08). Plasma glucose was greater in mid as compared with early lactation (P < 0.05). Incremental area over the curve (AUC) at 60 and 150 min after GTT was greater in early as compared with peak and mid lactation. Overall, acetate had no major effects on plasma metabolites that represent nutrient partitioning. However, as expected for cows that are mobilizing body reserves to support lactation, greater plasma NEFA and BHB, lower glucose, and greater AUC following GTT, was observed in early lactation.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86686 Watch 2072M Chromium and palmitic acid supplementations modulate oxidized linoleic acid metabolite biosynthesis in periparturient dairy cows. 2 G. A. Contreras chromium palmitic acid OXLAM G. A. Contreras1, M. Chirivi1, U. Abou-Rjeileh1, J. Gandy1, J. Parales2, A. L. Lock2 1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Periparturient lipolysis increases linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) availability which is the substrate for oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAM). Among OXLAM, 9 and 12- hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) are proinflammatory, whereas 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids (oxoODE) and 13-HODE facilitate inflammation resolution and promote lipogenesis. Chromium supplementation improves systemic insulin sensitivity, possibly reducing lipolysis. Palmitic acid (PA) feeding increases nutrient availability for milk production. This study evaluated the effect of feeding Cr and PA on OXLAM production. Multiparous Holstein cows were selected at −21d before parturition. After calving, cows were randomly assigned to one of 4 diets containing: 1) no supplementation (CON, n = 4); Chromium propionate (Cr, at 0.45 ppm Cr/kg DM, n = 4); PA (1.5% DM, n = 4); or Cr+PA (n = 4) that were fed from 1 to 21 DIM. Plasma and subcutaneous AT (SCAT) biopsies were collected at −13 ± 5.1 d prepartum (PreP) and 14.4 ± 1.9 d (PP1), 21 ± 1.9 d (PP2) postpartum. Targeted lipidomic analysis was performed using HPLC-MS/MS. The statistical model included the fixed effect of diet, time, and treatment, the random effect of the block, cow, and cow nested in diet and block. Results are presented in the following sequence: CON, Cr, PA, Cr+PA. In plasma, 9-, 12-, 13-HODE and 9- and 13-oxoODE increased at PP1 and PP2 compared with PreP (P < 0.001). Postpartum, Cr and PA reduced 9-HODE compared with CON and Cr+PA (95.2; 75.39; 66.6; 98.2 ± 9 nM; P < 0.05). Similar results were observed for 13-HODE (85.8 ± 7.3; 71.3 ± 7; 62.37 ± 7; 85.0 ± 7 nM; P < 0.05). PA and Cr+PA increased 13-oxoODE compared with Cr but not to CON (2.7; 1.9; 2.9; 3.2 ± 0.3 nM; P < 0.05). 9-oxoODE was lower in PA compared with other treatments (17.7; 17.9; 13.3; 21.6 ± 2.3; P < 0.05). In AT, 9-, 13-HODE increased postpartum (P < 0.05). Postcalving, there were no effects of diet or diet*time on OXLAM content in AT. Cr and PA appear to reduce HODE and potentiate the production of oxoODE. The impact of these changes in OXLAM biosynthesis on metabolic functions warrants further investigation.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86829 Watch 2073M Effect of feeding an acidogenic diet with calcidiol during the dry period on calcium mobilization and serum vitamin D metabolites. 3 M. Garcia animate 25(OH)D3 Ca metabolism M. Garcia1, K. P. Zanzalari1, J. D. Chapman1, B. D. Humphrey1 1Phibro Animal Health Coorporation, Teaneck, NJ An acidogenic diet is an effective prepartum strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Calcidiol (CAL) or 25(OH)D3 (Hy•D, DSM Nutritional Products) is now available for use in dairy cattle. Published studies have reported positive effects when CAL was fed with acidogenic prepartum diets and serum 25(OH)D3 levels reached 200 ng/mL. This study aimed to determine the effects of feeding CAL, acidogenic diet, and Ca level on Ca mobilization and serum 25(OH)D3. Pregnant multiparous Holstein dry cows were used in a randomized block 2 × 2 factorial design. Before study initiation, cows were fed a nonacidogenic far-off diet with NRC (2001) recommended levels of vitamin D3 (25,000 IU/cow/d) for 12d. Cows were blocked by baseline 25(OH)D3 to 1 of 2 acidogenic diets using an anion source [Animate (AN; Phibro Animal Health)]: Fully (FULL: urine pH 5.5–6, dietary Ca 1.5% DM, n = 14) or Partially (PART: urine pH 6.2–6.7, dietary Ca 0.69% DM, n = 12) and 1 of 2 levels of CAL (CAL3: 3 mg/cow/d, n = 13; CAL5: 5 mg/cow/d, n = 13). Diets were fed for 29d. For the remainder dry period (17 d) and lactation, cows were fed similar diets without CAL. Blood was collected on D 0, 15, 22, and 29 after the onset of diets and at 12 and 57 DIM. Urine was collected at D 25 and 29 after the onset of diets. Data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED of SAS. AN × CAL interactions were not observed, except PART-CAL3 gained more BW than FULL-CAL3 (P = 0.04). FULL had lower DMI (P = 0.03) and higher (P < 0.05) urine Ca:creatinine and Ca excretion (+67%) than PART. During the 29d study period, serum 25(OH)D3 levels were greater (P < 0.05) for CAL5 (194 ng/mL) vs CAL3 (154 ng/mL), with both exceeding 200 ng/mL by 29d. Feeding CAL increased serum 25(OH)D3 during the CAL feeding period (55, 197, 227, and 249 ng/mL at D 0, 15, 22, and 29, respectively) and remained higher (P < 0.01) than D0 at 12DIM (124 ng/mL). However, by 57DIM 25(OH)D3 levels returned to D0. The combination of CAL, either 3 or 5 mg, in a fully acidogenic high Ca diet is an effective strategy for increasing Ca mobilization and serum 25(OH)D3 status in prepartum dairy cows.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86585 Watch 2074M Effects of induced subclinical hypocalcemia on serotonin and parathyroid hormone concentrations in lactating Holstein cows. 4 W. Frizzarini calcium metabolism transition period dairy cow W. Frizzarini1, J. Diniz2, M. Connelly1, L. Hernandez1 1University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil The objective was to evaluate serotonin (5HT) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in response to treatment with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for 24h to induce subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH; ionized calcium concentration (iCa) between 0.7 and 1.0 mM) in early lactation cows. Multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation (n = 12; mean DIM = 7.9 ± 0.75) were blocked by lactation number, randomly assigned in pairs to receive continuous 24h IV infusion of 5% EGTA (EGTA; n = 6) or continuous 24h IV infusion of 0.9% sterile saline solution (CON; n = 6), and were not milked during the 24h challenge. Blood samples were collected 24h before infusion, immediately before infusion, hourly during infusion, and 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72h after the end of the infusion. The infusion rate (IR) was controlled using an infusion pump (Heska Vet IV) based on iCa concentration (iStat portable analyzer, CG8+ cartridges, Abbott Point of Care). Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with hour as a repeated measurement. Samples collected 24h before the infusion were the baseline and they were used as a covariate. The overall mean for IR was 432.93 ± 24.51 mL/h. After 2h of infusion, SCH was induced, and the average iCa concentration during the infusion was 0.92 ± 0.01 mM and 1.28 ± 0.01 mM for EGTA and CON group respectively (P < 0.01). The overall mean of 5HT for the EGTA and CON group was 2,374.47 ± 93.90 ng/mL and 2,437.02 ± 94.05 ng/mL, respectively, and there was no difference between the treatments (P = 0.64). The overall mean for PTH for the EGTA and CON group was 229.09 ± 6.66 pg/mL and 237.53 ± 6.69 pg/mL, respectively, and there was no difference between the treatments (P = 0.39). There was an hour effect (P < 0.01) at 12 h after the end of infusion, with PTH concentrations being the highest (340.82 ± 20.04), and immediately before infusion being the lowest concentration (173.45 ± 20.04). The calcium challenge in these cows did not alter the 5HT and PTH concentrations in the circulation, suggesting additional endocrine regulators may be involved in the response to SCH.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86697   2075M Influence of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and the magnitude of calcium decline at the onset of lactation on blood calcium and serotonin dynamics. 5 M. Connelly serotonin calcium DCAD M. Connelly1, R. Rodney2, J. Kuehnl1, J. P. N. Andrade1, F. S. Andrade1, S. Henschel1, E. Block3, I. Lean4, L. Hernandez1 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 3Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ, 4Scibus, Camden, NSW, Australia The onset of lactation is characterized by a large shift in calcium metabolism, with recent emphasis placed on understanding the profile and dynamics of blood calcium and serotonin in the peripartal cow. Thus, the aim of this study was to delineate how prepartum dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) diets and the magnitude of calcium decline at the onset of lactation altered circulating serotonin and blood calcium dynamics. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305d milk yield and expected parturition date and allocated to either positive (+120 mEq/kg DM; +DCAD) or negative (−120 mEq/kg; -DCAD) DCAD diets from 251 d of gestation until parturition (n = 16/diet). Immediately after parturition cows were continuously infused for 24 h with i.) an intravenous solution of 10% dextrose or ii.) calcium gluconate (CaGlc) to maintain blood ionized calcium concentrations at 1.2 mM (normocalcemia) to form 4 treatment groups (n = 8/treatment). Blood was sampled every 6 h from 102 h before parturition until 96 h postparturition and every 30 min during 24 h continuous infusion. Cows fed a -DCAD diet prepartum had reduced urine and blood pH (P < 0.05). Additionally, cows fed a -DCAD diet prepartum were more resistant to decline in blood calcium approaching parturition and exhibited a smaller magnitude of decline relative to +DCAD fed cows. All cows regardless of prepartum dietary treatment exhibited a decline in blood calcium 18–24 h before parturition. Cows fed a -DCAD diet prepartum required lower rates of CaGlc infusion to maintain normocalcemia in the 24 h postpartum relative to +DCAD fed cows (70.36 vs. 54.68 ± 4.59 mL/h; P = 0.03). Moreover, circulating serotonin concentrations were increased pre (P = 0.04) and postpartum (P = 0.02) in cows fed a -DCAD diet, but were not different due to CaGlc infusion. Collectively, these data demonstrate that prepartum -DCAD diets facilitate a more transient hypocalcemia and improve blood calcium profiles at the onset of lactation while also increasing circulating serotonin concentrations.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86602 Watch 2079M Postruminal choline ion supplementation during a feed restriction-induced negative nutrient balance and the liver lipidome. 6 D. N. Coleman lactation metabolism D. N. Coleman1, Y. Liang1, R. Bucktrout1, J. J. Loor1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL Enhanced postruminal choline supply may alter hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) production and help reduce liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations during the periparturient period. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of enhanced postruminal CHO supply during a feed restriction-induced negative nutrient balance (NNB) on the liver lipidome. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± 24 DIM) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 4 d treatment periods (d 1–4), and 10 d recovery periods (d 5–14). Treatments were unrestricted intake with abomasal infusion of water, restricted intake (R; 60% of net energy for lactation requirements) with abomasal infusion of water, or R plus abomasal infusion of 6.25, 12.5, or 25 g/d choline ion. Liver biopsies were performed in the morning on d 5 after the infusion ended, and tissue used for lipidomic analysis via liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of the lipidomic data were performed with the web-based metabolomic processing tool MetaboAnalyst 4.0. The raw data were transformed using the generalized log-transformation and then Pareto scaled to correct for heteroskedasticity. In total, 819 different lipid species were detected. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model distinguished treatments, however, only 13.4% of lipids were modified by CHO. According to the VIP scores, there were 15 metabolites with a VIP >2.5: 8 PC species, 2 acylcarnitines, 1 cholesterol ester, 1 lysophosphatidylglycerol, 2 TG and 1 diacyglycerol. One-way ANOVA identified 109 different lipids with a false discovery rate ≤0.05. The largest group detected was PC species, however, all 34 were decreased with R treatments vs. A0 and there were few differences between CHO treatments. Examples of other changes are that concentrations of TG(16:0/18:1/18:3)+NH4 were greater in R12.5 than all other treatments, while TG(16:1/16:1/18:1)+NH4 was greatest in R0. Overall, preliminary observations suggest that enhanced supply of postruminal CHO during has limited effects on the species of lipid produced during a period of NNB.
Physiology & Endocrinology Posters 1 In-Person Poster Physiology and Endocrinology 6/20/2022 7:30 t86109 Watch 2080M Supplementing heat-stressed cows with a plant extract and electrolytes supplement increases milk production and intake and enriches the adipose tissue proteome with Nrf2-oxidative stress response proteins. 7 M. Zachut heat stress polyphenols adipose J. R. Daddam1, D. Daniel2, I. Pelech3, G. Kra1,2, H. Kamer1, Y. Lavon4, U. Moallem1, M. Zachut1 1Agriculture Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Israel, 2Faculty of Agriculture, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel, 3Department of Cattle, Extension Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Rishon Lezion, Israel, 4Israeli Cattle Board Association, Caesarea, Israel The objectives were to examine the effects of a supplement comprised of plant extracts and electrolytes (AXT; Axion ThermoPlus, CCPA, France) during heat load on production, indices of heat stress, and on oxidative stress proteins in adipose tissue (AT) in dairy cows. Forty-two multiparous mid-lactation cows were divided into 3 groups during peak summer, and were fed for 2 wks either a standard milking cows' diet (CTL, n = 14), or supplemented with 100 g/d of AXT (100AXT, n = 14), or 150 g/d of AXT (150AXT, n = 14), while being cooled 5 times a day; then, half of the cows from each dietary treatment were cooled (CL) or not cooled (NCL) for 2 wks, after which the CL/NCL were switched for additional 2 wks. Cows were milked 3 times a day and milk composition was analyzed at the end of each period. Vaginal temperature (VT) was measured by sensors every 10 min for 3 consecutive days in each period. Biopsies of AT were taken from 10 NCL cows (5 CTL and 5 150AXT) at the end of the 2 wks period, and examined by GC-MS-MS proteomics analysis. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED of SAS, and the model included the effects of dietary treatment, cooling, and their interaction. Milk yields (42.2 vs. 39.0 kg/d, SEM = 0.89, P = 0.05) and 4% FCM (41.6 vs. 37.0 kg/d, SEM = 0.93, P = 0.005) were higher in 100ATX than in CTL; milk components were similar among groups. DMI was higher in 100ATX than in CTL (30.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d, SEM = 0.52, P = 0.02). The percentage of hours that VT was > 39°C was lower in AXT100 and in AXT150 than in CTL (P < 0.0001). Proteomics revealed increased abundances of peroxidase [fold change (FC) = 1.6, P = 0.05], microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 (FC = 2.5, P = 0.05) and heme oxygenase 1 (FC = 3.6, P = 0.03) in AT of AXT150 compared with CTL. Dietary supplementation of AXT at 100 g/d during heat load increases DMI, milk and 4% FCM production, and lowers VT. The AXT supplementation enriched the AT proteome with Nrf2-oxidaitve stress response proteins, thus improving AT oxidative stress response.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 s9953                  
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t85970 Watch 2081M Associations of pen-level management factors with biomarkers, health, and milk yield. 1 T. R. Overton transition cow pen management performance A. L. Kerwin1, W. S. Burhans2, D. V. Nydam3, T. R. Overton1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Dairy-Tech Group, South Albany, VT, 3Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objective was to evaluate associations between putative periparturient management factors at the pen-level with the prevalence of elevated postpartum biomarkers [nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; ≥ 0.59 mmol/L), BHB (≥1.2 mmol/L), and haptoglobin (Hp; ≥ 0.45g/L)], disorder incidence (DI), and milk yield. Multiparous (MP) and primiparous (PP) cows (n = 11–24) from 72 farms in the northeastern US were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Farms were visited during the far-off dry (FO), close-up dry (CU), and fresh (FR) periods. A simple linear regression was conducted on 13 pen-level explanatory variables for each period and PP and MP cows were analyzed separately. Multicollinearity was assessed for variables with P < 0.20 and were then included in a multivariable general linear model. A manual backward stepwise elimination process ensued until all variables had P < 0.10. A 1-% unit increase in the proportion of particles on the 19-mm sieve of the Penn State Particle Separator in the FO resulted in a 0.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2%-unit decrease in DI (P = 0.08) and Hp (P = 0.10) for MP cows, respectively, and in the CU resulted in a 0.1 ± 0.0 kg/d increase in wk 4 milk yield (WK4MY; P = 0.07) for PP cows. A 1-% unit increase in bunk stocking density in the CU for PP and FR for MP resulted in a 0.13 ± 0.06 and 0.15 ± 0.08%-unit increase in DI (P = 0.03) and NEFA (P = 0.06), respectively. A 1-% unit increase in undigested NDF at 240 h (uNDF240) in the FR resulted in a 0.9 ± 0.4 kg/d decrease in WK4MY for MP cows (P = 0.01) and in physically effective uNDF240 in the FR resulted in a 468 ± 146 kg for PP (P = 0.002) and 278 ± 121 kg for MP (P = 0.02) decrease in 305-d mature equivalent milk yield at 4th test-day (~120 d in milk). Fresh pens with cows fed > 1 × /d had an 8.1 ± 3.7%-unit decrease in BHB (P = 0.08) for PP cows, an 18.4 ± 5.9 and 7.3 ± 2.9%-unit decrease in BHB (P = 0.003) and DI (P = 0.04) for MP cows, respectively. Commingling PP and MP cows in the FR resulted in a 9.9 ± 3.6%-unit increase in BHB (P = 0.03) and 1.8 ± 0.8 kg/d decrease in WK4MY (P = 0.03) for PP cows. Our results indicate that pen-level management factors are associated with biomarkers, DI, and milk yield.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t85971 Watch 2082M Associations of herd-level management factors with biomarkers, health, milk yield, and reproduction. 2 T. R. Overton transition cow herd management performance A. L. Kerwin1, W. S. Burhans2, D. V. Nydam3, T. R. Overton1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Dairy-Tech Group, South Albany, VT, 3Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objective was to evaluate associations between putative periparturient management factors at the herd-level with the prevalence of elevated postpartum biomarkers [nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; ≥ 0.59 mmol/L), BHB (≥1.2 mmol/L), and haptoglobin (Hp; ≥ 0.45g/L)], disorder incidence (DI), milk yield, and reproductive performance. Multiparous (MP) and primiparous (PP) cows (n = 11–24) from 72 farms in the northeastern US were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. A survey was used to acquire data on management variables. Outcomes were calculated by parity within a herd. A multivariable linear regression was conducted on 8 explanatory variables and included parity, the interaction with parity, and farm as a random effect. Multicollinearity was assessed for variables with P < 0.20 and were then included in the full multivariable general linear model and a manual backward stepwise elimination process ensued until all variables had a P < 0.10. Farms that vaccinated cows in the calving pen had a 12.5 ± 5.3-% unit increase in DI (P = 0.02) for all cows and MP cows had a 4.1 ± 1.8 kg/d decrease in wk 4 milk yield compared with herds that did not vaccinate in the calving pen. Farms that moved cows ≥ 3 × from 60 d before expected calving to calving and from calving to 90 DIM had an 11.9 ± 5.6-% unit increase in Hp (P = 0.04) and 719 ± 214 kg decrease in 305-d mature equivalent milk yield at 4th test-day (~120 DIM; P = 0.01), respectively, for PP cows, compared with herds that moved cows < 3 × . Farms that kept cows in the calving pen for > 8 h after calving had a 22.6 ± 6.0-% unit increase in NEFA (P < 0.001) and a 3.6 ± 2.0, 4.5 ± 2.4, and 13.7 ± 4.2-% unit decrease in 21-d pregnancy rate (P = 0.08), probability of pregnancy (P = 0.09), and pregnancy risk to first service (P = 0.003), respectively, for all cows, a 13.0 ± 7.0-% unit decrease in BHB (P = 0.08) for MP cows, and a 19.4 ± 5.4 and 32.7 ± 8.3-% unit increase in BHB (P = 0.001) and Hp (P < 0.001), respectively, for PP cows, compared with farms that kept cows in the calving pen for ≤ 8 h. Our results indicate that herd-level management factors are associated with biomarkers, DI, milk yield, and reproductive performance.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86157 Watch 2083M Hyperinflamed cows at dry-off also have an exaggerated inflammatory response and decreased milk production in the next lactation. 3 B. M. Goetz periparturient involution B. M. Goetz1, M. A. Abeya1, S. Rodriquez-Jimenez1, E. A. Horst1, E. J. Mayorga1, L. H. Baumgard1 1Iowa State University, Ames, IA Objectives were to evaluate the relationship between inflammation after dry-off (DO) and postcalving inflammation and productivity. Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows were observed from d −14 to 9 relative to DO and d −21 ± 3 to 28 relative to the succeeding calving. Blood samples were collected on d −1, 2, 5, and 9 relative to DO and on d −21, −14, −7, −3 ± 3, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to expected calving. Circulating inflammatory biomarkers lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A and haptoglobin increased from d −1 to d 2 post-DO (1.4-, 2.7-, and 6.6- fold, respectively; P < 0.01), but the inflammatory response was not related to pre-DO milk yield (MY). The relationship between inflammation and future productivity was evaluated using PROC CORR of SAS. Circulating LBP on d 9 post-DO was negatively associated with MY and energy-corrected milk (ECM) during the first 4 weeks postpartum (r = −0.59 and −0.57, respectively; P = 0.01). Cows were also retrospectively classified into 2 groups based on their post-DO d 9 LBP concentration: high LBP (High; top 50%; n = 9) or low LBP (Low; bottom 50%; n = 9), and the ensuing transition period was evaluated using PROC MIXED of SAS. No differences were detected on pre- or postpartum DMI, body weight, body condition score, or fecal pH (P > 0.26). However, cows in the DO High group had decreased postpartum MY (4.6 kg; P = 0.07) and ECM (6.6 kg; P = 0.03) relative to cows in the DO Low group. Additionally, cows in the DO High group had increased postpartum circulating glucose, insulin, and LBP (5, 64, and 93%, respectively; P ≤ 0.03). Postpartum free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were decreased in DO High cows relative to DO Low cows (19 and 16%, respectively; P ≤ 0.06). In conclusion, post-DO inflammation is correlated with periparturient inflammation, metabolism, and decreased milk production.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86498 Watch 2084M Body condition score change affects hepatic health and disease prevalence. 4 R. Almeida dairy cattle ketosis liver functionally index G. F. M. Leão1, N. B. R. Marani1, A. B. R. Lima1, J. J. Boiarski1, P. S. Donato1, D. C. Consentini2, L. F. M. Moroz3, R. Almeida4 1Dairy Innovation, Guarapuava, PR, Brazil, 2University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 3Cowtraining, Carambeí, PR, Brazil, 4Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil Body condition score change (ΔBCS) during the transition period is strongly associated with health and productive performance. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the ΔBCS in a Brazilian commercial herd on milk production, milk composition, blood parameters and disease prevalence. One hundred and 61 Holstein nulliparous (n = 57) and multiparous cows (n = 104) were allocated in 3 classes of ΔBCS between 7 d prior calving and 7 d in milk (DIM): low BCS loss (LL: ΔBCS ≤ 0.25 [n = 61]), moderate loss (ML: ΔBCS = 0.5 [n = 62]) and excessive loss (EL: ΔBCS ≥ 0.75 [n = 38]). Daily milk yield was recorded during the first 90 DIM, and milk composition was evaluated in the first 2 weeks of lactation. Blood samples were collected at 7 DIM for blood metabolites analysis. Blood ketones were analyzed on d 4, 7 and 12 DIM. Morbidity, considered as the occurrence of one or more of the following health problems: retained placenta, ketosis, mastitis, hypocalcemia, metritis, and pneumonia, were recorded during the first 60 DIM. Production, composition and blood parameters were analyzed using GLM procedure of SAS, while disease prevalence were performed using the GLIMMIX procedure considering the effects of parity and ΔBCS class. Milk composition was not influenced by ΔBCS, as well as milk yield (P = 0.92). Cows with EL showed greater blood BHB on 4 DIM than ML and LL (1.02 vs. 0.78 vs. 0.76 mmol/L; P = 0.03). Cows from EL group had greater proportion of cows with health problems (65.8 vs. 51.6 vs. 39.3%; P = 0.04). Regarding specific health problems evaluated, EL cows presented higher prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia (Ca < 8.0 mg/dL on 1 DIM; 55.3 vs. 35.5 vs. 29.5%; P = 0.03) and tended to have higher subclinical ketosis (BHB ≥ 1.2; 18.4 vs. 9.7 vs. 3.3%; P = 0.06). Blood metabolites were similar between treatments. However, EL cows showed higher AST concentrations (131.9 vs. 94.5 and 84.4 U/L; P = 0.01) and lower values of liver functionally index (3.04 vs. 5.36 and 5.35; P = 0.05) than the other 2 ΔBCS classes, which suggest a lower hepatic health. In summary, cows with less intense BCS loss presented less health problems and better hepatic status, along with no detrimental impact on performance.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86898 Watch 2085M Maternal prepartum body condition score affects calf performance from birth to weaning. 5 R. Almeida dairy cattle maternal influence calf growing M. Poczynek1,3, L. S. Nogueira1, J. H. Carneiro1, H. P. Janssen2, F. C. Cardoso3, R. Almeida1 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, 2Negócios Leite Castrolanda Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Castro, PR, Brazil, 3Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL Prepartum body condition score (BCS) has known effects on cow performance and health. However, the effects of dairy cow’s body fat reserves on their offspring remain not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of maternal BCS on their offspring’s body weight (BW) at birth and weaning, withers height (WH), hip width (HW), ADG from birth to weaning and transfer of passive immunity. Seventy-one female Holstein calves were enrolled from dams that were categorized in 3 BCS groups: Group 1: ≤ 3.0 (n = 16); Group 2: 3.25 - 3.50 (n = 21); and Group 3: ≥ 3.75 (n = 34), 21 d before the expected calving date. At birth, calves received 10.3% of birth BW of a high-quality colostrum (Brix 27.5 ± 2.8% measured MISCO PA202x-400 Digital Refractometer, Solon, OH) and were housed in individual calf hutches, fed 6 L/d of pasteurized whole milk with ad libitum starter concentrate and water. Calves were weaned at 96 d of age. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS. Calf was the experimental unit. Maternal BCS did not affected calf’s BW at birth (37.8 ± 1.11 kg; P = 0.42) and HW at birth (22.6 ± 0.69 cm; P = 0.30). However, calves from Group 1 dams were born 2 cm shorter than calves from Groups 2 and 3 (74.28 ± 0.77 cm for calves from Group1, 76.45 ± 0.77 cm for calves from Group 2 and 76.73 ± 0.77 cm for calves from Group 3; P = 0.03). As expected, since all calves received the same proportional amount of colostrum, no effects on transfer of passive immunity were observed (P = 0.90). The ADG from birth to weaning was the same for calves from Groups 1, 2, and 3(878.3 ± 28.3 g/d; P = 0.72), as well as BW at weaning (122.04 ± 4.06 kg; P = 0.72). The HW at weaning was not affected by the maternal group (P = 0.85). Nonetheless, calves from Group 1 dams remained 2 cm shorter until weaning (96.78 ± 0.88 cm for Group 1, 98.90 ± 0.88 for Group 2 and 98.67 ± 0.88 for Group 3; P = 0.04). In conclusion, prepartum maternal BCS directly affected their offspring’s size at birth and this effect lasted until weaning.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86912 Watch 2086M Impact of prepartum body condition score on milk production, backfat thickness mobilization and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. 6 R. Almeida body fat reserves transition period L. S. Nogueira1, M. Poczynek1, J. H. Carneiro1, H. P. Janssen2, R. Almeida1 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, 2Negócios Leite Castrolanda Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Castro, PR, Brazil The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on milk production, blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), backfat thickness (BFT) mobilization, and body weight changes during the transition period. One hundred 56 Holstein animals, 48 nulliparous and 108 multiparous, were categorized into 3 BCS classes: class 1: ≤ 3.0 (n = 45); class 2: 3.25 - 3.5 (n = 50); and class 3: ≥ 3.75 (n = 61), 21 d before the expected calving date. Body weight (BW), BCS, and BFT by using ultrasound were assessed 21 d before the expected calving, on the calving day and 28 d after calving. Colostrum was obtained from each cow at the first milking following calving and Brix % was recorded immediately following collection. Milk production was measured in the first 100 d of lactation. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The BCS averages were 2.91 for class 1, 3.44 for class 2, and 4.11 for class 3. As expected, cows in the class 3 were heavier (P = 0.05) than cows in classes 2 and 1 (751.0, 714.7, and 717.4 kg, respectively) in the prepartum period. Cows in class 3 had more (P < 0.01) prepartum BFT (19.8 ± 0.5 mm), followed by class 2 (13.3 ± 0.5 mm) and class 1 (10.1 ± 0.5 mm). The colostrum yield and Brix % were not altered (P > 0.05) by the prepartum BCS. Cows in class 3 lost more (P < 0.01) BFT (6.2 ± 0.5 mm) followed by class 2 (2.1 ± 0.5 mm) and the lowest BFT change was for class 1 with 0.5 ± 0.5 mm. The BW change was higher (P < 0.01) for class 3 cows (47.6 ± 6.5 kg), but it was similar for classes 2 and 1 (31.7 and 31.2 ± 6.5 kg). Similarly, the BCS change was greater (P < 0.01) in class 3 followed by classes 2 and 1; 0.94, 0.59 and 0.35 ± 0.05 units, respectively. The BHB concentrations were not affected (P > 0.05) by the BCS classes in both d 7 and 14 after calving. Milk yield was not affected (P > 0.05) by the BCS classes; 47.4, 49.4, and 48.0 ± 1.35 kg/d, respectively for BCS classes 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, cows with high prepartum BCS lost more body fat reserves but this did not affect milk production, colostrum yield and quality, and BHB concentrations.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86706 Watch 2087M Serum amino acids and other metabolites of weaned heifers in response to diurnal heat stress. 7 H. K. J. P. Wickramasinghe dry matter intake lysine nonesterified fatty acids H. K. J. P. Wickramasinghe1, L. Showman2, M. A. Perera2, D. C. Beitz1, J. A. D. R. N. Appuhamy1 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2W. M. Keck Metabolomics Research Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Heat stress (HS) influences nutrient partitioning among animal tissues, which is reflected in blood metabolite profiles. The impact of daytime heat waves on cattle is poorly understood, and blood metabolite profiles of heat-stressed heifers and calves are limited. The objective was to investigate the effects of a diurnal HS bout (dHS) on serum AA and other metabolite profiles of weaned heifers. Nine weaned Holstein calves at 5 mo of age (202 ± 7.5 kg of BW) were subjected to a 3 d dHS by increasing daytime (0900 to 2100 h) barn temperature from 28 to 33°C. The nighttime temperature was 24°C. The DMI and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded the wk before and during dHS. Blood was drawn, and rectal temperature (Tr) and respiration rate (RR) were recorded at 1500 h on d 0 (baseline) and d 3 of dHS. Serum AA and other metabolite concentrations were measured by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment effects were analyzed by using the MIXED procedure in SAS. The Tr (39.5 to 40.7°C) and RR (77 to 127 breaths per min) increased for dHS (P < 0.01). The dHS did not change DMI (5.6 kg/d, P = 0.36) but decreased ADG (1.21 to 0.21 kg/d) relative to baseline. The dHS increased Lys and Trp (P < 0.01), and total essential AA (220.1 to 251.9 μmol /L; P = 0.12) relative to baseline. Compared with baseline, dHS also increased nonessential AA such as Gln, Ala, Pro, and Tyr (P < 0.03). The increments in serum AA for dHS contradicted with declines of serum AA in cows subjected to HS throughout the whole day and having decreased DMI. The dHS did not affect serum glucose, urea, ornithine, serotonin, and total nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (P > 0.32). The dHS tended to increase BHB (P = 0.06) and decreased glycerol (P = 0.09). In conclusion, the metabolite profiles indicate a minimal fatty acid mobilization in response to dHS. Elevated AA concentrations suggested decreased utilization of AA for muscle protein synthesis as supported by the lower ADG while DMI remained unchanged during dHS. The metabolic profiles of cattle for dHS seemed to be different from those for cows subjected to HS throughout the whole day.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86441 Watch 2088M Predicting ribeye area and shape of live calves through 3-dimensional image analyses of body surface. 8 J. Caffarini beef-on-dairy body composition computer vision J. Caffarini1, J. Dorea2,3, T. Bresolin2 1Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI,, 2Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI,, 3Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI, The use of sexed semen at dairy farms has improved heifer replacement over the last decade by allowing greater control over the number of retained females and enabling the selection of dams with superior genetics. Alternatively, beef semen can be used in genetically inferior dairy cows to produce crossbred (beef x dairy) animals that can be sold at a higher price. Although crossbreeding became profitable for dairy farmers, meat cuts from beef x dairy crosses often lack quality and shape uniformity. Technologies for quickly predicting carcass traits for animal grouping before harvest may improve consistency in crossbred cattle. Our objective was to develop a deep learning approach for predicting ribeye area and circularity of live animals through 3D body surface images using 2 neural networks: (1) a nested Pyramid Scene Parsing Network (nPSPNet) for extracting features, and (2) a convolutional Size Estimating Neural Network (SENN) for generating ribeye size and shape estimates from these features. A group of 56 calves were imaged using an Intel RealSense D435 camera. A total of 327 depth images were captured from 30 calves and labeled with masks outlining the calf to train the nPSPNet. An additional 42,523 depth images were taken from the remaining 26 calves, and 3 13th rib ultrasound images were selected from each. Ribeye ultrasound images were manually segmented, and average ribeye area and circularity for each was calculated and paired with its corresponding depth images for SENN training. We implemented a nested cross-validation (CV) approach, in which all images for one calf were removed (Leave-one-out, LOO), and the remaining calves were further divided into training (70%) and validation (30%) sets within each LOO iteration. The proposed model predicted ribeye size with an average R2 of 0.73 and 6.8% mean absolute error of prediction (MAEP) and the ribeye circularity with R2 of 0.89 and 2.1% MAEP. Our results indicate that computer vision systems could be used to predict meat cut traits in live animals, allowing optimal management decisions toward smart animal grouping in beef x dairy crosses and purebred.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86957   2089M Early prediction of muscle score of beef-on-dairy cattle using depth images and deep learning approaches. 9 L. G. R. Pereira artificial intelligence computer vision deep learning L. G. R. Pereira1,2, J. C. F. Silva2, T. Bresolin2, R. E. P. Ferreira2, J. R. R. Doera2 1Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation–Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Foa, MG, Brazil, 2Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI High-throughput phenotyping is a key component for developing proven and reliable beef genetics for dairy farmers to maximize calf crop value. Recent advances in machine learning have allowed the development of algorithms that use depth images to predict animal performance, development, and morphology. The objective of this study was to develop a computer vision system to predict future muscle score using depth images obtained from newborn beef-on-dairy calves, and compare with using morphological measurements. Seventy-nine calves with 8 ± 5 d of age and 100 ± 16 kg were manually measured (data set1: cannon bone, forearm, hip length, face length, face width) and weighed, and a depth image was captured from each animal using an Intel RealSense Depth Camera D435. The images were manually segmented using MATLAB software. The surface area of the calf body was estimated by using the camera’s focal length and sensor size to calculate each pixel’s area in cm2, and then the volume was calculated by multiplying the estimated area values by the distances from each pixel to the floor. From the segmentation mask, the following values were calculated (data set2): total number of pixels; length in pixels of the major axis of the ellipsis containing the mask; perimeter in pixels; ratio of pixels in the mask to pixels in the rectangle containing it; eccentricity; and circularity. K-nearest neighbors (KNN) was used to predict the muscle score in a scale from 1 to 3, and leave-one-out cross-validation was used to assess the models’ performance. The model performance using data set1 achieved an overall accuracy of 71% (precision = 74%, recall = 69%), while the accuracy using data set2 was 58%. Although models trained using imaging data performed worse than using morphological measurements, the former can be useful as a high-throughput phenotyping tool to predict muscle score of beef-on-dairy animals.
Production, Management & the Environment Posters 1 In-Person Poster Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 7:30 t86414 Watch 2090M Determining an automatic teat sprayer system’s effectiveness on eliminating bacteria on the teat skin of Holstein dairy cows. 10 G. Canny teat skin bacteria automatic sprayer G. Canny1, B. Jones1,2, J. Waddell1, J. Spencer2, J. Speshock1 1Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 2Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 3Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 4Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 5Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, College Station, TX The bovine udder is constantly exposed to mastitis-causing organisms in the environment and from cow-to-cow exposure through unsanitary milking equipment. The use of teat disinfectant before and after the milking unit is applied decreases the colonization of teat skin bacteria that can cause mastitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preventing colonization of teat skin bacteria on a commercial dairy farm in Central Texas by using an automatic sprayer for pre-teat disinfectant. Cows (n = 175) were scored based on the overall teat coverage from 0 (no teats receiving pre-spray) to 4 (all teats receiving pre-spray). Teat skin bacteria samples were collected before the spray was applied, then again once the pre-spray was removed by a single use towel by using a single sterile 12-ply 4 X 4 cotton gauze pad and moistened with a phosphate buffer solution. Swabs were swiped down the side of the left rear teat from base to apex and then 3 times across the apex before being deposited in a sterile 50 mL tube containing 15 mL of the peptone phosphate buffer solution. From the samples collected (n = 350), a 1:10 serial dilution was performed with 1 mL enumerated from the swab and 9 mL of phosphate buffer solution. Then 100 µL were applied to blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. All analyses were carried out in SAS (Version 9.4, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). The MEANS procedure was used to evaluate scores. Mean ± SD coverage score of disinfectant automatically applied to teats was 2.5 ± 1.05. Samples collected before the teat disinfectant was applied resulted in 8.79 × 105 cfu/mL. Samples collected after the teat disinfectant was applied resulted in 5.1 × 105 cfu/mL. Results from this study suggest that the automatic sprayer technique may not effectively remove teat skin bacteria that can cause mastitis.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 s9956                  
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86847 Watch 2091M Evaluating the relationship between previous estrous characteristics and production parameters on days to and estrous intensity at first service in a dairy with a robotic milking system. 1 S. Johnson automatic milking system (AMS) robotic milking system estrous intensity S. Johnson1, J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA Days to first service often indicates the reproductive health of a dairy herd with estrous detection commonly used to submit animals to this AI. Activity monitoring systems (AMS) allow for effective and accurate identification of estrous events. However, there are still numerous variables that influence estrous events identified by AMS in conventional milking systems, with the list becoming more robust in dairies with robotic milking systems (RMS). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate how previous estrous characteristics and production parameters influence the days to and intensity of estrus at first service in a RMS with AMS. Lactating, Holstein cows (n = 45) were fitted with a DeLaval activity meter and monitored from day of calving until first service in a RMS using Delpro Farm Manager. The algorithm included in this program generates attentions at 3 different levels (+, ++, +++) and reports an intensity of estrus (EI), which correlates with the attention level and reflects the percent change relative to cow’s baseline activity. Only ++ and +++ attentions were recorded and peak EI used in analysis while any attention that peaked at + considered a false alarm. No exogenous hormones were used to manipulate cows enrolled and observations concluded at 100 DIM. Data recorded for previous estrous characteristics included days in milk (DIM) at and EI of the first estrous event postpartum and frequency of estrous events during the voluntary wait period (VWP) of 60 DIM. Data recorded for production parameters included frequency of visits to RMS and milk production at 30, 60 and 90 DIM. Using R, regression plots and Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to identify relationships and best fit a linear model. DIM at first service was not impacted by robot visits, milk production or EI at preceding estrous event(s) during the first 100 DIM (P > 0.05). Only weak associations exist between measured variables and EI at first service. One moderate relationship was uncovered between EI at first estrus and EI at first service (r = 0.61). RMS visits related to milk production on the same DIM became more highly correlated from 30 DIM (r = 0.52) to 60 DIM (r = 0.77). Interestingly, 94.1% of animals that did not cycle during the VWP (n = 16) also failed to cycle in the first 100 DIM. Although no significant relationships were identified due to the preliminary nature of this data, the influence of estrous characteristics during the VWP on future estrous events warrants further investigation.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86289 Watch 2092M Effect of a targeted reproductive management program based on automated detection of estrus during the voluntary waiting period on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. 2 A. L. Laplacette automated detection of estrus timed AI cow A. L. Laplacette1, C. Rial1, G. S. Magaña Baños2, J. A. Garcia Escalera2, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Merck Animal Health, Mexico Our objectives were (1) to evaluate the effect on reproductive performance of a targeted reproductive management program for first AI that prioritized AI at detected estrus (AIE) based on automated estrus alerts (AEA) and used timed AI (TAI) for cows not AIE and (2) evaluate the association between AEA during the voluntary waiting period (AEA-VWP) and reproductive outcomes. Holstein cows (n = 849) from one commercial farm were fitted with a neck sensor (Heatime Pro+, Allflex) for detection of estrus, blocked by parity and semen (Holstein vs. beef) used, and then randomly assigned to an all-TAI (A-TAI; n = 441) or predominant AIE+TAI (P-AIE; n = 408) treatment. Cows in A-TAI received TAI at 76 ± 3 DIM after Double-Ovsynch. After a 50 d VWP, cows in P-AIE were eligible for AIE for up to 28 to 35 d if had at least one AEA-VWP (n = 248) or up to 14 to 21 d if no AEA-VWP (n = 160) was recorded from 15 to 49 DIM. Cows not AIE were TAI after Ovsynch with progesterone supplementation at 90 ± 3 or 76 ± 3 DIM if had at least one or no AEA-VWP. Cows from both treatments received the same reproductive program after first AI (i.e., AIE if detected estrus and TAI after resynchronization of ovulation starting at 31–37 d after AI). Binary data were analyzed by Logistic regression and time to pregnancy with Cox’s regression. Proportion of cows with AEA-VWP did not differ (P = 0.56) for A-TAI (59.3%) and P-AIE (61.2%). Within P-AIE, 88.2 and 43.7% of the cows were AIE out of those with or without AEA-VWP. First-service DIM were reduced (P < 0.01) for P-AIE (66.8 ± 0.4) than A-TAI (76.1 ± 0.4). Overall first AI pregnancies per AI (P/AI) were greater (P < 0.01) for A-TAI (41.0%) than P-AIE (29.8%). The hazard of pregnancy (HR = 1.0; 0.8–1.3) did not differ (P = 0.80) and median days to pregnancy were 100 for A-TAI and 108 for P-AIE. Cows pregnant at 150 DIM did not differ (P = 0.47) for A-TAI (70.4%) and P-AIE (67.3%). Across treatments, cows with (43.6%) than without (27.6%) VWP-AEA had greater (P < 0.01) P/AI and hazard of pregnancy [HR = 1.7; 1.3–2.1]. More (P < 0.01) cows with (76.7%) than without VWP-AEA (59.8%) were pregnant at 150 DIM. We conclude that a targeted reproductive management program that prioritized AIE based on AEA led to similar reproductive performance than a program that used all TAI and an extended VWP. Also, estrus expression during the VWP was associated with improved reproductive performance.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86298 Watch 2093M Automated estrus alert features during the voluntary waiting period and AI period were affected by cow features and early lactation events and associated with first-service outcomes in lactating dairy cows. 3 C. Rial dairy cow reproduction automated estrus C. Rial1, A. L. Laplacette1, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to evaluate the association between biological and management features of dairy cows with automated estrus alerts (AEA) features for AEA generated during the voluntary waiting period (AEA-VWP) and AI period (AEA-AI). A secondary objective was to evaluate the association between AEA features with first-service outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 559) were fitted with an ear-attached sensor (Smartbow, Zoetis). Cows were AI at detected estrus based on AEA for 3 to 5 wk after the end of the VWP, and if not AIE were timed AI after Ovsynch plus progesterone. Features of AEA evaluated were intensity (range 40–100%) and duration (hours from onset to end of AEA). Health disorders (HD) events, calving-related events, days in close-up pen (DCU; ideal = 14–28, not ideal < 14 or > 28 d), milk yield (H = high, M = medium, L = low), gDPR (H, M, L), parity (1 vs ≥ 2), and calving season (W = warm, C = cool) were explanatory variables. Intensity, duration, and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) were analyzed with Poisson regression, ANOVA, and logistic regression, respectively. Intensity of AEA-VWP was affected (P < 0.05) by milk yield (H = 84.0b, M = 86.8a, L = 83.9b), gDPR (H = 86.4a, M = 83.7b, L = 84.6b), HD events (yes = 78.9, no = 91.4) and DCU (ideal = 86.0, no ideal = 83.8). Duration of AEA-VWP was affected (P < 0.05) by calving season (W = 11.9 h, C = 14.3 h) and HD events (yes = 11.3 h, no = 14.8 h). Intensity of AEA-AI was affected (P < 0.05) by milk yield (H = 88.6ab, M = 90.2a, L = 87.2b), parity (1 = 90.3, ≥ 2 = 87.1), AI season (W = 87.7, C = 89.6) and intensity of AEA-VWP (AEA-AI intensity increased 1.1% per 1-unit increase in AEA-VWP intensity). Duration of AEA-AI was affected by AI season (W = 14.4 h, C = 19.4 h; P < 0.01). First-service P/AI was affected (P < 0.05) by AEA-VWP duration (odds of pregnancy increased by 4.2% per 1 h increase in AEA-VWP duration), AEA-AI intensity (odds of pregnancy increased by 4.1% per 1-unit increase in intensity) and AEA-AI duration (odds of pregnancy increased by 5.4% with 1 h increase in the duration of AEA-AI). We conclude that intensity and duration of AEA from an ear-attached sensor during the VWP and AI period were affected by biological and management features of dairy cows and were associated with first-service outcomes.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86884 Watch 2094M Rumination time, calving features, health events, and dairy cow performance are associated with estrus expression during the voluntary waiting period. 4 C. Rial cow rumination estrus C. Rial1, A. L. Laplacette1, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our primary objective was to evaluate the association between rumination, calving features, early lactation health, and milk yield with estrus expression during the voluntary waiting period (E-VWP). A secondary goal was to compare estrous expression for groups of cows created based on combined data. Holstein cows (n = 1,184) had rumination time (RT) data from an ear-attached sensor (Smartbow) summed from −21 to −2 (Pre) and 2 to 21 (Post) d from calving. Cows were classified in high (H) or low (L) RT groups for the Pre and Post period based on the median RT within parity to create HPre-LPost (n = 164), HPre-HPost (n = 432), LPre-LPost (n = 420), and LPre-LPost (n = 168) groups. A record of ≥ 1 health disorder, high milk yield (grouped in H, M, and L), and ≥ 1 occurrence of twins, abortion, stillbirth, calving ease ≥ 3 were risk factors (RF) for reduced expression of estrus. Data were analyzed with logistic, multiple linear, and Cox’s regression with parity and calving season as confounders. Proportion (%) of cows with E-VWP was affected (P < 0.05) by parity (1 = 48.3, ≥ 2 = 59.3), calving season (warm = 47.6, cool = 60.1), and RF (RF = 44.8, NoRF = 62.7), and tended to differ (P = 0.09) for RT groups (HPre-LPost = 60.8, HPre-HPost = 48.9, LPre-LPost = 53.3, LPre-HPost = 52.3). Thus, being in the HPre-HPost group was also a RF for reduced likelihood of expressing estrus. Cows were then grouped in a no RF (0RF;n = 296), one RF (1RF;n = 476), and 2 or more RF (2+RF;n = 412). The proportion (%) of cows with E-VWP was greatest (P < 0.05) for 0RF (67.0), intermediate for 1RF (53.7), and smallest for 2+RF (44.1). Days to E-VWP did not differ (P = 0.93; 0RF = 38.2, 1RF = 38.3, 2+RF = 38.4). The 0RF group had reduced (P < 0.01) time (HR; 95%CI) to E-VWP than the 1RF [1.4 (1.2–1.7)], and 2+RF [1.8 (1.5–2.2)] groups. We conclude that data for pre- and postpartum rumination time, calving features, health events, and cow performance are associated with expression of estrus during the VWP and could be combined to identify subgroups of cows with different likelihood of expressing estrus during the VWP. Supported by USDA-NIFA NYC127851 and 127945 and by Zoetis.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86640 Watch 2095M Use of a rapid immunity test as an early pregnancy diagnosis tool. 5 L. S. Caixeta type 1/type 2 immunity early pregnancy diagnosis C. C. Florentino1, J. V. S. Leite1, Q. Huo2, L. S. Caixeta1 1University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, 2University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL This pilot study was conducted to determine whether measuring the type 1 (cell-mediated) to type 2 (antibody-mediated) immunity ratio 18 d after breeding differed between pregnant and nonpregnant cows. The D2Dx immunity test is a rapid blood test that uses nanoparticles to measure the type 1 to type 2 ratio in farm animals. Type 1-biased immunity leads to higher D2Dx scores whereas a type 2-biased immunity leads to lower D2Dx scores. A response biased toward type 1 immunity is expected during the peri-implantation period; thus, the D2Dx test has the potential to be used for early pregnancy diagnosis. We hypothesize that higher D2Dx scores are associated with pregnancy. To investigate this hypothesis, we collected blood samples from 21 Holstein cows 7 d prior and 18 d after cows received their first breeding after their voluntary waiting period (70d) following a Double Ovsynch program. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 ± 3 d and confirmed at 60 ± 3 d after breeding. Nine cows (43%) were confirmed pregnant during this experiment. Blood samples clotted at room temperature for 30 min and the serum was harvested after centrifugation. The D2Dx test was performed using 10 µL of undiluted serum mixed with 50 µL of nanoparticle reagent in a mini-cuvette. After mixing for 5 s, the cuvette was placed in a CT-100 reader device (Nano Discovery Inc.), and the score was read directly from the device after 30 s of reaction time. D2Dx scores at d18 postbreeding were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model with the fixed effects of group (ie, pregnant vs. not pregnant) and −7d D2Dx score, and the random effect of cow. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated using a D2Dx score of 0.29 (arbitary cut-off determined using the potential scores within pregnant and not pregnant cows average scores). At d18 postbreeding, the D2Dx score for pregnant cows (0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28, 0.33) was greater than the score for not-pregnant cows (0.26; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.28). When using the aforementioned D2Dx score threshold, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89%, 92%, 89% and 92%, respectively. This result supports our hypothesis that higher D2Dx scores (type 1-biased immunity) is associated with pregnancy.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86893 Watch 2096M Prediction of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows with machine learning algorithms using behavioral, physiological, and performance sensor data and other cow, herd, and environmental data. 6 G. E. Granados machine learning pregnancy sensor G. E. Granados1, M. M. Perez1, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objective was to evaluate the performance of supervised Machine Learning algorithms (MLA) for predicting the outcome of first AI service (FS) in dairy cows. Decision trees (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression (LR), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithms were built for primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows using behavioral, physiological, and performance data collected by automated sensors and other cow, herd, and environmental data. Predictor data and FS outcome (pregnant vs. not pregnant) were collected from 609 PP and 1,010 MP Holstein cows that received timed AI (TAI) after Double-Ovsynch at 84 ± 3 DIM for PP and 67 ± 3 for MP. Sensor parameters were milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose in milk, milk conductivity, body weight, activity, reticulo-rumen temperature, and resting, eating, and rumination behavior. Cow, herd, and environmental data (22 variables) included for example calving features, previous lactation yield, herd conception risk, and temperature-humidity index before TAI. In total, 139 variables were used in 3 different data sets. The multi period (MultiP) data set used daily data averaged for −14 to −8, −7 to −3, −2 to 2, 3 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 28, and 29 to 56 DIM. The single period (SingP) data set used values averaged from 3 to 56 DIM. The synchronization period (SynchP) data set used values averaged from −27 to −11, −10 to −3, −2 to −1 d before TAI. The best 4 performing MLA for PP cows were SVM with the SingP [Accuracy (Acc) = 96.8%], SVM with SynchP (Acc = 94.6%), LR with SingP (Acc = 90.9%), and XGBoost with SynchP (Acc = 76.9%). For MP, the best 4 performing MLA were SVM with MultiP (Acc = 58.0%), XGBoost with SingP (Acc = 58.0%), XGBoost with SingP (Acc = 56.8%), and DT with SynchP (Acc = 55.3%). We conclude that MLA built using a combination of automated sensor data and cow, herd, and environmental data from a single commercial farm had acceptable accuracy to predict FS outcome in primiparous but not in multiparous dairy cows that received TAI. Supported by projects USDA AFRI-NIFA #2017–67015–26772, NYC127851, and 127945.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t87064 Watch 2097M Effectiveness of GnRH as a resynchronization tool in lactating dairy cows. 7 A. Santos ovulation fertility corpora lutea A. Santos1, T. Minela1, L. R. Martins1, J. R. Pursley1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is utilized in Ovsynch type programs to initiate resynchronization before pregnancy diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of GnRH on induction of ovulation before pregnancy diagnosis. These treatments were part of a resynchronization program to time-AI nonpregnant cows on d 42 following previous AI. We hypothesized that GnRH treatments before the first GnRH of Ovsynch would increase the percent of cows with synchronized follicular development compared with Ovsynch alone. Lactating primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 362) were randomly assigned by parity and AI number to one of 3 resynchronization treatments: 1st GnRH (100 µg of gonadorelin acetate) of Ovsynch on d 32 postprevious AI (control; n = 108), GnRH 7 d before 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (1PreG; n = 116), and GnRH 14 and 7 d before 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (2PreG; n = 138). Ovaries of all cows were examined via ultrasound on d 18, 21, 25, 28, 32 and 35 post-AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34 after AI. Nonpregnant cows received final PGF2a of Ovsynch on d 39 and AI on d 42 postprevious AI. Data were analyzed using the MIXED (continuous) and GLIMMIX (binomial) procedures in SAS 9.4. Overall, there was greater ovulation rates in nonpregnant vs. pregnant cows to previous AI. Only data from nonpregnant cows to previous AI are reported. 2PreG induced greater combined corpora lutea (CL) volume on d 35 post-AI in comparison 1PreG and Control groups. 1PreG had greater combined CL volume compared with control. There was no difference (P = 0.57) across treatments in the percent of cows that had ovulation to 1st GnRH of Ovsynch (67, 57 and 61% in control, 1PreG and 2PreG). There was an effect of resynchronization treatment on P/AI on d 34 post-AI after 1st AI but not after previous resynchronization with Ovsynch. Treatment 1PreG increased (P = 0.04) P/AI compared with 2PreG (60 vs. 41%) but not controls (49%; P = 0.40). Pre-synchronization GnRH treatments did not increase the percent of cows with synchronized follicular development at 1st GnRH of Ovsynch compared with the Ovsynch control.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86189 Watch 2098M Reproductive outcomes of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and receiving timed AI with conventional semen or timed embryo transfer of flushed, frozen/thawed embryos. 8 N. Hincapie timed AI embryo transfer double-ovsynch N. Hincapie1, M. R. Lauber1, A. Sanchez2, P. Guarneri2, A. Valenza3, P. M. Fricke1 1Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Embryovet, Verolanuova, Italy, 3CEVA Salute Animale, Agrate Brianza, Italy Our objective was to compare pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy losses in lactating Holstein cows receiving timed AI (TAI) versus timed embryo transfer (TET) after completing a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first service. Lactating Holsteins cows (n = 579; 236 primiparous, 343 multiparous) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol [d 0, GnRH; d 7, PGF; d 10, GnRH; d 17, GnRH; d 24 and d 25, PGF; 32 h, GnRH (G2)] for first service, and cows were blocked by parity and randomized to receive TAI (n = 289) with conventional semen 16 h after G2, or TET (n = 290) 8 d after G2. Embryos were produced from 100 nulliparous heifers submitted to a superovulation protocol and inseminated with sexed semen, and only grade 1 embryos were frozen. Thawed embryos were transferred into recipient cows with a corpus luteum ≥15 mm at TET, and pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy losses were compared with cows receiving TAI with a corpus luteum ≥15 mm 8 d after G2. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed using transrectal ultrasonography at 32 and 65 d after G2. The effect of treatment and parity on reproductive outcomes was analyzed by logistic regression using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Pregnancy outcomes did not differ between treatments at 32 (38.5% vs. 36.9%) or 65 (34.1% vs. 28.8%) d after G2 for TAI vs. TET cows, respectively, and primiparous cows had more (P < 0.01) pregnancies than multiparous cows at 32 (44.8% vs. 32.6%) and 65 (40.1% vs. 25.3%) d after G2. By contrast, pregnancy loss from 32 to 65 d after G2 was greater (P = 0.03) for TET than for TAI cows (21% vs. 9.9%), and multiparous cows had more (P < 0.01) pregnancy loss than primiparous cows (22.4% vs 8.1%). We conclude that although pregnancy outcomes did not differ between treatments, TET cows had more pregnancy losses than TAI cows, and multiparous cows had more pregnancy losses than primiparous cows. Future investigations to increase embryo survival after TET are critical to optimize the efficiency of ET in lactating Holstein cows. Supported by WI Experiment Station Hatch project WIS02096.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86472 Watch 2099M Effects of not using a CIDR and one PGF after the first GnRH in a modified 5-d Synch protocol for dairy heifers. 9 I. M. R. Leão heifers synchronization CIDR I. M. R. Leão1, M. S. El Azzi1,2, E. Anta-Galvan1, T. Valdes-Arciniega1, J. P. N. Martins1 1Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Faculdade de Zootecnia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil This study aimed to determine the effect of (1) excluding a CIDR from a modified 5-d Synch protocol that included a PGF 2 d before the 1st GnRH, and (2) using only one PGF 6d after the 1st GnRH on luteolysis and ovulatory response after treatment in Holstein heifers. Heifers (n = 102) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: G5P+P4, G5P and G6P. The G5P+P4 consisted of d-7: PGF, d-5: GnRH + CIDR insertion, d0: PGF + CIDR removal, and d1: PGF. G5P was the same as G5P+P4, but no CIDR was used. G6P was similar to G5P, but only one PGF was used at the end of the protocol (d-8: PGF, d-6: GnRH, and d0: PGF). Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling were performed during treatment and every 12h for 5d after d0 or until ovulation. Binary and continuous variables were analyzed by logistic and linear regressions, respectively. Ovulatory response to the GnRH (P = 0.34; 89.2%) and proportion of heifers with serum P4 > 1.00 ng/mL at d0 did not differ (P = 0.82; 97.1%) among treatments. Heifers in G5P+P4 (5.28 ± 0.33 ng/mL) and G6P (4.58 ± 0.54 ng/mL) had greater (P < 0.02) serum P4 on d0 than G5P (3.07 ± 0.36 ng/mL). Only one PGF at the end of the protocol decreased (P = 0.04) the proportion of heifers with complete luteolysis (P4 < 0.50 ng/mL) 48 h after the d0 compared with 2 PGF given on d 0 and 1 (G6P: 79.4%; G5P+P4: 97.1% and G5P: 97.1%). Ovulation after the d0 did not differ (P = 0.48) among treatments (G5P+P4: 81.8%, G5P: 91.2% and G6P: 81.8%). Heifers in G6P had a reduced (P < 0.01) interval from d0 to ovulation (74 ± 2 h) than heifers in G5P+P4 (81 ± 2 h) and G5P (80 ± 1 h). Ovulatory follicle size was greater (P < 0.01) for heifers in G6P (16.2 ± 0.3 mm) than in G5P (15.5 ± 0.2 mm) and G5P+P4 (14.3 ± 0.2 mm). G5P+P4 group had smaller (P < 0.01) ovulatory follicle size than G5P. In conclusion, the exclusion of a CIDR in the modified 5-d Synch protocol (G5P vs. G5P+P4) did not affect the proportion of heifers with serum P4 > 1.00 ng/mL at d0, complete luteolysis and ovulatory response after d0, but increased ovulatory follicle size. However, only one PGF 6d after GnRH reduced luteolysis rate and increased ovulatory follicle size in Holstein heifers.
Reproduction Posters 1 In-Person Poster Reproduction 6/20/2022 7:30 t86025   2100M Key performance indicators used by dairy consultants during a first visit to evaluate reproductive performance. 10 A. Bach analytics production medicine reproduction R. Armengol1, L. Fraile1,2, A. Bach3,4 1Department of Animal Science, ETSEA, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain, 2Agrotecnio, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain, 3Marlex Research and Education, Barcelona, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain Reproduction plays a fundamental role in the profitability of dairy farms. Consultants use key performance indicators (KPI) to monitor the reproductive performance of farms and propose changes when needed. There is a myriad of parameters that can be used to assess reproductive performance, and consultants must decipher between the most suitable ones and consider them as KPI. An online survey was sent worldwide and answered by consultants from Belgium (2), Brazil (1), Canada (3), Chile (1), Colombia (1), Denmark (3), Estonia (1), France (3), Germany (2), Greece (2), Israel (2), Italy (2), Netherlands (2), Peru (1), Poland (1), Portugal (3), Spain (7), Sweden (4), United Kingdom (1), Uruguay (1), and USA (6) specialized in dairy reproduction (n = 49; age range between 31 and 70 yr) to assess the commonly used KPIs in a first visit. Responders were asked to rate from 0 (irrelevant) to 10 (maximum importance) 178 parameters that could potentially be KPI. The questions were divided into 5 sections: 1) consultant background and farm type, 2) farming efficiency, 3) cow reproduction, 4) postpartum and metabolic disease, and 5) heifer reproduction. The median, range, and 95% CI were determined for each question and a multivariate analysis using between-group linkage via Ward's hierarchical clustering was conducted to generate clusters of consultants according to their response pattern. Also, a Chi-squared test was used to assess the association between years of experience of the consultant and farm size. Consultants considered 27 parameters to be highly important to analyze in a first visit, but farm size and the years of experience of the consultant influenced the type and number of parameters chosen as KPI. The parameters rated with the highest importance (rate = 10) were within the section of cow reproduction: conception rate at first service, pregnancy rate, and 21-d pregnancy rate, and age at first calving. The second most important parameters (rate = 8) referred to farming efficiency: culling rate, proportion of cows pregnant, average days dry, average DIM, and the third most important (rate = 7) referred to postpartum and metabolic disease: incidence of metritis, retained placenta, and ketosis. Whether these parameters should actually be considered as KPIs needs further evaluation.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 s9964                  
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t86076 Watch 2120M Colostrum microbiome and plasma metabolome in calves are altered in response to ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine during late-pregnancy. 1 N. Wichasit amino acids nutrition programming N. Wichasit1,2, A. Elolimy3, A. Alharthi4, Q. Jiang2, C. Parys5, J. Guyader5, W. Tartrakoon5, J. J. Loor2 1Naresuan Uiversity, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 2University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 3National Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 4King Saud University, Riyad, Saudi Arabia, 5Evonik Operations GmbH, Hanau-Wolfgang, Essen, Germany We evaluated the impact of maternal Met supply during late-pregnancy on colostrum microbiome and plasma metabolome in neonatal calves. Sixty Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to a control or RPM (Mepron) diet from −28 to 60 DIM. RPM was fed at 0.09% of DM prepartum and 0.10% of DM in the postpartum. Colostrum (n = 11/diet) and plasma from heifers born to control or RPM-fed cows were used. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq V2, and statistical analyses performed with MicrobiomeAnalyst. Plasma harvested at birth (before colostrum), 2, and 42 d of age was used for LC-MS metabolomics. Statistical and pathway analyses were performed with MetaboAnalyst 4.0. A MIXED model in SAS was used for analyses of performance data. Despite similar DMI intake, calves in RPM tended (P = 0.07) to have greater cumulative BW gain. Total sequences in RPM versus control colostrum were lower (P = 0.03; 23,405 vs. 61,736 ± 11,958), suggesting fewer numbers of bacteria. Colostrum was dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, with the most common taxa being c_Gammaproteobacteria, f_Ruminococcaceae, o_Micrococcales, and g_Lactobacillus. Among bacterial families, Dermabacteraceae was overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) in control colostrum. Among bacterial genus, Lactobacillus was overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) in RPM colostrum. Metabolomic profiles revealed a clear separation between RPM and control heifers at birth and during the preweaning period. Among enriched metabolic pathways upregulated (≥2-fold) in RPM heifers through 42 d of age were several associated with mitochondrial oxidation of amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and lysine), thiamin metabolism, peroxisomal oxidation, and bile acid synthesis. In contrast, downregulated pathways in RPM calves (≥2-fold) were primarily associated with β-oxidation of fatty acids, TCA cycle flux and Coenzyme A synthesis. Although RPM during late-gestation had modest effects on colostrum microbiome, alterations in plasma metabolome suggested positive biological links with growth performance before weaning.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t87055 Watch 2121M Varying colostrum insulin ingestion does not affect blood metabolites or immunoglobulin G absorption in neonatal Holstein bulls but affects intestinal development. 2 K. S. Hare colostrum insulin neonate K. S. Hare1, K. Swanson2, M. Nagorske3, K. M. Wood1, M. A. Steele1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 3Saskatoon Colostrum Company Ltd, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Bovine colostrum contains supraphysiological insulin concentrations (35 µg insulin/L) that are highly variable (5 to 263 µg insulin/L) between cows. Colostrum insulin may act as a mitogen within the neonatal gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas consuming pharmacological insulin doses can induce hypoglycemia in neonatal calves and elevate insulin concentrations to potentially inhibit immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption. Thus, our objective was to investigate if varying colostral insulin concentrations influence GIT development, peripheral metabolism, and IgG absorption in neonatal Holstein bulls. Calves (46.3 ± 0.8 kg; n = 16/treatment) were removed from their dams and a catheter was placed in a jugular vein by 75 min postnatal to enable frequent blood collection. Calves were fed 3 colostrum meals (7%BW or 3.10 ± 0.02 L; 55 g IgG/L; 2, 14, and 26 h) that contained insulin at basal concentrations (BI; 16.8 µg/L) or supplemented with insulin to achieve either a 5 × (5BI; 83.4 µg/L) or 10 × (10BI; 167.5 µg/L) increase in colostrum insulin respective to basal concentrations. A subset of calves (n = 8/treatment) were killed at 30 h postnatal to evaluate GIT development. Postprandial plasma glucose and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration curves differed (time: P < 0.01) over time, indicating that gluconeogenesis began 6 h after the first feeding but not the second feeding. Blood glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and IgG concentrations were not influenced (P ≤ 0.95) by dietary insulin treatment. Relative rumen mass (g/kg BW) was lesser (P = 0.01) for 5BI and 10BI calves relative to BI, whereas relative kidney mass (g/kg BW) linearly increased (P = 0.02) with insulin supplementation. Ileal villi length linearly increased (P = 0.003) and distal jejunal villi width, crypt depth, and crypt width tended to linearly increase (P ≤ 0.10) with greater colostral insulin content. These data indicate that varying colostral insulin concentrations do not influence postprandial blood metabolites or IgG absorption in Holstein bulls but may alter neonatal intestinal development.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t85994   2122M Investigating the efficacy of using a concentrated, whey-based colostrum to achieve passive transfer of immunity in neonatal Jersey calves. 3 A. J. Geiger colostrum replacer Jersey passive transfer C. S. Colburn1, O. M. Peña2, C. Velasquez2, R. Miller3, M. J. Aguerre2, A. J. Geiger4 1J.D. Heiskell & Company, Tulare, CA, 2Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 3Piedmont Research and Education Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 4Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN Feeding colostrum to achieve passive transfer of immunity (PTI) is one of the most important aspects of calf-rearing. Maternal colostrum is regularly fed within 24 h of birth to help neonatal calves achieve PTI. However, due to many factors maternal colostrum may not be available and thus colostrum replacers (CR) are used. Little information exists on the use of different CR to achieve PTI in neonatal Jersey calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a concentrated, whey-based CR to achieve PTI in newborn Jersey calves compared with a dried maternal colostrum CR. Forty-seven newborn Jersey calves (mean BW = 25 kg) were fed one of 2 colostrum sources within 2 h of birth at one of 2 locations (South Carolina or California). Colostrum treatments included: 1) dried maternal CR (26.6% IgG; 565 g of product fed; Calf’s Choice Total Gold, Saskatoon Colostrum Company; CON), or 2) a concentrated whey-based CR (50% IgG, 300 g of product fed; Premolac Colostrum Concentrate, Zinpro Corporation; PREM). The source of IgG from both products was 100% bovine IgG and 150g of IgG was fed from each CR. Both CR were reconstituted to approximately 25% solids. Upon birth, BW was recorded for all calves. At 24 h of life a blood sample was collected from each calf and serum harvested to determine serum IgG (g/L) and apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (AEA, %). Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistix 10 software with model being: y = treatment + location + treatment x location. The interaction was not significant and was removed. Birth weight was not different between treatments (25.7 vs. 25.1 kg for CON vs. PREM; P = 0.42). Calves fed PREM achieved 43.7% greater serum IgG levels at 24 h of life (24.1 vs. 16.7 g/L for PREM vs. CON; P < 0.01). Further, PREM-calves experienced a 32.0% improvement in AEA compared with CON (34.6 vs. 26.2%, respectively; P < 0.01). Data herein indicates that a whey-based CR can be used to successfully achieve PTI in newborn Jersey calves and that it may be more effective than traditional CR formulas.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t86222 Watch 2123M The biological value of transition milk: Immunoglobulin G, insulin-like growth factor-I, and lactoferrin in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. 4 M. Tortadès bovine colostrum transition milk M. Tortadès1, E. Garcia-Fruitós1, A. Arís1, M. Terré1 1Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries, Caldes de Montbui, Barcelona, Spain Transition milk (TM) is the mammary secretion from the second to the sixth milking, which may contain beneficial bioactive compounds to a lesser extent than bovine colostrum (BC). The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of some biological compounds in TM compared with BC for its potential use as a nutraceutical feed for newborn calves or in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, BC or TM immunoglobulin G (IgG), insulin growth factor- I (IGF-I) and lactoferrin (LTF)concentrations were evaluated in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows. One hundred mL of BC (1rst milking-M1), TM from second (M2) and third (M3) milkings, and milk from the tenth milking (M10) were collected from 45 PP and 45 MP Holstein-Friesian cows from 3 different commercial farms (in total 90 cows) to determine IgG, IGF-I, and LTF concentrations. These concentrations were quantified using single radial immunodiffusion assay for IgG determination and ELISA for IGF-I and LTF quantification. Data were analyzed with a mixed-effect model accounting for the random effects of cow and farm, as well as the fixed effects of parity (PP or MP), milking number and their interaction. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of these 3 bioactive molecules decreased (P < 0.001) from the first milking (110 ± 6.8 g/L, 591 ± 23.2 µg/L, 1.0 ± 0.13 g/L, for IgG, IGF-I and LTF, respectively) to the tenth (1.1 ± 3.03 g/L, 17 ± 29.3 µg/L, 0.2 ± 0.13 g/L, for IgG, IGF-I and LTF, respectively), but M2 had at least 54% of M1 analyzed molecules. Multiparous cows produced colostrum/milk richer in IGF-I and LTF than the PP ones (326 vs 225 ± 25.6 µg/L for IGF-I, P < 0.01; 0.69 vs 0.45 ± 0.132 for LTF, P < 0.05, respectively), and lactation number interacted with milking number in IGF-I (P < 0.001). As the lactation progressed, PP cows had a flatter dilution curve of IGF-I concentrations than the MP ones. Transition milk from the second milking from both PP and MP cows should be considered as a potential source of bioactive compounds either for human or calves.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t86999 Watch 2124M Nutritional diarrhea in calves fed high solids milk replacer. 5 M. L. Pister nutritional diarrhea casein psyllium M. L. Pister1, J. K. Drackley1 1University of Illinois, Urbana, IL The objectives of this study were to develop a model to study nutritional diarrhea by feeding large amounts of milk replacer (MR) mixed at high concentrations (18%) to Holstein calves and to evaluate various nutritional manipulations for prevention of nutritional scours. Calves on all trials were housed in outdoor individual hutches. Fecal samples were collected daily during sampling periods on each trial. All trials followed a Latin square design with 7-d periods. Data were analyzed using MIXED or FREQ procedures in SAS. In experiment 1, 8 calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: low concentration and low dry matter (DM) amount (CON), low concentration and high DM (LH), high concentration and low DM (HL), or high concentration and high DM (HH). Fecal DM% increased with increasing fecal score. Weekly fecal events by treatment were different (P = 0.02), where the incidences of scours were CON = 0, HL = 3, LH = 2, and HH = 6, showing increased incidence of nutritional diarrhea for calves fed high DM concentrations. In experiment 2, 10 calves were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: low solids MR, high solids MR, high solids MR with sodium chloride, high solids MR with psyllium, or high solids MR with casein. Fecal events did not differ by treatment. In experiment 3, 21 calves were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: low solids % MR (PCON), high solids % MR (NCON), high solids % MR with casein (C), high solids % MR with psyllium (PSY), or high solids % MR with casein plus psyllium (CPSY). Amounts of milk replacer DM consumed were the same for all treatments. No significant differences were observed for weekly fecal events by treatment. There was a tendency for greater days scouring for NCON compared with PCON (P = 0.055) and a numerical difference between PCON and PSY (4 and 8, respectively) for number of scouring calves per treatment. Inversely, CPSY had the same number of scouring calves per treatment as PCON (4 and 4). Overall, these data show nutritional diarrhea increased when feeding high amounts of DM at high concentrations. The combination of casein and psyllium show potential to reduce these effects but further research is needed.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t86198 Watch 2125M Effects of tributyrin supplementation in milk replacer or calf starter on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development in dairy calves. 6 K. Murayama dairy calf tributyrin gastrointestinal tract K. Murayama1,2, T. Fukui2, K. Sakamoto3, K. Inouchi1, T. Sugino2 1Dairy Technology Research Institute, The National Federation of Dairy Co-operative Associations (ZEN-RAKU-REN), Nishi-shirakawa, Fukushima, Japan, 2The Research Center for Animal Science, Graduate School of Integrated Science for Life, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan, 3YPTECH Co. Ltd, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tributyrin (TB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or calf starter (ST) on growth performance, rumen and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development in dairy calves. Thirty-eight Holstein heifer calves [body weight (BW) at 8 d of age, 41.4 ± 0.84 kg; LSM ± SE] and 16 Holstein bull calves (BW at 8 d of age, 46.2 ± 1.26 kg) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments and fed MR (28% CP, 18% fat) and ST, both without TB supplementation (MR-ST-; n = 14); MR with 0.6% TB on DM basis and ST- (MR+ST-; n = 13); MR- and ST with 0.3% TB on DM basis (MR-ST+; n = 13); and MR+ and ST+ (MR+ST+; n = 14). MR with/without TB supplementation were offered at 600 g/d (powder basis) from 8 to 14 d, up to 1,300 g/d from 15 to 21 d, 1,400 g/d from 22 to 49 d, down to 700 g/d from 50 to 56 d, 600 g/d from 57 to 63 d of age, then weaned on 64 d of age. All calves fed ST with/without TB supplementation, chopped hay and water ad libitum from 8 to 92 d of age. Bull calves were slaughtered at weaning. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA using fit model procedure of JMP 16 pro (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). TB supplementation into MR (MR+) decreased crypt depth and increased villus length/crypt depth in ileum compared with MR- treatments (P < 0.05; 298 vs. 239 µm, and 1.91 vs. 2.22, respectively). Supplemented TB into ST (ST+) tended to decreased crypt depth in ileum, and increased or tended to increase villus height/crypt depth in ileum and jejunum compared with ST- treatments (P = 0.08; 290 vs. 248 µm, P < 0.01; 1.84 vs. 2.30, P < 0.07; 2.04 vs. 2.22, respectively). Whereas, Addition of TB into MR or ST did not affect the development of rumen papillae length. MR+ST+ calves had the greatest ST and total dry matter intake throughout the experimental period (P < 0.05). However, TB supplementation into both MR and ST did not affect body weight and average daily gain. These results suggest that TB supplementation in MR and ST improve GIT development in dairy calves.
Ruminant Nutrition: Calves & Heifers Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 7:30 t86563 Watch 2126M Effects of maternal dietary rumen-protected choline supplementation during late gestation on calf growth and metabolism. 7 M. Lemke methyl donor nutritional programming epigenetics T. H. Swartz1, B. J. Bradford1, M. Lemke1, L. K. Mamedova1, R. Agnew1, J. Fehn1, E. Owczarzak1, K. A. Estes2 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Balchem Corporation, New Hampton, NY The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal supplementation and dose of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on neonatal calf growth, metabolism, and oxidant status. Parous Holstein cows were blocked by calving month and randomly assigned within block to receive either 45 g/d of RPC (CHOL45, n = 19), 30 g/d of RPC (CHOL30, n = 22), or no RPC (CON, n = 19) as a top-dress starting 24 d before expected calving. Calf body weights were recorded for the first 3 wk and average daily gain (ADG) was calculated. On d 1, 7, 14, and 21, blood samples were taken to quantify plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant potential (AOP), haptoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and glucose. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models including the fixed effects of treatment, time, calf sex, and prepartum dam data (−24 d) as covariates, as well as interactions. Calf body weights, BHB, and glucose did not differ between treatment groups. Calves born from CHOL45 dams had greater ADG than calves born from CHOL30 dams (P = 0.03); however, no difference in ADG was seen between calves born from RPC supplemented dams versus CON. Treatment only numerically impacted calf ROS and AOP; however, calves born from CHOL30 dams had a lesser oxidative stress index (ROS/AOP) than calves born from CON dams (P < 0.01). Moreover, haptoglobin was lesser in heifer calves from CHOL45 dams as compared with heifers from CON dams (P < 0.01). The dam’s NEFA concentration interacted with treatment to affect calf NEFA concentration (interaction, P = 0.02). When dam NEFA was minimal, calves born from CHOL45 and CHOL30 dams had greater or tended to have greater NEFA than calves born from CON dams, respectively. Conversely, when dam NEFA was greater, calves born from CHOL30 and CHOL45 dams had lesser or tended to have lesser NEFA, respectively. In conclusion, RPC supplementation during late gestation impacted neonatal calf metabolism and oxidative stress markers with some effects related to dose, but this did not translate into improvements in calf growth in the first 3 wk of life.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 s9967                  
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86718 Watch 2127M Short-term effect of increasing dietary fatty acids on milk fat. 1 A. N. Staffin lactation nutrition fatty acid A. N. Staffin1, R. Bomberger1, R. Shepardson2, E. Barnoff1, K. J. Harvatine1 1Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN Milk fat is an important component of milk pricing for US dairy farms. Fat supplements are commonly fed to increase energy balance and milk fat yield on dairy operations. However, increasing absorbed fatty acids (FA) commonly decreases de novo FA synthesis. The objective of this experiment was to determine the short-term effect of increasing dietary FA supplementation on milk fat yield and mammary de novo FA synthesis in lactating dairy cows fed a low-fat diet. The hypothesis was that FA supplementation would increase milk fat yield and decrease de novo FA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (2.9 ± 0.8 parities; 223 ± 29 DIM; Mean ± SD at start of experiment) were used in a 4x4 Latin square design with 7 d periods. Treatments were an experimental prilled free FA supplement that contained 35.6% 16:0, 54.9% 18:0, and 4.6% 18:1 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN) fed at 0 (CON), 1, 2, and 3% of diet dry matter (DM). Data were analyzed in JMP Pro 15 and included the random effects of period and cow and the fixed effect of treatment. For plasma analysis, the fixed effect of time and interaction of treatment by time was added to the model. There was no effect of increasing FA supplement on milk or milk fat yield. Fatty acid supplementation quadratically increased milk fat concentration, which peaked at 2% of diet DM (P = 0.04). Increasing dietary FA tended to linearly decrease milk de novo FA yield (P = 0.08) and linearly decreased odd and branched-chain FA yield (P = 0.005) while linearly increasing preformed FA yield (P = 0.01). For milk FA profile, increasing dietary FA linearly decreased milk de novo (P < 0.001) and odd and branched-chain (P < 0.001) FA and linearly increased mixed (P = 0.002) and preformed (P < 0.001) FA percent. There was no effect of treatment, time, or their interaction on plasma nonesterified FA or plasma triglycerides. There was an effect of time on plasma glucose (P < 0.001), but there was no effect of treatment or treatment by time interaction. In conclusion, increasing dietary FA did not change milk or milk fat yield but modified milk FA composition.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86947 Watch 2128M Effects of medium-chain fatty acid supplementation on productive and metabolic performance of dairy cows in the transition period. 2 R. Almeida caproic acid caprylic acid capric acid G. C. Aguiar1, J. C. S. Lourenço1, E. W. Carneiro2, C. G. Cordeiro3, J. A. Negrão4, R. Almeida1 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 2Royal Agrifirm Group, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 3Agropecuária Régia, Palmeira, Paraná, Brazil, 4Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0) have shown beneficial effects on milk production, immunity and metabolism of lactating cows. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of MCFA supplementation on the production and metabolism of dairy cows in the transition period. One hundred and 68 nulliparous (n = 66), primiparous (n = 49), and multiparous (n = 53) Holstein animals (695 kg BW) were divided into 2 groups in a randomized complete-block design for 42 d (21 d pre-calving and 21 d post-calving). The treatments used were: T1: Control (no FA supplementation) and T2: 45 g of MCFA based on coconut and palm oil (Aromabiotic Cattle, Royal Agrifirm Group, NL), which was supplemented individually, top-dressed once a day, mixed with corn meal. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS containing the fixed effects of block, treatment, time and treatment x time interaction, the covariate and the random effect of cow within treatment. We did not find significant results in any of the variables analyzed; milk production (37.11 vs. 37.40 ± 0.68 kg/d; P = 0.76), milk fat (5.11 vs. 5.14%; P = 0.92), milk total protein (3.59 vs. 3.56%; P = 0.72), milk lactose (4.44 vs. 4.29%; P = 0.73), and milk total solids (13.62 vs. 13.11%; P = 0.83), respectively for treated and control animals. Regarding the metabolic variables, no significant differences were found for BHB on d7 (1.56 vs. 1.55 ± 0.10 mmol/L; P = 0.95) and d14 (1.36 vs. 1.14 ± 0.13 mmol/L; P = 0.83). Lastly, no differences were found for blood ionized Ca between groups (1.11 vs. 1.11 mmol/L; P = 0.86). Our results suggest that the dose of MCFA supplement used in this study was not sufficient to achieve positive results on production and metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86670 Watch 2129M Comparison of profile of fatty acids extracted with hexane isopropanol from whole milk and fat cakes. 3 C. Matamoros milk fat chromatography lipid extraction C. Matamoros1, K. J. Harvatine1 1Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is routinely measured in dairy research as it provides insight into the physiology of milk fat synthesis. Gas chromatography is a common analytical platform used to determine milk FA profile, but sample processing methods differ among labs. The objective of this study was to compare whether hexane isopropanol extraction of fat from whole milk or fat cake modified observed FA profile. For this, 10 milk samples were split and either processed as whole milk or as fat cakes. Fat cakes were obtained after centrifugation of raw milk at 1,300 × g for 15 min at 4°C. Milk FA were extracted with hexane:isopropanol, transmethylated with sodium methoxide, and quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Samples were processed and analyzed in the same run to avoid confounding effects. Data were analyzed in JMP Pro 16 using matched-pairs t-tests and orthogonal regressions to determine differences between sample processing. When FA were categorized according to their biological origin, there was no difference between processing methods for de novo FA (P = 0.58), mixed source FA (P = 0.88), or preformed FA (P = 0.24). However, whole milk samples were 0.7% higher in the concentration of odd and branched-chain FA compared with fat cakes (3.58 ± 0.015 g/100 g of FA vs 3.56 ± 0.015 g/100 g of FA; P < 0.001). At the individual FA profile level, there was no difference in the concentration of 16:0 (P = 0.82), 18:0 (P = 0.33), and cis-9 18:1 (P = 0.78), which represent a large portion of total FA. Notably, trans-10 C18:1, a well-known biomarker for milk fat depression, was 0.9% higher in whole milk compared with fat cakes (0.58 ± 0.015 vs 0.57 ± 0.015 g/100 g of FA; P = 0.002). There were also small differences in several individual odd and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, although statistical differences exist within sample type their biological significance is arguably small relative to biological variation. Our results highlight the importance of processing the same type of samples within an experiment and standardizing samples processing methods within labs to minimize extraneous sources of variation.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86465 Watch 2130M Effect of soy phospholipids in a saturated fatty acid supplement on digestibility and production responses of mid-lactation dairy cows. 4 A. M. Burch absorption emulsification phospholipids A. M. Burch1, M. Machiela1, J. M. dos Santos Neto1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI We determined the effects of increasing the amount of soy phospholipids (SPL) incorporated into a saturated fatty acid (FA) supplement on digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous (182 ± 55 DIM; 56.3 ± 8.62 kg/d) and 8 primiparous (148 ± 65 DIM; 49.7 ± 3.25 kg/d) cows were assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4x4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were SPL inclusions of: 1) 0% SPL (CON), 2) 1.5% SPL (L-SPL), 2) 3.0% SPL (M-SPL), and 4) 4.5% SPL (H-SPL) which were incorporated into a saturated FA supplement containing 34% C16:0 and 45% C18:0. Treatment diets contained (%DM) 30% NDF, 16.5% CP, 27.8% starch, and 3.5% FA. The statistical model included the random effect of cow within square and the fixed effects of period, treatment, and their interaction. Pre-planned contrasts were the linear, cubic, and quadratic effects of increasing SPL. Results are presented in the following order: CON, L-SPL, M-SPL, and H-SPL. There was a linear effect on DMI (28.6, 28.9, 29.2, 29.1 kg/d; P = 0.05), a linear tendency for NDF intake (8.62, 8.80, 8.86, 8.79 kg/d; P = 0.06), a cubic effect for 16-carbon FA intake (240, 238, 248, 247 g/d; P = 0.02), and a linear effect for 18-carbon FA intake (696, 696, 714, 717 g/d; P < 0.01) and total FA intake (965, 969, 987, 995 g/d; P < 0.01). There was a quadratic effect on digestibility of DM (66.9, 65.1, 65.6, 66.2%; P < 0.01) and NDF (48.8, 46.5, 46.8, 47.7%; P = 0.01), and a cubic effect on digestibility of 16-carbon FA (70.5, 68.9, 72.7, 72.4%; P < 0.01), 18-carbon FA (64.8, 60.2, 66.8, 65.2%; P = 0.01), and total FA (65.9. 62.4, 67.8, 66.6%; P = 0.02). There was a cubic effect on milk fat content (3.96, 3.91, 4.01, 3.93%; P < 0.01) and a linear tendency for milk protein yield (1.35, 1.36, 1.36, 1.37 kg/d; P = 0.09). There was no effect of treatment on other milk production responses, BW, or BCS (all P > 0.11). In summary, increasing SPL in a saturated FA supplement had minimal impact on digestibility and milk production. We did observe an increase in FA digestibility which was primarily driven by the supplement containing 3.0% SPL.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86456 Watch 2131M Abomasal infusion of oleic acid improves plasma hormones and metabolites in early lactation dairy cows. 5 J. M. dos Santos Neto fresh cow insulin metabolism J. M. dos Santos Neto1, U. Abou-Rjeileh1, J. Parales-Giron1, C. M. Prom1, G. A. Contreras1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Our objective was to determine whether abomasal infusion of oleic acid (cis-9 C18:1) improves hormonal and metabolic responses in early lactation cows. Twelve rumen-cannulated multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete-block design and assigned to treatments from 1 to 15 DIM. Treatments were abomasal infusions at 6 h intervals of ethanol carrier only (CON) or 60 g/d oleic acid (OA). Cows were fed the same diet which contained (% DM) 32.5% NDF, 17.2% CP, 25.5% starch, and 1.96% fatty acids (FA). We evaluated production responses over 15 d, blood parameters at 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, and 14 d, digestibility once, and a glucose tolerance test (GTT) on d 14. For GTT, blood samples were taken −10, −1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 150, and 180 min relative to the dextrose infusion via a jugular catheter. The model included the random effect of block, cow within block and treatment, Julian date, and the fixed effects of treatment, time, and their interactions. We used repeated measures, except for digestibility. We did not observe interactions between treatment and time for any production variable (P ≥ 0.16). Infusing OA did not affect digestibility (P ≥ 0.50) or production (P ≥ 0.21). Compared with CON, OA increased plasma insulin (0.08 uIU/mL; P < 0.01) and decreased plasma glucose (5 mg/dL; P = 0.01), NEFA (0.07 mEq/L; P = 0.05), and BHB (2.69 mg/dL; P = 0.04). We observed an interaction between treatment and time for BHB (P = 0.01), wherein OA reduced BHB at 5 (P < 0.01) and 7 d (P = 0.03) compared with CON. During the GTT, we observed interactions between treatment and time for both plasma insulin (P < 0.01) and glucose (P = 0.04). Compared with CON, OA increased insulin peak at 10 min (5.02 uIU/mL; P < 0.01) and also increased it at 20 min (1.40 mg/dL, P = 0.03) and tended to increase it at 30 min (P = 0.07). Compared with CON, OA decreased glucose peak at 10 (17.5 mg/dL), 20 (12.3 mg/dL, P < 0.01), 30 (5.75 mg/dL), and 40 min (5.96 mg/dL, P < 0.05). In conclusion, abomasal infusion of oleic acid increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose, NEFA, and BHB, suggesting an improvement in metabolic state of early lactation dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition: Carbohydrates & Lipids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86463 Watch 2132M Meta-analysis examining the effect of different ratios of palmitic and oleic acids in supplemental fat blends on molar changes in de novo and preformed milk fatty acids in dairy cows. 6 A. C. Benoit fat supplementation milk fat A. C. Benoit1, J. M. dos Santos Neto1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of different ratios of palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids in supplemental fat blends on molar yields of milk FA (mol/d) using 5 studies in early to mid-lactation cows. Treatments were control diets (CON) with no supplemental FA (n = 81) and diets supplemented at 1.5% DM with FA blends containing 80% C16:0 and 10% C18:1 (80:10, n = 56), 70% C16:0 and 20% C18:1 (70:20, n = 56), and 60% C16:0 and 30% C18:1 (60:30, n = 82). Diets (% DM) contained (mean ± SD) 29.1 ± 2.0 NDF, 28.5 ± 2.8 starch, and 16.7 ± 0.65 CP. Across studies, cows averaged 27.2 ± 4.8 kg/d DMI, 46.9 ± 2.0 kg/d milk, 1.81 ± 0.18kg/d milk fat, and 1.52 ± 0.07 kg/d milk protein. The statistical model included the random effect of study, cow within study, and period or day of treatment within study. Contrasts tested the overall effect of FA supplementation (FAT) versus CON, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing C18:1 in supplemental FA blends. Sources of milk FA were classified as de novo (<16 carbons), mixed (16 carbons), and performed (>16 carbons). Results are sequenced as: CON, 80:10, 70:20, and 60:30. Overall, FAT had no effect on de novo yield (2.39, 2.39, 2.31, and 2.30 mol/d, P = 0.46) although they increased C4:0 (P = 0.04) and decreased C10:0 and C12:0 (P < 0.01) yields. Compared with CON, FAT increased mixed (2.27, 2.65, 2.58, and 2.49 mol/d, P < 0.01) and performed (2.09, 2.10, 2.24, and 2.27 mol/d, P = 0.04) yields including C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 (P < 0.05). Increasing C18:1 in FA blends had no effect on de novo (P = 0.37) yield although there was a tendency to linearly increase C14:0 yield (P = 0.06). Increasing C18:1 in FA blends decreased mixed FA yield (P = 0.03) by decreasing C16:0 (P = 0.03) and increased preformed yield (P < 0.01) by linearly increasing C18:0 and C18:1 (P ≤ 0.06) and quadratically increasing trans C18:1 FA (P ≤ 0.09). Results indicate that feeding FA blends of C16:0 and C18:1 increases mixed and preformed FA yields with no effect on the overall yield of de novo FA; increasing C18:1 in FA blends linearly increases preformed FA yield.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 s9961                  
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86471 Watch 2101M Nutritional profile of partial mixed rations and concentrates fed on Canadian dairy farms utilizing automated milking systems. 1 B. J. Van Soest robotic milking concentrate PMR B. J. Van Soest1, R. D. Matson1, T. F. Duffield2, D. E. Santschi3, K. Orsel4, E. A. Pajor4, G. B. Penner5, T. Mutsvangwa5, T. J. DeVries1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Lactanet, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Large variations exist when it comes to feeding dairy cattle on farms with automated (robotic) milking system (AMS). The objective of this study was to characterize the differences in nutrient composition of rations fed on Canadian AMS dairy farms. Both partial mixed ration (PMR) and AMS concentrate samples were collected by our research team from May 1-August 31, 2020, on 169 farms (Atlantic Canada (AC) = 12, ON = 63, QC = 42, Western Canada (WC) = 52). Samples were dried, ground and analyzed for nutrient composition. Samples were summarized by region to test for regional differences as shown in Table 1, where superscripts designate differences (P < 0.05) between regions with nutrient. Regional differences for PMR were detected for %DM (P = 0.004), %CP (P < 0.001), %NDF (P = 0.004), %Starch (P < 0.001), %Sugar (P < 0.001), and %NDFD (P = 0.10), with WC provinces have greatest differences. Concentrate regional differences were detected in %DM (P < 0.001), %CP (P < 0.001), %ADF (P = 0.08), %NDF (P = 0.009), %Starch (P = 0.01), %Sugar (P < 0.001), NEL (P = 0.08), and %NDFD (P = 0.002), with QC having the biggest differences. These differences in nutritional feeding strategies across Canadian AMS farms may reflect potential regional differences in major ingredients utilized. Table 1. Nutrient composition of PMR and AMS concentrates by region (mean± SE)
Region DM (%) CP (%) ADF (%) NDF (%) NDFD Starch (%) Sugar (%) NEL (Mcal/kg)
PMR                
 AC 56.6 ±2.1ab 16.0 ±0.4ab 25.7 ± 0.8a 39.7 ± 1.3a 56.0 ± 2.7a 16.2 ± 1.4bc 2.27 ± 0.4b 1.57 ± 0.03a
 ON 55.3 ± 0.8b 15.6 ±0.2b 24.1 ± 0.3b 35.4 ± 0.5b 53.0 ± 1.0a 21.0 ± 0.5a 1.99 ± 0.2b 1.60 ± 0.01a
 QC 53.3 ± 1.3b 15.8 ± 0.3b 24.2 ± 0.5ab 37.7 ± 0.8a 52.8 ± 1.7a 19.0 ± 0.9ab 1.69 ± 0.3b 1.60 ± 0.02a
 WC 58.7 ± 0.9a 16.7 ± 0.2a 24.3 ± 0.4ab 36.7 ± 0.6ab 56.5 ± 1.2a 15.0 ± 0.6c 3.59 ± 0.2a 1.62 ± 0.02a
AMS                
 AC 88.0 ± 0.6c 19.9 ± 1.4b 8.9 ± 1.0a 22.5 ± 1.6ab 58.4 ± 2.8b 31.2 ± 3.2a 5.05 ± 0.4b 1.90 ± 0.02a
 ON 91.3 ± 0.3a 20.2 ± 0.6b 10.2 ± 0.4a 23.9 ± 0.7a 60.5 ± 1.2b 28.8 ± 1.4a 5.71 ± 0.2b 1.87 ± 0.01a
 QC 91.6 ±0.3a 24.2 ±0.7a 11.1 ±0.5a 22.2 ±0.9ab 66.2 ±1.5a 22.8 ±1.7b 6.75 ±0.2a 1.85 ±0.01a
 WC 90.0 ±0.3b 19.3 ± 0.7b 9.6 ±0.5a 20.3 ±0.8b 59.2 ±1.3b 29.5 ±1.5a 5.42 ±0.2b 1.88 ±0.01a
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86736 Watch 2102M Effect of lignin in diets similar in fiber content on energy utilization in lactating Jersey cows. 2 J. Stypinski NDF lignin indirect calorimetry J. Stypinski1, P. Kononoff1, W. Weiss2 1University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 2The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that is an important factor in limiting fiber digestibility ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate lignin’s effects on whole animal energy utilization in diets similar in NDF content. A low lignin (LoLig) treatment diet was formulated to contain 32.5% NDF (% DM) and 9.59% acid detergent lignin (ADL) (% NDF) and the high lignin (HiLig) diet was formulated to contain 31.0% NDF (% DM) and 13.3% ADL (% NDF). These diets were fed to 12 late-lactation (200 ± 14.9 DIM) multiparous Jersey cows (435 ± 13.9 kg BW) in a 2-period crossover design. Feeding the LoLig diet increased DMI (P < 0.01) compared with the HiLig diet (19.9 vs. 18.7 ± 0.645 kg/d) while the LoLig diet was of a greater (P < 0.01) gross energy concentration (4.27 vs. 4.23 ± 0.03 Mcal/kg). As expected, increasing the concentration of ADL reduced (P < 0.01) total-tract NDF digestibility (45.5 vs 40.4 ± 0.742%). Feeding LoLig resulted in a reduction (P < 0.01) in the digestibility of starch (97.7 vs. 96.3 ± 0.420) and CP (65.0 vs. 60.0 ± 0.829). Increasing ADL also decreased (P < 0.01) the concentration of digestible energy (2.83 vs. 2.63 ± 0.04 Mcal/kg) and metabolizable energy (2.52 vs. 2.36 + 0.05 Mcal/kg) but NEL concentration was similar (P = 0.44) averaging 1.67 ± 0.05 Mcal/kg. Increasing ADL also reduced (P < 0.02) yields of energy-corrected milk (33.7 vs. 30.0 ± 1.08 kg/d), protein (1.00 vs 0.843 ± 0.052 kg/d), fat (1.03 vs. 1.19 ± 0.058 kg/d). Increasing ADL did not affect (P = 0.73) daily methane emissions, averaging 391 ± 29.6 L/d. Results of this study indicate feeding a diet greater in ADL decreases the digestibility of many nutrients and provides less energy for production responses while methane emissions were not affected.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86442 Watch 2103M Using diet composition to predict production responses of lactating dairy cows on commercial Canadian dairy farms. 3 J. M. dos Santos Neto dairy farm modeling nutritional management J. M. dos Santos Neto1, K. Bobetsis2, B. Schurman2, I. Haig2, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Ritchie-Smith Feeds, Inc, Abbotsford, BC, Canada We used diet composition to predict production responses of lactating dairy cows from 23 dairy farms in British Columbia. Diets (%DM) contained (mean ± SD) 45.6 ± 3.16 DM, 57.0 ± 3.69 forage, 33.0 ± 1.89 NDF, 23.3 ± 2.20 starch, and 5.78 ± 0.58 EE. Cows averaged (mean ± SD) 169 ± 16.6 DIM, 24.9 ± 1.31 kg/d DMI, and 35.7 ± 3.38 kg/d milk. The statistical model included the random effects of farm, date of collection, and farm within date of collection. Dietary components were used as independent variables and production responses as dependent variables. Independent variables were removed from the model using backward elimination when P > 0.10. Multicollinearity was measured using the variance inflation factor (VIF) when VIF > 10. Best fitting multiple regression equations for production responses and milk fatty acid (FA) yields by source are presented in Table 1. Overall, C16:0 intake (g), CP (%DM), RDP (%DM), and ME-allowable milk (kg) were significant for most equations. These equations could aid dairy nutritionists in making practical dietary formulation decisions to obtain improved production responses. Table 1. Multiple regression equations
Item Dependent variables
DMI(kg/d) Milk(kg/d) Fat(kg/d) Protein(kg/d) ECM(kg/d) De novo(kg/d) Mixed(kg/d) Preformed(kg/d)
Intercept 7.65 32.3 0.60 1.24 22.8 0.02 0.01 0.14
Independent variables                
 C16:0 intake (g)[min=107, max=717] 0.001   0.0002   0.002   0.0001 0.00011
 C18:2 intake (g)[min=192, max=437] −0.002              
CP (%DM)[min=13.7, max=19.7] −1.30 1.58   0.05 2.00 0.03 0.03 0.03
 Fermentable sugar (%DM)[min=1.84, max=5.80]           0.01 0.01  
 Forage (%DM)[min=47.8, max=69.2]   −0.19   −0.005        
 ME Allowable milk (kg)[min=30.5, max=48.2] 0.16 0.22   0.008 0.32 0.003 0.004  
 MP Allowable milk (kg)[min=30, max=46.9] 0.34 0.08 0.002          
 NDF (%DM)[min=29.4, max=38.6] 0.27 −0.25   −0.01 −0.36      
 RDP (%DM)[min=8.10, max=11.9]   −1.48   −0.05 −2.01 −0.03 −0.02 −0.04
 RUFAL intake (g)[min=445, max=782]               0.0003
 Rumen NH3 (%required)[min=116, max=193] 0.07              
RMSE 1.4E-06 3.1E-06 2.8E-02 5.7E-03 4.0E-01 6.6E-03 1.2E-02 9.8E-03
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86863 Watch 2104M The effect of displacing conventional alfalfa hay with lower-lignin alfalfa hay on milk production and gas production of lactating Jersey cows. 4 K. Buse lower-lignin alfalfa dry matter intake digestibility K. Buse1, B. Bradford2, M. Doohong3, K. Jagadish3, P. Kononoff1 1University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 2Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 3Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Lower-lignin (LL) varieties of alfalfa have been developed in recent years, which have the potential to impact animal performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing the proportion of LL alfalfa hay in diets fed to lactating dairy cows. Research plots (Mead, NE) were planted with a conventional variety (CON; Dairyland Hybriforce 3400), an engineered LL variety (54HVX42), and a breeding-derived LL variety (Aflorex HiGest 460), and the LL varieties were blended (50:50). Twelve multiparous Jersey cows (100 ± 4 d in milk) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 periods of 28 d. Cows were assigned to 3 diets containing 0 (CON), 16.1 (BLD), and 32.2% (LL) of the diet DM LL alfalfa hay, which replaced CON. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (9.4) with the random effects of cow nested in square and period. The CON alfalfa had an average CP, NDF, and lignin content of 20.5 ± 1.15, 42.1 ± 1.37, and 6.81 ± 0.57%, respectively, while the LL alfalfa averaged 19.8 ± 0.75, 39.9 ± 1.56, and 6.07 ± 0.28%, respectively. No difference was observed (P = 0.18) in DMI (20.3 ± 0.37 kg/d). A quadratic tendency for milk yield to increase (P = 0.06) from CON to BLD then decrease to LL was observed (30.5, 31.5, and 30.8 ± 0.48 kg/d, respectively), but no difference (P = 0.48) was observed in ECM (averaging 36.1 ± 0.76 kg/d). The ratio of ECM to DMI tended to linearly increase (P = 0.05) with LL alfalfa inclusion (1.74 to 1.80 ± 0.03). No difference (P = 0.17) was observed for milk fat yield and content (1.38 ± 0.05 kg/d and 4.51 ± 0.15%) as well as milk protein yield and content (1.06 ± 0.02 kg/d and 3.44 ± 0.05%). Total methane production quadratically decreased (P = 0.01) from CON to BLD then increased to LL (454, 377, 406 ± 22.2 L/d, respectively). No differences were observed on total-tract digestibility of DM (P = 0.71; averaging 67.2 ± 0.94%), NDF (P = 0.25; averaging 51.0 ± 2.20%), and CP (P = 0.33; averaging 67.2 ± 0.94%). Our results suggest that replacing CON alfalfa with LL alfalfa has no beneficial effects on milk production milk composition or nutrient digestibility but does improve feed efficiency.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t85871 Watch 2105M Lactation performance of Holstein dairy cattle fed different ratios of alfalfa hay to corn silage. 5 S. Y. Morrison alfalfa corn silage diet S. Y. Morrison1, Y. Zang1, J. W. Darrah1, H. M. Dann1, C. S. Ballard1, D. C. Weakley2, R. J. Grant1 1The William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY, 2Forage Genetics International, Gray Summitt, MO Our objective was to identify associative effects between alfalfa and corn silage on amount and efficiency of milk true protein and fat production in Holstein cows. One hundred and 5 cows (45 primiparous, 60 multiparous), in 2 enrollments, were used in a randomized complete-block design (RCBD) study with 1-wk covariate (COV) and 4-wk experimental period. Following the COV period, cows were blocked by parity, milk yield, and days in milk and assigned randomly to 1 of 5 diets comprised of 62% forage (dry matter basis; DM) with the forage consisting of different ratios of chopped alfalfa hay and corn silage: 1) 10:90 (10ALF); 2) 30:70 (30 ALF); 50:50 (50ALF); 70:30 (70 ALF); and 90:10 (90ALF). The 50ALF diet was also fed during the COV period. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolizable energy and protein. Data were analyzed as RCBD with a COV. Data from the fourth week were subjected to analysis of covariance using MIXED procedure of SAS (v 9.4). Model included COV and fixed effects of treatment and enrollment. Block was a random effect. Linear, quadratic, and cubic orthogonal contrasts were tested. The dry matter intake (DMI), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, and ECM/DMI were not affected by diet. Responses in milk true protein output, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and de novo fatty acids indicated that between 30:70 and 50:50 alfalfa to corn silage was optimal. Daily rumination time decreased linearly as alfalfa replaced corn silage, possibly from small particle size from alfalfa hay. Higher alfalfa to corn silage ratios may be fed than is commonly practiced within the US dairy industry with an optimal combination of approximately 30:70 to 50:50 alfalfa to corn silage. Table 1.
Item Treatment SE P-value
10ALF 30ALF 50ALF 70ALF 90ALF Linear Quad Cubic
DMI, kg/d 26.3 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.4 0.3 0.81 0.27 0.74
Fat, kg/d 1.80 1.82 1.79 1.75 1.83 0.05 0.94 0.56 0.27
True protein, kg/d 1.33 1.37 1.35 1.31 1.33 0.02 0.39 0.43 0.04
ECM, kg/d 47.9 48.7 48.2 47.0 48.3 0.8 0.67 0.89 0.14
ECM/DMI, kg/kg 1.82 1.83 1.81 1.76 1.83 0.03 0.59 0.44 0.12
MUN, mg/dL 9.8 8.5 10.4 11.0 12.0 0.3 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
De novo FA, g/100 g FA 24.76 25.86 25.82 25.22 25.58 0.24 0.19 0.03 <0.01
Rumination, min/d 499 477 462 449 396 13 <0.01 0.25 0.26
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86887 Watch 2106M Interactions of substituting corn silage with sugar beep pulp and dietary starch levels on performance and milk fat synthesis in dairy cows. 6 D. Vyas sugar beet pulp diet starch milk fat M. Malekkhahi1, A. Razzaghi2, D. Vyas1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Innovation Center, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran We aimed to evaluate the interrelationships between dietary starch level, varied by dry ground corn, and replacement of corn silage (CS) with beet pulp (BP) on yields of milk and milk fat in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows (140 ± 26 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 8 pens (8 animals per pen). Treatments were arranged as a randomized complete design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of starch [low- and high-starch diet DM, 15 and 30% diet DM, respectively] and 2 sources of fiber and were randomly allotted to 8 pens (2 pens per treatment). Treatments were (1) low starch diet (22% DM) and 24% CS (LS-CS), (2) low-starch diet (22.3% DM) and 24% BP replacing CS (LS-BP), (3) high-starch diet (32% DM) and 24% CS (HS-CS), and (4) high-starch diet (32.8% DM) and 24% BP replacing CS (HS-BP). The experiment started with a 14-d adaptation period followed by 47 d of the actual experimental period. The final 7 d of the experimental period was used for data and sample collection. Cows fed the BP-based diets had greater feed intake than those offered the CS-based diets (P = 0.04) while no effects were observed with starch levels. Milk yield increased by 1.8 kg/d with BP-based diets compared with CS-based diets and by 2.5 kg/d when cows received the high- compared with low-starch diets. Interactions between dietary starch level and forage substitution were detected for milk fat content (P = 0.05) and yield (P = 0.04) whereas the BP inclusion lowered milk fat synthesis with high-starch diet. Trans-18:1 concentration was lower with LS-CS compared with other diets (P = 0.03). In conclusion, the effects of dietary starch levels and forage substitution on production responses were independent except for milk fat synthesis and trans 18:1 isomers. Substituting CS with BP is effective at increasing milk yield due to greater feed intake regardless of starch levels; however, milk fat yield is lower when BP is used with high-starch levels. The yields of 3.5%FCM, ECM and the efficiency did not change across treatments while feed efficiency improved by feeding high-starch diets.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86133 Watch 2107M Effects of hydroponically sprouted cereal grains on apparent nutrient digestibility, production, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cattle. 7 S. Jenkins methane forage production S. Jenkins1, E. Slack1, F. Diaz2 1HydroGreen Incorporated, CubicFarm System Corporation, Sioux Falls, SD, 2Dellait Dairy Research Center, Brookings, SD Recent technological advancements in agricultural technology have delivered automated systems that overcome pitfalls of traditional forage production. With appreciably altered nutrient composition when compared with typical forages, research is warranted to investigate the effects of hydroponically sprouted grain (HG) on lactating dairy cattle production, apparent nutrient digestibility, and enteric methane emission. Jersey cattle (n = 344) averaging 108 d in milk (DIM) were randomly assigned to pens in a commercial dairy setting. Treatment pens (n = 2) were blocked by DIM, milk production, and age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control and a treatment group (15% HG in a DM basis) randomly assigned and delivered continuously for an 8-week comparison period; diets were balanced for metabolizable energy, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein content. Nutrient digestibility was assessed through weekly manure sampling. Individual milk yield and composition were assessed daily and weekly, respectively (M6700, GEA, Düsseldorf, Germany). Enteric methane emissions were assessed twice weekly with a laser methane sensor (LMmBE, Tokyo Gas Engineering Solutions, Tokyo, Japan). Hydroponically sprouted grain inclusion resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) changes to nutrient digestibility, production, and enteric methane emission (Table 1). Significant reductions in methane flux coupled with the increases observed in energy-corrected milk production highlight the potential feeding value of HG and automated production systems as a novel agricultural technology solution. Table 1. Statistical analysis of nutrient digestibility, milk production, milk components, feed efficiency, and enteric methane (CH4) emission flux
Item Treatment Control SEM df Contrast P-value
OM digestibility, % OM 66.2 66.9 1.2 24 −0.8 0.678
NDF digestibility, % NDF 45.8 41.7 1.4 24 4.1 0.044
DMI, kg 24.1 24.4 0.1 62 0.3 0.065
Milk, kg 36.6 35.7 0.1 20,470 0.9 <0.00
Fat, kg 1.88 1.80 0.01 1,248 0.08 <0.00
Protein, kg 1.36 1.32 0.01 1,248 0.08 <0.00
ECM, kg 46.7 45.1 0.1 20,470 1.6 <0.00
Feed efficiency, ECM kg−1 1.94 1.85 0.01 62 0.09 0.032
CH4 flux, g day−1 357 454 2 20182 −97 <0.00
SEM = standard error of the mean (SE), df = degrees of freedom.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t85842 Watch 2108M Increasing dose of prepartum rumen-protected choline: Effects on milk production in Holstein dairy cows. 8 H. T. Holdorf transition cow fatty acid H. T. Holdorf1, K. E Ruh1, M. J. Martin1, G. J Combs1, S. J. Henisz1, S. J. Erb1, W. E. Brown1, K. A. Estes2, H. M. White1 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Balchem Corporation, New Hampton, NY Peripartum supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is beneficial, yet the optimal supplementation rate is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum RPC dose on postpartum performance. Pregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 106) were randomly assigned to 0g (control; CTL), 15g (recommended dose; RD) of choline ion from an established RPC product (RPC1; ReaShure, Balchem Corp.; positive control), or 15g or 22g (high dose; HD) of choline ion from a concentrated RPC prototype (RPC2; Balchem Corp.). Treatments (trt) were mixed into a methionine supplemented TMR and cows had ad libitum access via Insentec feeders (Hokofarm Group; 4 feeders/trt) which allowed quantification of individual feed intake. Postpartum, cows were fed a CTL lactating diet or diet with the RD of their respective RPC product for 21d (supplementation period; SP) and a common lactating diet (0g RPC) thereafter until 100d (postSP). Milk yield was recorded daily and composition analyzed weekly. Mixed models analyzing categorical trt effects and continuous effects of actual dam RPC2 intake were performed in PROC MIXED, SAS 9.4. Differences were significant at P ≤ 0.05, and tendencies at 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10. Feeding RPC2RD reduced (P < 0.01) or tended to reduce (P = 0.09) prepartum DMI compared with CTL and RPC2HD. During SP, energy-corrected milk yield (ECM) was similar across trt but postSP, the RD tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10) ECM (54.8, 56.9, 55.8, 56.7 kg; CTL, RPC2RD, RPC2HD, RPC1RD), fat yield (+0.08kg), and protein % (+0.08%) compared with CTL. Feeding RD tended to increase (P ≤ 0.09), and HD increased (P ≤ 0.05), de novo proportion of total milk fatty acids. Increasing prepartum RPC2 intake had a quadratic effect (P = 0.02) on MUN during SP and tended to have a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.10) on MUN, protein %, and de novo proportion of fatty acids during postSP. ECM yield was increased with both RD, consistent with previous research, despite higher levels of production across trt in this study compared with past experiments. In contrast, no additional yield improvements were observed with HD in this study and RPC2 dose intake models suggest an optimal dose below HD at this level of production.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86185 Watch 2109M Lactation performance in dairy cows supplemented with microbial additives. 9 M. N. Marinho dairy cow microbial additive milk yield M. N. Marinho1, M. C. Perdomo1, B. S. Simões1, A. Husnain1, U. Arshad1, C. C. Figueiredo1, P. M. Peixoto1, J. E. P. Santos1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Objectives were to determine the effects of 2 dietary microbial additives (MA) supplemented to diets of dairy cows on productive performance. Seventy-three multiparous and 44 primiparous Holstein cows were enrolled at 61 (31 to 87) days postpartum in a randomized block design after a 10-d pre-treatment period. Cows were blocked by parity and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and, within block, assigned randomly to a single diet that was top-dressed daily with either 100 g of corn meal containing no microbial additive (CON), 100 g of corn meal containing 4 × 107 cfu of Clostridium beijerinckii and 1 × 109 cfu Pichia kudriavzevii (G1), or 100 g of corn meal containing 4 × 107 cfu of C. beijerinckii, 1 × 109 cfu P. kudriavzevii, 1 × 108Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and 1 × 108 of Ruminococcus bovis (G2). The experimental treatments lasted 140 d, from January 2021 to July 2021, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and body weight (BW) were measured daily, whereas milk samples (AM and PM) and body condition were evaluated twice weekly. Data were analyzed with mixed-effects models with orthogonal contrasts evaluating the effects of adding MA (Con vs. 1/2 G1 + 1/2 G2) or type of microbial additive (TMA; G1 vs. G2). Treatment did not affect DMI, daily changes in BW, or changes in body energy. Yields of lactose and protein tended to increase, whereas yields of milk, ECM and fat, and ECM per kg of DMI all increased with MA. The improvements in performance were observed irrespective of type of additive. Supplementing either MA improved production and feed efficiency in dairy cows. Table 1. Effect of supplemental microbial additives on performance of Holstein cows
Item Treatment1 SEM P-value
CON G1 G2 MA TMA
DMI, kg/d 22.2 22.4 22.4 0.3 0.50 0.83
Milk, kg/d 39.9 41.3 41.5 0.6 0.04 0.78
ECM, kg/d 37.9 39.3 39.9 0.6 0.009 0.45
ECM/DMI, kg/kg 1.72 1.76 1.80 0.02 0.03 0.19
BW change, kg/d 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.05 0.81 0.98
Body energy change, Mcal/d 2.57 2.49 2.46 0.34 0.81 0.95
Fat yield, kg/d 1.312 1.367 1.402 0.029 0.03 0.36
Protein yield, kg/d 1.150 1.187 1.194 0.018 0.06 0.78
Lactose yield, kg/d 1.947 2.008 2.013 0.030 0.07 0.90
1G1 and G2 from Native Microbials Inc.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86138 Watch 2110M Effects of hydroponically sprouted cereal grains on digestibility and growth in transition dairy calves. 10 E. Slack calf forage development E. Slack1, S. Jenkins1, F. Diaz2, A. Garcia2 1HydroGreen Incorporated, Cubic Farm System Corporation, Sioux Falls, SD, 2Dellait Dairy Research Center, Brookings, SD The increasingly negative influence of abiotic factors on crop production, coupled with the fragility of the global animal feed supply chain, accentuates the importance of investigating hydroponically sprouted cereal grains (HG) as a dairy cattle feedstuff. Their significantly improved nutrient composition and digestibility compared with traditional forages, justifies research to investigate its effects on transition dairy calf growth and development. Jersey calves (n = 80) averaging 81 kg in weight and 80 d of age were randomly assigned to treatment pens (n = 8) blocked by receiving weight and height. Dietary treatments consisted of a control and treatment group (11% HG; DM basis), randomly assigned and delivered continuously for a 6-week comparison period. Digestibility was assessed weekly by sampling manure and total mixed rations (TMR). Growth was measured through weights, wither height, and length along the medial plane from the shoulders to the coccygeal vertebrae. Feed intake and feed efficiency were reported as weekly averages. Inclusion of hydroponically sprouted grains resulted in significant improvements in wither height and NDF digestibility, along with positive trends in body length and intake. Positive changes in skeletal development coupled with significant reductions in feed cost illustrate the potential value of incorporating HG into transitional calf diets. These findings highlight the potential feeding value of HG as a novel local chain agricultural technology solution. Table 1. Statistical analysis of nutrient digestion, DMI, growth, ADG, feed efficiency, and cost of gain
Item Treatment Control SEM df Contrast P-value
OM digestibility, % OM 68.4 66.8 2.5 7 1.6 0.512
NDF digestibility, % NDF 53.1 40.7 3.7 7 12.4 0.026
DMI, kg day−1 3.12 2.93 0.08 7 0.19 0.081
Weight, kg 124.9 122.9 2.5 7 2.0 0.613
Height, cm 100.3 96.6 0.6 7 3.7 0.006
Length, cm 87.2 84.9 0.4 7 2.3 0.165
ADG, kg day−1 1.13 1.08 0.07 7 0.05 0.613
Feed efficiency,1 MJ kg−1 12.2 14.2 1.0 7 −2.1 0.177
Cost of gain, $ kg−1 0.24 0.34 0.02 7 −0.10 0.017
SEM = standard error of the mean, df = degrees of freedom.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t86841 Watch 2111M Influence of a proprietary blend of yeast fermentation products, enzymes, and probiotics on production performance of lactating Dairy Cattle. 11 T. B. Burrell dairy cattle feed supplementation production T. B. Burrell1, M. A. Ballou3, V. S. Machado3, B. W. Jones1,2 1Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 2Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Stephenville, TX, 3Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a proprietary blend of yeast fermentation products, enzymes, and probiotics would have on production performance of lactating dairy cattle. This study was completed at Southwest Regional Dairy Center in Stephenville, TX at Tarleton State University. The study utilized multiparous cows (n = 192) separated into 2 consecutive periods of 96 cows. Cows in each period were blocked by days in milk (DIM) and parity, 94.86 ± 0.89 DIM and 3.20 ± 0.41, 84.98 ± 0.35 DIM and 3.84 ± 0.34, respectively. Each period consisted of a 14-d adaptation and a 56-d treatment period, with 2 control pens and 2 experimental pens during each period. Feed and ort samples were taken daily and composited by week and dried at 100°C for 3 d for dry matter intake (DMI). Milk was collected on d 0, 14, 28, and 56 during the treatment period, and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, solids-nonfat, urea nitrogen, acetone, and somatic cell count. Blood was collected on d 0, 28, and 56 during the treatment period, and analyzed for serum glucose, urea nitrogen, and nonesterified fatty acids. The MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS, v 9.4, Cary, NC) was used to evaluate fixed effects on treatment, time, and treatment x time. There were not treatment x time interactions or treatments differences (P > 0.05) for either DMI or milk production. Milk production for control and treatment were, 44.1 and 43.6 ± 1.49 kg/day, respectively. Dry matter intake for control and treatment were, 28.5 and 27.9 ± 1.52 kg/day, respectively. These data suggest that the blend of yeast fermentation product, enzymes, and probiotics resulted in similar DMI and milk yield as the control.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86402 Watch 2112M Relationships of blood-based indices of liver health during the transition period with performance and health. 12 T. M. Nelson transition cow liver health T. M. Nelson1, A. L. Kerwin1, L. N. Ferro1, C. M. Ryan1, G. M. Graef1, T. A. Westhoff1, A. S. Sipka1, D. M. Barbano1, B. Stone2, I. Yoon2, T. R. Overton1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA The objective was to characterize relationships of blood-based indices of liver health with transition period outcomes. Holstein cows (n = 64) entering 2+ lactations were characterized, retrospectively, into either low or high liver health groups. Serum samples were analyzed for albumin (Alb), cholesterol (Chol), bilirubin (Bili), haptoglobin (Hp), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). A Liver Functionality Index (LFI) was calculated to standardize changes in Alb, Chol, and Bili from 2 time points [2 and 28 d in milk (DIM)], with greater LFI indicating better health status. A Liver Health Index (LHI) was adapted from LFI to evaluate health status using a single time point at 2 and 10 DIM. The LFI and LHI were evaluated by assigning cows to cohorts to either high (HLFI, HLHI) or low (LLFI, LLHI) liver health. Relationships with performance and blood biomarkers were evaluated using mixed-effects models with repeated measures when applicable (SAS v. 9.4). High LFI and LHI cows tended to have higher milk yield from 1 to 84 DIM (LFI: 53.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.9 kg/d, P = 0.07; LHI: 54.1 vs. 50.5 ± 1.4, P = 0.06) compared with low LFI and LHI cows. Cows in HLFI had higher prepartum DMI from d −56 to calving (14.7 vs. 14.1 ± 0.2 kg/d, P = 0.03) and no difference postpartum (P = 0.24), whereas HLHI had no relationship with DMI prepartum (P = 0.12) and tended to have higher DMI postpartum (25.1 vs. 24.2 ± 0.4 kg/d; P = 0.08). High LFI and LHI cows had lower prepartum (102 vs. 122 ± 7 mEq/L, P = 0.03; 112 vs. 132 ± 10 mEq/L, P = 0.04) and postpartum (459 vs. 610 ± 29 mEq/L, P < 0.001; 419 vs. 653 ± 45 mEq/L, P < 0.001) NEFA concentrations, respectively. No difference was seen between LFI (P = 0.20) or LHI (P = 0.54) for prepartum Hp and Hp was lower in postpartum HLFI (0.16 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06 g/L, P = 0.01) and HLHI (0.12 vs. 0.44 ± 0.12 g/L, P = 0.003). Stratification of LHI into the highest and lowest quartiles enhanced differences observed between groups. Relationships of LHI-2 with performance outcomes were greater than LHI-10. Overall, LHI at 2 DIM can be a more practical measure of liver health status compared with LFI as an indicator of potential performance and health outcomes.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t85969 Watch 2113M Associations of nutritional strategies with biomarkers, health, milk yield, and reproduction. 13 T. R. Overton transition cow nutrition performance A. L. Kerwin1, W. S. Burhans2, D. V. Nydam3, T. R. Overton1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Dairy-Tech Group, South Albany, VT, 3Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The objective was to identify associations between transition period nutritional strategies and the prevalence of elevated postpartum biomarkers [nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; ≥ 0.59 mmol/L), BHB (≥1.2 mmol/L), and haptoglobin (Hp; ≥ 0.45g/L)], disorder incidence (DI), milk yield (MY), and reproductive performance. Multiparous (MP) and primiparous (PP) cows from 72 farms in the northeastern US were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Farms were retrospectively dichotomized within parity into a nutritional strategy within each period; far-off dry: controlled energy (CE; < 16.5% starch and ≥ 40% forage NDF; n = 29 PP and 43 MP farms) or not CE (NCE; ≥ 16.5% starch or < 40% forage NDF or both; n = 22 PP and 29 MP farms), close-up dry: high-forage NDF (HF; ≥ 40% forage NDF; n = 23 PP and 25 MP farms) or low forage NDF (LF; < 40% forage NDF; n = 47 PP and 47 MP farms), and fresh: low starch (LS; < 25.5% starch; n = 30 PP and 32 MP farms) or high starch (HS; ≥ 25.5% starch; n = 39 PP and 40 MP farms). Mixed-effects linear models were created at the herd-level. Farms that fed HF or HS had the lowest BHB compared with LF (11.1 vs. 16.6 ± 2.8%; P = 0.11) or LS (10.0 vs. 17.8 ± 2.5%; P = 0.02) farms; however, HF farms had a higher Hp than LF (51.6 vs. 45.0 ± 3.6%; P = 0.14). Close-up × fresh strategy was associated with DI (P = 0.009) such that HF × HS had the lowest (7.4 ± 4.1%) and HF × LS had the highest DI (18.9 ± 4.0%). For MP cows, LF fed farms had a higher pregnancy rate (PR) than HF (24.7 vs. 22.1 ± 1.3%; P = 0.14). For PP cows, far-off × close-up strategy was associated with BHB (P = 0.10) and PR (P = 0.07) such that CE × LF farms had the highest BHB (15.4 ± 4.3%) and numerically the lowest PR (26.4 ± 2.0%), close-up × fresh strategy was associated with probability of pregnancy (POP; P = 0.14) and NEFA (P = 0.05) such that HF × HS had the highest POP (50.1 ± 2.7%) and higher NEFA than LF × HS (28.7 vs. 11.7 ± 6.5%), and HS farms had higher Hp than LS (59.9 vs. 47.2 ± 5.0%; P = 0.06). There were no associations with MY (P ≥ 0.15). In general, our results support feeding MP cows HF and HS to decrease BHB and DI and feeding PP cows CE, HF, and HS to maximize reproductive performance, and decrease BHB and DI.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86181 Watch 2114M Assessment of rumen-protected choline supplementation on milk production and blood metabolites in mid-lactation dairy cows. 14 G. J. Combs feed efficiency energy-corrected milk G. J. Combs1, M. J. Martin1, K. Estes2, K. A. Weigel1, H. M. White1 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Balchem Corp, New Hampton, NY Choline is a key nutrient involved in methylation, phospholipid synthesis, and lipid metabolism. Although choline supplementation during the transition to lactation period has proven beneficial for health outcomes and production metrics, few studies have examined choline supplementation’s impact on mid-lactation animals. Our objective was to characterize the impact of choline supplementation on production and blood metabolites in mid-lactation Holstein cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (161 ± 3 DIM; n = 64) were enrolled into a 56d feed efficiency study and randomly assigned to either concentrated rumen-protected choline prototype supplementation (RPC; 17.7 g choline ion; Balchem Corp.) or control (CTL; 0 g choline ion). Daily feed intake and milk yield were recorded electronically. Feed and milk samples were collected weekly. Body weights were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of the trial. Blood samples were taken in the final week of the trial. Data were analyzed using the PROC GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (v9.4). Results are reported as (mean [95%CI] CTL vs RPC). There was no difference in DMI (31.5 [30.7,32.3] vs 31.1 [30.3,31.9] kg, P = 0.47), body weight (P = 0.24) or body weight change (P = 0.45) between groups. Milk yield (51.9 [49.6,54.1] vs 50.1 [47.9,52.2] kg, P = 0.25), milk components (P ≥ 0.25) and energy-corrected milk (ECM; P = 0.54) were similar between groups. Residual feed intake and gross feed efficiency were similar between groups (P ≥ 0.43). The RPC group had greater MUN (14.2 [13.7,14.7] vs 14.9 [14.4,15.4] mg/dL, P = 0.05) but BUN was not different (17.4 [16.4,18.5] vs 17.7 [16.7,18.8] mg/dL, P = 0.64). Blood BHB, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were similar between groups (P ≥ 0.21). AST:ALT tended to be greater in RPC (3.9 [3.4,4.3] vs 4.4 [4.0,4.8], P = 0.07) and albumin was lower in the CTL group (3.7 [3.7,3.8] vs 3.8 [3.7,3.9] g/dL, P = 0.05). The benefits of peripartum RPC supplementation on postpartum milk production and ECM reported in the literature were not observed in mid-lactation animals in the current study.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86739   2115M Modeling prepartum urinary calcium excretion in response to dietary acidogenic salts. 15 D. B. Vagnoni DCAD acidogenic salts D. B. Vagnoni1, M. Davidson1, L. Rubio1, G. R. Oetzel2, E. Comets3 1California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, 2University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI, 3INSERM, Université de Paris, Paris, France Acidogenic salts are commonly fed for 3-wk preceding parturition to stimulate Ca mobilization. Our objective was to characterize the time course of urinary Ca excretion (UCE; mol urinary Ca:mol urinary creatinine) as an index of Ca mobilization. Thirty-six cows (Holstein, n = 15 or Jersey, n = 21) of parity 2 or greater were moved to a common close-up pen at 260 d pregnant, where calcium chloride was used to acidify the diet (overall mean dietary cation-anion difference was −85 mEq/kg DM). Urine was sampled immediately before this move and then twice weekly until parturition. Data for UCE were fit to the following equation that allowed for a sigmoidal increase followed by a decrease: UCE = BL + A/{1+exp[4μ1/A*(λ1-t)+2]} * 1/{1+exp[4μ2*(t-λ2)+2]} where BL = baseline values before acidification, A = maximum increase above baseline, μ1 and μ2 represent maximal rates of increase and decrease, respectively (d−1) and λ1 and λ2 represent the corresponding times (d) to μ1 and μ2, respectively. Data were fit as a nonlinear mixed-effects model using the saemix package of R (4.0.0). Categorical covariates consisted of breed, parity group (2 or greater than 2) and their interaction, while continuous covariates consisted of centered mean values of urinary pH and equivalents of Cl offered per day. Normalized prediction distribution errors did not differ from a normal distribution (P = 0.35) and model root mean square error was 0.38. Maximal rates of increase (0.71 d−1) and decrease (0.16 d−1) were unaffected (P > 0.10) by any covariates. The time for maximal rate of increase of UCE (global mean 2.14 d) increased 0.89 d with increasing parity group (P = 0.079). The maximal increase in UCE (global mean 1.75 mol:mol) numerically increased and decreased with increasing parity group for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively (breed x parity group, P = 0.007). The time corresponding to maximal rate of decrease of UCE (22.0 d) was 4.9 d lower for Holsteins vs. Jerseys (P = 0.07). Based on sharp reductions of UCE with time, it is possible that Ca mobilization in preparation for the onset of lactation could be improved by reducing the current typical exposure times to acidogenic salts, particularly for Holsteins vs. Jerseys.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 7:30 t85984 Watch 2116M Effect of different DCAD levels in the close-up diet on peripartum calcium status and dairy cow performance. 16 J. B. Veneman hypocalcemia DCAD J. B. Veneman1, H. C. Verduijn2, A. Klop3, J. O. Goelema1 1De Heus Animal Nutrition, Ede, the Netherlands, 2Adaptation Physiology group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 3Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of 3 close-up treatments differing in dietary DCAD level and treatment duration. Sixty Holstein cows, entering their second lactation or higher, were blocked by parity, expected calving date and 305-d milk yield. Within block, cows were randomly allocated to a control treatment with a close-up period of 2 weeks and a dietary DCAD of 212 mEq/kg DM (CON), a close-up period of 2 weeks and a DCAD of 0 mEq/kg DM (MED) or a close-up period of 3 weeks and a DCAD of −192 mEq/kg DM (NEG). The close-up diet consisted of grass silage, maize silage, wheat straw and concentrates (35%, 18%, 20% and 27% of DM, respectively). Differences in DCAD among treatments were achieved through the inclusion of anionic salts in the MED and NEG treatments. All cows received the same postpartum PMR for 70 d, containing grass silage, maize silage, soybean meal and minerals. The PMR was supplemented with concentrates up to 10 kg per cow per day. Pre- and postpartum feed intake and postpartum milk production was measured daily and milk composition was determined weekly. Prepartum urine pH was measured weekly. Blood samples were taken from the coccygeal vessels on day −7, 0, 2, 5 and 14 relative to calving for serum analysis of Ca. Calf birth weight and colostrum Brix were measured. Data were analyzed by linear or logistic mixed models using GenStat. Prepartum urine pH was 8.2 for CON, 7.0 for MED and 5.6 for LOW (P < 0.001). Pre- or postpartum DMI, milk yield and milk composition did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10). Clinical hypocalcemia incidence was lower for NEG (4%) compared with CON (33%; P < 0.05), with MED intermediate (12%). On the day of calving (d 0), serum Ca was lower for cows on CON (1.79 mmol/l) compared with NEG (2.06 mmol/l; P < 0.05), with MED (1.94 mmol/L) intermediate. Serum Ca did not differ among treatments at the other time points (P > 0.10). Treatments did not affect calf birth weight (P = 0.43), but colostrum quality tended to be higher for CON compared with NEG (26.2% Brix vs. 24.4%; P = 0.06). To conclude, close-up treatments did not affect performance, but NEG treatment reduced clinical hypocalcemia incidence and improved serum Ca concentration on the day of calving compared with CON.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86021 Watch 2117M Effects of rumen modifiers developed to reduce rumen proteolysis in dairy cows. 17 P. Piantoni fat-corrected milk feed efficiency nitrogen efficiency P. Piantoni1, Y. Roman-Garcia1, C. Canale1, S. van Zijderveld1, G. Schroeder1 1Cargill Animal Nutrition and Health, Innovation Campus, Elk River, MN The objective of this experiment was to evaluate 2 products developed to decrease rumen protein degradation on performance of dairy cows. Forty-five Holstein cows (184 ± 87 DIM; 42.3 ± 8.3 kg/d milk yield; mean ± SD) were used in a randomized block design experiment with a 2-wk covariate and 6-wk treatment period. Treatments were: control (CTR), VAL (Valiprov, Cargill Inc.; 0.07% of diet DM), and AAT [AAlphaTek, Cargill Inc.; 0.18% of diet dry matter (DM)]. Valiprov is a product based on condensed tannins and spice extracts and AAlphaTek is a blend of plant extracts, yeast, fermentation products, trace minerals, and enzymes. Diets were 60.6% forage, 16.4% CP, 29.2% neutral detergent fiber, and 28.0% starch. Data from the last 3 wk on treatment were analyzed using the Lme4 package in R with a model containing fixed effects of covariate, treatment, week, and treatment by week interaction, and the random effect of cow, block, day, and parity. Pre-planned contrasts were tested [CTR vs. ADD (VAL + AAT) and VAL vs. AAT]. The AAT treatment decreased DM intake on 4 wk compared with CTR and VAL, and AAT and VAL increased DM intake on 5 and 6 wk compared with CTR (interaction P = 0.03). Treatments did not affect milk yield, but ADD increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield by 1.6 kg/d compared with CTR (P = 0.04). Compared with CTR, ADD tended to increase feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk, kg/d/DM intake, kg/d; 1.63 vs. 1.57; P = 0.09), and AAT tended to increase feed efficiency compared with VAL (1.66 vs. 1.59; P = 0.08). Compared with CTR, ADD increased milk fat yield (1.52 vs. 1.45 kg/d; P = 0.04) by increasing de novo and mixed FA yields (both P ≤ 0.05), and did not affect milk fat percent (3.87%). In addition, ADD did not affect milk protein content (3.19%) or yield (1.24 kg/d) but decreased milk urea nitrogen (12.8 vs. 13.5 mg/dL; P = 0.03), and increased nitrogen efficiency (29.3 vs. 28.1%; P < 0.01) compared with CTR. The AAT treatment tended to increase nitrogen efficiency compared with VAL (29.7 vs. 28.8%; P = 0.06). Results indicate that additives increased milk fat yield as well as feed and nitrogen efficiency, and that the effect on efficiency was mostly due to AAT.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86525 Watch 2118M Evaluation of the effects of exogenous enzymes in the diet of lactating cows. 18 R. Almeida dry matter intake fecal starch milk efficiency L. M. Maciel1, G. M. da Rosa1, D. S. Milczevski1, M. M. Marquetti1, L. B. Los2, A. S. Martins3, R. Almeida1 1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, 2Frísia Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Carambeí, PR, Brazil, 3Universidade Estadual Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of an enzymatic complex, composed of amylase, xylanase, β glucanase, betamananase and protease on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Forty-eight Holsteins (14 primiparous and 34 multiparous) were separated in 2 groups (3.08 lactations, 179 DIM, and 41.4 kg/d) for 2 periods, receiving diets with and without the enzyme supplementation (Precizyon X50, Quimtia) during 28 d per period. Treated-animals received 2 g of enzyme plus 28 g of corn meal and the cows of the control group received 30 g of corn meal, divided in 2 meals per day. Cows were housed in individual tie-stalls in the same barn, equipped with food separator panels. The experimental design was a crossover using parity, milk yield and DIM data from the covariable period as blocking factors. Statistical analyses were performed using the GLM procedure for single measures and MIXED procedure of SAS for repeated measures over time. Block, treatment, time and the interaction between treatment and time were analyzed as fixed effects. The model also included cows nested within treatment as the random effect. No treatment by time interaction was detected. The results indicate that there was no statistical difference for milk yield between the control and the enzyme supplemented groups (40.78 vs. 40.44 kg/d; P = 0.66) respectively, as well as milk components as milk fat (3.54 vs. 3.58%; P = 0.45), milk total protein (3.40 vs. 3.40%; P = 0.92), milk lactose (4.72 vs. 4.71%; P = 0.54), milk casein (2.74 vs. 2.75%; P = 0.55) and milk total solids contents (12.64 vs. 12.67%; P = 0.73) were not affected by treatment. No treatment differences were found for MUN (13.30 vs. 13.20 mg/dL; P = 0.78) and for SCC linear score (2.03 vs. 2.18; P = 0.56), as well as fecal starch (5.18 vs. 5.30%; P = 0.91). On the other hand, the cows supplemented with the enzyme showed lower (25.10 vs. 26.21 kg/d; P = 0.02) DM intake and tended to present higher milk efficiency (1.64 vs. 1.57; P = 0.09). In conclusion, the enzymatic complex tends to improve feed utilization by reducing feed consumption and consequently improving production efficiency.
Ruminant Nutrition: General Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t85886 Watch 2119M Effects of feeding a pelleted electrolyte on lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions. 19 N. C. Upah heat stress electrolyte T. M. Ruiz2, J. F. Van Cleve2, N. C. Upah1, B. W. Kolstad1 1TechMix LLC, Stewart, MN, 2University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Heat stress (HS) negatively effects milk production. Strategies to improve hydration and gut health may be effective to protect against HS and improve lactation related outcomes. The objective was to determine the effects of a pelleted electrolyte (ELO) on milk composition, production, and body temperature. Thirty-eight lactating cows in a single pen (19 pairs of 7 multiparous and 12 primiparous cows) were randomly assigned to either one of 2 experimental treatments: Control and ELO (Bovine BlueLite Pellets, TechMix, LLC, Stewart, Minnesota). The ELO treatment was individually supplemented at a rate of 113 g/cow/d in the concentrate portion before afternoon milking. Groups were acclimated for 10 d followed by 50 d of data collection. Milk production was recorded daily and reported as the average of 10 5-d periods. Fat, protein, and somatic cell count (SCC) were assessed on d 1–2, 14–15, and 37–38 of the experimental period. A subset of cows (n = 10) were vaginally inserted with a HOBO thermometer starting 9 d before supplementation. Data were recorded at 5-min intervals and pooled to measure hourly temperatures. Data were analyzed using the PROC mixed procedure of SAS with treatment as a between-subjects variable, time as a within-subjects variable, the interaction of treatment*time, and random variable of cow nested within pair. Milk fat, protein, and yield were unchanged by treatment (P > 0.05). Blood hematocrit and average internal temperature were unchanged by treatment (P > 0.05). However, when the temperature-humidity index (THI) was greater than 80, cows supplemented with ELO had lower internal temperatures (39.24° vs. 39.44°C) than controls (P < 0.001). Milk composition and production did not differ by treatment. In summary, ELO supplementation reduced body temperature during severe HS and this has implications to production, reproduction and health metrics of heat-stressed dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 s9970                  
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t86376 Watch 2133M In vitro supplementation of leucine increases the proportion of iso-15:0 and iso-17:0 fatty acids in rumen microbial cell membranes. 1 L. Matthews continuous culture bacteria protozoa M. Schiksnis1, L. Matthews1, S. Greenwood1, J. Kraft1 1The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT Milk and dairy products are a unique source of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), as they are principally derived from rumen microorganisms. The biosynthetic pathway of BCFA is well established in some selected bacterial taxa but little is known concerning the collective biosynthesis of BCFA in rumen microorganisms. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between the dietary substrate (i.e., precursor) leucine and the proportions of its downstream metabolites, iso-15:0 and iso-17:0, in the cellular lipids of rumen bacteria and protozoa. Dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (n = 4) were used in a repeated design with 4 periods of 10 d each to evaluate the dose-response of dietary leucine. Treatments were 1) a total mixed ration serving as the control (CON) diet (0.77% DM leucine), representing 100% leucine, 2) CON + 50% of CON leucine, 3) CON + 100% of CON leucine, and 4) CON + 200% of CON leucine. On d 8–10, bacteria and protozoa were isolated from each fermenter and their lipid membranes were evaluated for fatty acid composition and content via gas-liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed using R (v. 1.1453) with lme4 and lmerTest packages, via a generalized linear mixed model, with the fixed effect of treatment and the random effect of period. A post hoc Tukey test was used to determine pairwise differences between individual BCFA and treatments. Treatments did not affect the content of iso-15:0 metabolism in bacterial membranes. However, the proportion of iso-17:0 increased in the bacterial membranes with the addition of both 100% and 200% leucine by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. In protozoal cell membranes, however, the content of iso-15:0 and iso-17:0 increased more than 2-fold with the addition of 100% and 200% leucine. As a result, the proportion of total iso-BCFA increased in protozoal cell membranes as well. In summary, these data verify the BCFA metabolism in both bacteria and protozoa in the rumen and indicate that dietary leucine increases the proportions of its downstream metabolites in the cell membranes of rumen microorganisms.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t86196 Watch 2134M Effects of cashew nut shell extract and monensin on microbial fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture. 2 E. Sarmikasoglou cashew nut shell extract dual flow feed additives E. Sarmikasoglou1, M. Johnson1, J. Vinyard1, P. Sumadong1,2, R. R. Lobo1, J. A. Cordero1, A. Bahman1, A. Ravelo1, S. Halima1, C. Hikita3, T. Watanabe3, A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 3Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan Cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) and monesin have been shown to alter ruminal fermentation, dry matter intake and milk yield in cows. The objective of this study was to compare CNSE and monensin to evaluate changes in ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and microbial nitrogen outflow. Treatments were randomly arranged to 8 fermenters in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 experimental periods consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Basal diets contained 43.5:56.5 forage: concentrate ratio and each fermenter was fed 106 g of DM/d divided equally between 2 feeding times. Treatments were: control (CON, without additives); 2.5 μM monensin (MON); 100 ppm CNSE granule (CNSE100); and 200 ppm CNSE granule (CNSE200). On d 8–10, samples were collected for pH, lactate, ammonia-N (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), protozoa counts, and digestibility measurements. Data were analyzed with the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test the effects of (1) ADD-(CON vs. MON, CNSE100, and CNSE200); (2) CNSE-(MON vs. CNSE100 and CNSE200); and (3) DOSE-(CNSE100 vs. CNSE200). Significance was declared at P ≤ 0.05 and tendencies at 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10. We observed that butyrate concentration in all treatments were lower (ADD; P = 0.04), compared with CON and the concentration of MON was lower (CNSE; P = 0.02) compared with CNSE treatments, total protozoa counts of all treatments were lower (ADD; P < 0.01) compared with CON. No effects (P > 0.05) were observed for pH, lactate, NH3-N, total VFAs and nutrient digestibility, or N utilization. Within the 24 h pool, bacterial N flow (P = 0.07) and the efficiency of N use (P = 0.07) tended to be lower for the monensin treatment compared with CNSE treatments. Overall, compared with monensin, cashew nut shell extract increased butyrate concentration and tended to improve microbial N utilization, and therefore could be an alternative to ionophores.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t85891 Watch 2135M Evaluation of hour points required to accurately describe NDF fermentation kinetics. 3 M. B. Hall fiber fermentation kinetics M. C. Barry1, M. B. Hall2 1AgModels, LLC, Tully, NY, 2U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, USDA-ARS, Madison, WI The objective of this study was to determine the time points required to characterize 2-pool NDF fermentation kinetics as accurately as a complete 11-point data set. Forages (6 alfalfas, 6 grasses) (feed) were analyzed for residual NDF (U) by 2 laboratories running each sample in duplicate in each of 2 fermentation runs (run) with mixed ruminal microbes and blank corrections. Sampling hours (t) were 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, 72, 120, and 240 h. Outliers were removed. NDF pools are B degradable pool and C indigestible pool; the B pool has a fermentation rate (kd) and lag (L). Models were fit to data for each forage in each fermentation with the equations 2P: Ut = B0*e(-kd*(t-L))+C, giving 24 curves for each model. The ”optim” function in base R was used to estimate parameters employing the “L-BFGS-B” method. For each forage in each run, models (Mod) were determined for time courses with all time points (Full), 0, 30, 120, and 240 h (4pt), ≤ 3h removed, only 18h removed, and 18h removed plus these reductions: 240h, ≥ 120h, ≥ 72h, and ≥ 48h. The NDF degraded ruminally (%dNDF) for each feed in each run for each Mod was calculated at 57 evenly spaced discrete passage rates (kp) from 2 to 7%/h. Mean absolute differences (MAD) between Full and other Mod for %dNDF were calculated. MAD were analyzed with PROC MIXED of SAS with a model containing Mod, feed, Mod*feed, lab, run(lab), Mod*lab, feed*lab, Mod*feed*lab; mean separation was by Tukey-Kramer. Data were transformed to 1/quartic root for residuals to be normally distributed. In order of terms in the model, P-values were < 0.01, < 0.01, 0.06, < 0.01, < 0.01, 0.81, 0.04, and 0.90. The back-transformed least squares means of MAD were 1.81 (- ≤ 3h), 1.31 (4pt), 0.38 (−18h), 0.37 (−240h), −0.48 (- ≥ 120h), 0.64 (- ≥ 72h), and 1.04 (- ≥ 48h) for %dNDF; standard error of the difference not back-transformed: 0.135. Mod that did not differ from each other (P > 0.05) were −240h, −18h, and - ≥ 120h; - ≥ 120h and - ≥ 72h; - ≥ 48h and 4pt; and 4pt and - ≤ 3h. Omission of 18h and > 72h had little effect on NDF kinetics characterization and can be excluded. For greater accuracy, ≤ 3h should be included. The 4pt is not suitable for describing the kinetics.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t86080 Watch 2136M Effects of a blend of organic acids on ruminal fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture. 4 R. R. Lobo citric acid sorbic acid thymol R. R. Lobo1, J. A. Arce-Cordero1, J. R. Vinyard1, M. L. Johnson1, M. R. Watson1, A. Bahman1, S. W. Ma1, G. Dagaew2, P. Sumadong2, E. Sarmikasoglou1, E. Grilli3,4, A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 3University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 4Vetagro Inc, Chicago, IL The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of a blend of plant organic acids (OA) in lactating dairy cows diets in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Using 8 fermenters in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square with 4 periods of 10 d each, we tested different levels of inclusion of OA (0, 0.12, 0.24, and 0.36%, diet DM). The OA contained 55.6% hydrogenated and refined palm oil, 25% citric acid, 16.7% sorbic acid, 1.7% thymol, and 1% vanillin. Basal diet was formulated to meet the requirements of a 680 kg Holstein dairy cow producing 45 kg/d of milk with 3.5% fat and 3% protein. All diets had a similar composition (16.1% CP; 30.9% NDF; 32.0% starch, DM basis) and fermenters were fed 106 g/d split into 2 feedings. After 7 d of adaptation, samples were collected for 3 d of each period for analyses of ruminal fermentation at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post morning feeding. Statistical analysis was performed with MIXED procedure of SAS using orthogonal contrasts (linear, quadratic, and cubic) and significance was declared when P ≤ 0.05 and tendencies at 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10. Partial results are summarized in Table 1. We observed a quadratic effect of OA on the daily average pH and pH before feeding (P < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). However, the lowest pH after morning feeding and the rate of pH drop were not affected by OA inclusion in the diet (P > 0.05). A cubic effect on the daily average NH3-N concentration was observed (P = 0.02). In summary, the inclusion of 0.12 or 0.24% OA increased the average daily pH without affecting the rate of pH change. The NH3-N concentration was cubically affected by OA inclusion in the diet. Table 1.
Item1 Treatments, % of diet DM SEM P-values
0 0.12 0.24 0.36 Linear Quadratic Cubic
pH 6.15 6.20 6.20 6.15 0.03 0.88 <0.01 0.92
pH-BF 6.44 6.51 6.50 6.43 0.04 0.80 0.02 0.89
LpH 5.95 5.98 5.97 5.93 0.03 0.47 0.14 0.92
Rate 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.01 0.71 0.26 0.89
NH3-N 12.3 11.2 12.7 11.8 0.79 0.97 0.80 0.02
pH 6.15 6.20 6.20 6.15 0.03 0.88 <0.01 0.92
1pH – daily average pH; pH-BF – pH before feeding; LpH – lowest pH after feeding; Rate – rate of pH decrease (pH unit h−1), NH3-N, mMol dL−1.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t85939 Watch 2137M Rumen bacterial taxa and dietary nutrient predictors in cows with differing risk of ruminal acidosis. 5 H. Golder acidosis CP microbiota H. Golder1,2, J Rehberger3, A. Smith3, S. LeBlanc4, T. Duffield4, H. Rossow5, R. Bogdanich6, L. Hernandez7, E. Block3, I. Lean1,2 1Scibus, Camden, NSW, Australia, 2Dairy Science Group, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia, 3Arm & Hammer Animal and Food Production, Princeton, NJ, 4Department of Population Medicine, ON Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 5Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Tulare, CA, 6Cross Street Veterinary Clinic, Tulare, CA, 7Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI Early lactation Holstein cows (n = 261; 1st to 7th parity) from 32 herds in 3 regions (Australia, California, and Canada) were categorized into 3 rumen acidosis risk groups (acidotic = 26.1%, group 2 = 47.1%, or group 3 = 26.8%) using a discriminant analysis model based on eigenvectors produced from a combination of rumen pH, and ammonia, D- and L-lactate, and VFA concentrations from samples collected < 3 h after feeding. Diets ranged from pasture supplemented with concentrates to TMR (NFC = 17 to 47 and NDF = 27 to 58% of DM). Nutrients were determined by feed analysis or estimated in nutrition software (10 herds). Rumen microbiota were characterized by bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data. The relative abundance of each bacterial phylum and family were center log-transformed and subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) for both acidosis group and region. The 20 most influential families from both combined PCA (n = 29) were termed ‘influential’. Backward stepwise elimination mixed models were used to determine (1) the bacterial taxa that were collectively associated with each acidosis group and (2) dietary nutrients that were associated with these taxa and the phyla that were most abundant. The fixed effects of herd nested within region were used for (1) and region for (2). Nutrients included (% of DM): NDF, CP, starch, sugar, and crude fat. Five phyla: Firmicutes (OR = 7.47 ± 7.43), Spirochaetes (OR = 1.28 ± 0.14), Lentisphaerae (OR = 0.70 ± 0.07), Planctomycetes (OR = 0.70 ± 0.09), and Tenericutes (OR = 0.44 ± 0.15) and 9 families were associated with acidosis. Of the 5 most abundant phyla and those that were associated with acidosis, (n = 9 phyla of interest), all had ≥ 1 nutrient that predicted abundance. Sugar was the most frequently predictive nutrient (in 78% of models), followed by CP (56%), and crude fat (44%). Sugar and CP were most predictive for the influential families and all but 3 families had ≥ 1 predictive nutrient. Bacterial taxa can be used to predict acidosis and dietary sugar and CP are predictors of these, and thus of acidosis risk.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t86940 Watch 2138M Effect of dietary inclusion of probiotics on fecal microbiome in lactating dairy cows. 6 D. Vyas dairy feces microbiome H. Guan1, A. Oyebade2, P. Fan2, K. C. Jeong2, F. X. Amaro2, L. Mu2, C. A. N. de Guzmán2, I. M. Fernandez2, S. Lee2, D. Vyas2 1Institute of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL We aimed to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of probiotics on composition of fecal microbiome in lactating dairy cows. Thirty lactating dairy cows were blocked (n = 10; 3 animals /block) based on energy-corrected milk and within blocks, randomly assigned to: 1) Control (CON): Corn silage-based total mixed ration; 2) BOV: CON diet top-dressed with a mixture of Lactobacillus animalis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii at 3 × 109 cfu/day; and 3) BOV+: CON diet top-dressed with BOV plus Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis at 11.8 × 109 cfu/day. Experimental period comprised of 2-wk covariate, 1-wk adaptation, and 12-wk of data collection period. Fecal samples were collected during wk 2, 4, and 6 of data collection period, and subsequently fecal microbial composition was determined. Fecal microbiome was using 16S rRNA profiles determined by Illumina MiSeq platform. The qPCR was conducted to confirm treatment difference in relative abundance of B. subtilis, L. animalis, B. licheniformis, and P. freudenreichii between treatments. Relative abundance of bacteria and fold differences in the copy number of above 4 bacteria were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD test for pairwise comparison of multiple means. Fecal microbiome was dominated by Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005, Treponema, Rikenellaceae, and Lachnospiraceae. The abundance of Acetobacter, and Saccharimonas was increased by 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively (P < 0.01) for CON compared with BOV while abundance of Clostridiodes spp. was increased 2-fold (P < 0.01) for BOV compared with CON. The abundance of Coprococcus, and Methanobrevibacter spp. were increased by 0.5 fold (P < 0.01) for CON compared with BOV+. Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010 was positively associated with pH (P = 0.03), while negative associations were detected between pH and the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae and Prevotellaceae. Copy numbers of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were greater (P < 0.01) in BOV+ vs. CON and BOV. The greater copy number of L. animalis was found in BOV and BOV+ vs. CON (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of BOV and BOV+ resulted in fecal microbiota modulation. Future studies should investigate the relationship between changes associated with fecal microbiome and rumen fermentation and subsequently livestock performance.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t87031 Watch 2139M Effects of trace mineral and forage sources on mineral solubility, ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and N utilization. 7 M. L. Johnson copper hydroxy manganese M. L. Johnson1, J. A. Arce-Cordero1, E. Sarmikasoglou1, J. R. Vinyard1, R. R. Lobo1, V. Brandao2, A. P. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Micronutrients LLC, Indianapolis, IN The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 forms of Cu, Zn, and Mn on ruminal fermentation in diets varying in forages grown in different geographical locations in the USA, in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Eight fermenters were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, combining 2 factors: (1) diet type [West (W) or East (E) coast] and (2) mineral source [sulfate (S) or hydroxy (H)]. Treatments were (1) WH [West coast diet with Intellibond Cu, Zn, and Mn]; (2) WS [West coast diet with Cu, Zn, and Mn sulfates]; (3) EH [East coast diet with Intellibond Cu, Zn, and Mn]; (4) ES [East coast diet with Cu, Zn, and Mn sulfates]. All diets were formulated to contain similar chemical composition. Treatments were supplemented with 12, 56, and 36 ppm of Cu, Zn, and Mn from the corresponding mineral source. Four 10-d periods were conducted, and the last 3 d of each period were used for collection of samples for analyses of lactate, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), as well as nutrient digestibility and Cu, Zn, and Mn solubility. Effects of diet type, mineral source, and their interaction were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), CP (P = 0.02), NDF (P < 0.01), and ADF (P < 0.01), were affected by diet type but not by mineral source. Compared with H mineral sources, S mineral sources had greater daily average concentrations of soluble Mn (P = 0.04) and Zn (P = 0.06), and greater concentrations of Cu (P = 0.05), Mn (P = 0.05) and Zn (P = 0.02) during the first 8 h after feeding. There was a diet × mineral source interaction on fermenter pH (P = 0.02), when S sources were fed, there was a reduction on pH only with the W diet. Sulfate mineral sources reduced daily average NH3-N concentration when supplemented with the W diet but had the opposite effect with the E diet. Our results indicate that H sources have a lower ruminal solubility than S sources, and there was an effect of mineral source on ruminal fermentation when the W diet was fed, particularly when it comes to NH3-N and pH.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t85890 Watch 2140M Evaluation of 2- and 3-pool models to describe neutral detergent fiber fermentation kinetics. 8 M. C. Barry fiber fermentation kinetics M. C. Barry1, M. B. Hall2 1AgModels, LLC, Tully, NY, 2U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, USDA-ARS, Madison, WI The objective of this study was to determine whether a 2-pool (2P) or 3-pool (3P) model most accurately and efficiently characterized NDF fermentation kinetics. Forages (6 alfalfas, 6 grasses) were analyzed for residual NDF (U) by 2 laboratories running each sample in duplicate in each of 2 fermentation runs with mixed ruminal microbes and blank corrections. Sampling hours (t) were 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, 72, 120, and 240 h. Outliers were removed. Pools as decimal proportions of NDF: degradable pool B in 2P, B1 rapid and B2 slow pools in 3P, and indigestible pool C in both; B pools have fermentation rates (kd, h−1) and lag (L). Models were fit to data for each forage in each fermentation with the equations 2P: Ut = B0*e(-kd*(t-L))+C, and 3P: Ut = B10*e(-kdB1*(t-L))+B20*e(-kdB2*(t-L))+C, giving 48 curves for each model. The ”optim” function in base R was used to estimate parameters employing the “L-BFGS-B” method. Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) was used to select the model with the best fit for each forage in each fermentation: 16 curves were 3P, and 32 were 2P. Expressed as the ‘difference between runs’/mean, average variation between runs for Lab1 and Lab2, respectively, were: for 3P B1 0.50, 0.17; B2 0.26, 0.33; C 0.50, 0.06; kdB1 0.81, 0.32; kdB2 0.93, 0.54; for 2P B 0.04, 0.01; C 0.07, 0.01; kdB 0.17, 0.08. Estimates of % of NDF fermented for 2P and 3P with no L at passage rates (kp) of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7%/h were calculated. The % NDF fermented for 2P was subtracted from 3P at each kp for each feed. A t-test evaluated if difference ≠ 0. For 16 AIC-selected 3P, going sequentially from kp = 2 to 7%/h, differences were 0.29, 0.45, 0.65, 0.87, 1.04, and 1.20% of NDF (P ≤ 0.03); 2P and 3P differed, but differences were small. For 32 AIC-selected 2P, going sequentially from kp = 2 to 7%/h, differences were 0.15, 0.13,0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.22% of NDF (P = 0.03 for kp 2%/h, P ≥ 0.18 for the rest); all differences were small. With little difference between models in predicted rumen-fermented NDF and numerically smaller variation in parameter estimates between runs for 2P, use of the more complex 3P conferred no advantage in this data set.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t87077 Watch 2141M Effects of dietary betaine supplementation and partial rumen content transplantation on metabolism in heat-stressed Holstein cows. 9 A. Javaid betaine metabolism methyl donor A. Javaid1, A. R. Gonzalez2, D. E. Rico3, J. W. McFadden1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, 3CRSAD, Deschambault, QC, Canada Heat stress alters the rumen environment while modifying metabolism in cows, which may be influenced by dietary betaine supplementation. Twelve rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (39 ± 6.4 kg milk/d; 82 ± 27 DIM) were used in a split-plot design testing the effects of betaine and partial rumen content transplantation (PRCT) on measures of metabolic health and methyl donor metabolism during heat stress. The main plot was the level of dietary betaine (CON: unsupplemented; or BET: 100 g/d intraruminal betaine hydrochloride 95%; AB Vista, Canada). Within each plot, cows were randomly assigned to the following treatments 1) heat stress (HS), 2) thermoneutral pair-feeding (TNPF), or 3) HS with PRCT (HS+PRCT; 25% replacement of rumen contents from 4 donor cows in thermoneutrality; d 8–14) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 4 h relative to feeding time on d 0, 7, and 13. Data were analyzed in a mixed model including the fixed effects of plot, treatment, day, and their interactions. Pre- and postprandial plasma insulin concentrations were increased in HS by 65% and 44%, respectively, relative to TNPF on d 7 (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased by 55% and 51%, respectively on d 13 (both P = 0.06). In contrast, no differences between HS and HS+PRCM were detected on d 7 or 13. Pre-prandial total fatty acids (FA) were decreased in HS (P < 0.05), relative to TNPF. Pre- and postprandial plasma cholesterol decreased by 30% in HS, relative to TNPF on d 13 (P < 0.01), but did not differ between HS and HS+PRCT. Pre-prandial cholesterol tended to increase (P = 0.09), while pre-prandial triglycerides (P = 0.05) were decreased in BET, relative to CON. Plasma betaine was increased in BET, relative to CON (P < 0.01); whereas methionine was decreased (P = 0.03). Heat stress decreased the plasma concentrations of betaine (P < 0.01), and tended to decrease trimethylamine N-oxide (P = 0.10) in HS, relative to TN-PF. Dietary betaine and PRCT modulate methyl donor metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Supported by FFAR.
Ruminant Nutrition: Gut Physiology, Fermentation, & Digestion Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 7:30 t87071 Watch 2142M In vitro effects of sodium acetate and sodium propionate on the fermentation profile of dairy cows fed different forage-to-concentrate ratios. 10 J. Scott methane diet fermentation J. Scott1, R. Kohn1 1University of Maryland College Park, College Park. MD Ratio of concentrate to forage is a key factor influencing ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, enteric methane (CH4) production, and overall efficiency of dairy cow diets. This study was designed to investigate the role of thermodynamics and diet on enteric CH4 production and fermentation profiles in vitro. Rumen fluid was collected from 4 lactating Holstein cows fed either a high-forage (HF) or high-concentrate (HC) diet for 21 d. Rumen fluid (30 mL) from each cow was incubated in anaerobic Wheaton bottles (n = 32) with Timothy hay (0.14 ± 0.01 g) and media (10 mL) containing sodium acetate (NaAc) at 4 levels (0, 90, 120, 180 mM) or sodium propionate (NaProp = 0, 40, 60 or 100 mM). Wheaton bottles were incubated at 39°C and sampled for VFA, H2, CH4 and CO2 after 10 min of shaking (T = 0) and again after 4 h. The mixed model (JMP 14.1, SAS Institute Inc.) applied separately to acetate and propionate addition was Y = Diet (Cow) + Level + Diet*Level + Error, where level is the amount of acetate or propionate added. Initial propionate concentrations were higher (P = 0.003) for HC diets (27.85 mM) than HF diet (18.05 mM) and propionate concentration decreased (P = 0.03) for rumen fluid from HC diets unless NaAc was added. The addition of NaAc increased propionate (P = 0.008) and butyrate (P = 0.02) rate of formation (ROF) only for HC diet. Addition of NaAc to rumen fluid from HC-fed cattle decreased CH4 ROF (P = 0.04) from 0.043 to 0.025, 0.023 and 0.013 mM 40mL−1 hour−1. Incubating HF rumen fluid with NaAc, had no effect on rates of formation of VFA or gases. Adding NaProp tended (P = 0.07) to increase CH4 and butyrate formation on HC, and there was a diet by NaProp level interaction (P < 0.03) with CO2 formation decreasing by level for HC but increasing by level for FC. Consequently, adding acetate to rumen fluid from cows fed the high-concentrate diets increased rates of propionate and butyrate formation and decreased methane formation consistent with the expectations of thermodynamics. However, there were no effects observed for rumen fluid from cows on high-forage diets.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 s9973                  
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 7:30 t86953 Watch 2143M Chemical characterization of a new high-protein corn milling coproduct. 1 A. L. Carroll chemical composition corn milling high protein A. L. Carroll1, M. L. Jolly-Breithaupt2, P. J. Kononoff1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 2POET, Sioux Falls, SD Evaluation of the chemical characterization of new feedstuffs is integral to balancing accurate rations to ensure animal performance. New products arise due to technological advancements causing variation in chemical composition and nutrient availability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the chemical composition of new high-protein dry milling corn coproduct (HPCoP) and compare 2 methods of NDF analysis. In this study, independent samples (n = 10) of a HPCoP were obtained from a single production site over a one-month period (Flint Hills Resources, Fairmont, NE). Samples of HPCoP were analyzed individually and contained 92.1 ± 2.57% DM, 7.17 ± 0.498% total fatty acids (TFA), 53.6 ± 1.13% CP containing 3.70% ± 0.188% lysine and 2.51% ± 0.161% methionine (CP basis). In comparison to the NASEM 2021, output for low-fat dried distillers grains with solubles was reported as 30.8% NDF, 7.90% TFA, 31.0% CP containing 2.81% lysine and 1.98% methionine (CP basis). Determination of amylase treated NDF (aNDF) using 2 commercially available fiber systems were tested using a completely randomized design analyzed with the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (9.4). The methods tested included the gravimetric method recommended by the NASEM (GRAV) and a bagged sample method (BAG) which differed in aNDF (P < 0.01). Specifically, the lowest aNDF was observed using the GRAV (31.2 ± 3.53%) and greatest with BAG (47.1 ± 4.32%). Utilizing the GRAV method in vitro fermentation were carried out at 24, 30, 48 and 240 h to determine NDF digestibility on an organic matter basis. Mean values for the time points were 77.8 ± 2.63, 81.9 ± 2.20, 83.8 ± 1.79, and 85.8 ± 1.17%, respectively. Results indicate that compared with traditional DDGS, the nutrient composition of HPCoP contains a greater concentration of protein and lysine. Furthermore, methods used to estimate fiber vary. Overall, this study highlights the need for routine characterization of the chemical composition of feeds originating from the dry corn milling process.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t87051 Watch 2144M Abomasal infusion of branched-chain amino acids or branched-chain keto-acids alter lactation performance in early lactation dairy cows. 2 K. Gallagher branched-chain amino acid branched-chain ketoacid lactation performance K. Gallagher1, I. Bernstein1, C. Collings1, D. Main1, S. Naughton1, V. Mavangira2, M. VandeHaar1, Z. Zhou1 1Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI High-yielding dairy cows enter a state of negative protein balance postpartum when lactation onset greatly increases the mammary demand for AA. Our objective was to determine the impact of abomasal infusion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding keto-acids (branched-chain keto-acids, BCKA) on production performance in early lactation. Twenty 2 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design experiment. Cows were infused for the first 21 d postpartum with solutions of 1) saline (CON, n = 7); 2) BCAA (n = 7) including 67 g valine, 50 g leucine, and 17 g isoleucine; and 3) BCKA (n = 8) including 77 g ketovaline, 57 g ketoleucine, and 39 g ketoisoleucine. All cows received the same diet. Treatment effects were determined using PROC MIXED in SAS. No differences (P > 0.60) were detected for body weight and body condition score. Dry matter intake (P = 0.43), milk yield (P = 0.16), and milk components (P > 0.34) were also not changed in response to BCAA or BCKA treatments. However, compared with BCAA (1.64 kg/d, P = 0.04) or CON (1.67 kg/d, P = 0.13), protein yield was higher in response to BCKA treatment (1.77 kg/d, SEM = 0.04). Additionally, feed efficiency (milk yield divided by intake) was greater in cows receiving BCAA (2.17, SEM = 0.14) when compared with BCKA (1.72, P = 0.03) or CON (1.87, P = 0.15) cows. Postruminal infusion of BCAA improved feed efficiency whereas infusion of BCKA increased protein yield in multiparous cows during early lactation. Further research is warranted to determine if dietary supplementation of BCAA or BCKA might be warranted.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86235 Watch 2145M Embryonic epigenome modification induced by maternal feed supplementation of rumen-protected methionine in dairy cows. 3 C. Parys methionine embryo embryonic epigenome M. Hoelker1,2, C. Blaschka1, M. Drillich3, M. Iwersen3, U. Besenfelder4, V. Havlicek4, S. Gebremedhn2,5, D. Tesfaye2,5, E. Tholen2, C. Parys6, A. Helmbrecht6, J. Guyader6, D. Salilew-Wondim2 1Department of Animal Science, Biotechnology and Reproduction of Farm Animals, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany, 2Institute of Animal Sciences, Animal Breeding, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 3Clinical Unit for Herd Health Management, University Clinic for Ruminants, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Reproduction Centre-Wieselburg, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 6Evonik Operations GmbH, Hanau, Germany The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected methionine (RPM, Mepron, Evonik Operations GmbH, Hanau, Germany) in postpartum (pp) dairy cows on early embryo developmental characteristic and epigenome profile. In 5 experimental sessions, starting 8–14 d pp, first calf cows housed within controlled experimental pen at the research station (University of Bonn, Germany) received either a daily top-dressing of 15 g RPM (MET) until d 75 pp or solely the control diet (CON). After synchronization of estrus by routine procedures (to d 50–63 pp) in vitro fertilized zygotes generated according to standard procedures (n = 4,754, ± 100/ recipient) were transferred by nonsurgical endoscopic transfer into the oviducts of MET and CON cows (n = 16 each) at cycle d 1. Recipients oviducts were flushed at d 7 and recollected embryos were analyzed for developmental stage, differential cell count, number of apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay) and global epigenome outline. Isolated DNA of MET and CON embryos (4 pools each, ± 25 embryos per pool) was bisulfate converted (EZ-DNA Methylation-Direct Kit, Zymo Research) and libraries were prepared (Pico Methyl-Seq Library Prep KitTM, Zymo Research) and single-end sequenced (114 cycles, Illumina HiSeq 2500, Illumina GmbH). A total of 2,574 (60.2%) and 2,180 (55.0%) embryos were re-collected from MET and CON cows. Rate of development (36.2 vs. 33.1%), total cell number (81.7 vs. 81.0) and apoptotic cell number (4.5 vs. 4.6) did not differ between MET and CON embryos, respectively. Conversely, a total of 373 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified, with nearly all of them (n = 372) being significantly (P < 0.05) hypermethylated in MET embryos. Noteworthy, the great majority (92%) of these DMRs overlapped with only 26 mitochondrial genes. In summary, methionine supplementation by daily top-dressing of RPM in dairy postpartum cows increased the DNA methylation level of preimplantation stage embryos with the great majority of them representing mitochondrial genes.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86445 Watch 2146M Determining the relative metabolizable methionine content of rumen-protected products and their effect on production responses. 4 J. Parales-Giron bioavailability milk protein nitrogen J. Parales-Giron1, J. de Souza2, P. S. Yoder2, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Perdue AgriBusiness, Salisbury, MD We determined the relative bioavailability of 4 rumen-protected methionine (Met) supplements using the seleno-Met technique. Thirty-six multiparous cows (mean ± SD; milk yield 42.7 ± 5.78 kg/d; milk fat content 3.38 ± 0.49%; milk protein content 2.88 ± 0.15%) were fed a basal diet containing 0.4 mg/kg Se from Se yeast (DiaMuneSe; Diamond V., Cedar Rapids, IA) for 14 d before the start of the study and throughout the study. A 4x4 Latin square arrangement of treatments was used with consecutive 14 d periods. Treatments were the basal diet supplemented with 15 g metabolizable Met/d according to manufacturer recommendations from: 1) Smartamine (SMA; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France); 2) Kessent M (KSM; Kemin, Inc., Belgium); 3) Aminoshure XM (AXM; Balchem, New Hampton, NY) and 4) TIMET (TIM; Vetagro, Reggio Emilia, Italy). Supplements were protected using either pH sensitive polymers (SMA and KSM) or fat encapsulation (AXM and TIM). Production responses and milk samples were collected the last 4 d of each period for milk components, Se, and N. The statistical model included the random effects of cow and period, and the fixed effect of treatment. The bioavailabilities of KSM, AXM, and TIM relative to SMA were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation as: Relative bioavailability = stated bioavailability x [(Se/N Pretrial–Se/N product)/(Se/N Pretrial–Se/N SMA)]. Results are presented in the following order: SMA, KSM, AXM, and TIM. Overall, TIM compared with the other treatments decreased milk protein content (3.06, 3.07, 3.04, 3.00%; P < 0.05), milk nitrogen (5.61, 5.60, 5.54, 5.46 g/kg; P < 0.05), tended to decrease milk protein yield (1.26, 1.27, 1.24, 1.22; P = 0.08), and increased the Milk Se/Milk N (12.46, 12.47, 12.50, 13.01; µg/g; P < 0.05). There was no effect of treatment on DMI, milk yield, or fat content and yield (P > 0.10). The estimated bioavailability (assuming 80% bioavailability for SMA) was 80.5 ± 13.7, 54.1 ± 9.3, and 37.4 ± 9.2 for KSM, AXM, and TIM, respectively. In conclusion, using the seleno-Met technique allows for the comparison of relative bioavailability of Met from different rumen-protected supplements.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86673 Watch 2147M Effects of choline or betaine supplementation on whole-body methionine flux in growing steers with modulated methyl group status. 5 M. S. Grant choline betaine guanidinoacetic acid M. S. Grant1, J. M. Marsh1, K. J. Hazlewood1, M. D. Miesner2, Y. Zhang3, E. C. Titgemeyer1 1Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 3Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Supplemental methyl donors and consumers have potential to alter methionine (Met) metabolism in the body. Our objective was to evaluate effects of choline and betaine (methyl group sources) on whole-body Met flux in growing steers with altered methyl group status. Two experiments were conducted using ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (Exp. 1, n = 6, 200 kg; Exp. 2, n = 7, 189 kg) in 6 × 6 Latin square designs with 10-d periods. Factorial treatments were continuously infused abomasally and included 3 methyl group modulators (MGM; Exp. 1 and 2: control; 15 g/d guanidinoacetic acid [GAA]; or 16.8 g/d creatine) and 2 levels of choline (Exp.1; 0 or 6.7 g/d choline chloride) or 2 levels of betaine (Exp. 2; 0 or 5.7 g/d betaine). Supplemental GAA or creatine increases creatine supply, but GAA consumes methyl groups during conversion to creatine, whereas creatine spares methyl groups by reducing GAA synthesis. Steers in both experiments were fed 3.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a corn-based diet. On d 10 of each period, whole-body Met flux was measured by continuous jugular infusion of 1-13C-L-Met and methyl-2H3-L-Met. No interactions between choline or betaine and MGM were observed (Exp. 1, P ≥ 0.86; Exp. 2, P ≥ 0.22). In Exp. 1, choline tended to decrease protein synthesis (5.10 vs. 4.77 mmol Met/h; P = 0.10) and protein degradation (4.13 vs. 3.78 mmol Met/h; P = 0.08). Met deposition tended to be affected by MGM (P = 0.10), with GAA increasing Met deposition relative to control (0.95 vs. 1.06 mmol Met/h; P = 0.04). Remethylation of homocysteine was affected by MGM (P = 0.05); GAA increased remethylation of homocysteine relative to control (P = 0.02), but control and creatine were not different (P = 0.50). In Exp. 2, betaine increased Met deposition (0.79 vs. 0.89 mmol Met/h; P = 0.03) and decreased transsulfuration reactions (1.16 vs. 1.06 mmol Met/h; P = 0.03). No effects of MGM were observed in Exp. 2 (P ≥ 0.34). In both experiments, GAA numerically increased use of Met for methylation reactions. Data demonstrate that supplementation of methyl donors and modulation of methyl group status alter Met metabolism in growing cattle.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86945 Watch 2149M Effects of different soybean meals on ruminal fermentation, microbial growth, nutrient digestion, and nitrogen partitioning in a dual-flow continuous culture system. 6 J. Arce-Cordero rumen degraded protein rumen undegraded protein ruminal ammonia A. Bahman1, J. Arce-Cordero1, H. Monteiro1, R. Lobo1, A. Ravelo1, A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 soybean meals on ruminal fermentation, microbial growth, nutrient digestion, and nitrogen partitioning. Treatments were control soybean meal (SBM), 0.75% amino resin soybean meal (AR-SBM), and heat-treated soybean meal (HT-SBM). Experimental design was a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 6 fermenters in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermenters within Latin square for each period. Each fermenter was fed 106 g/d of diet DM divided in 2 meals per day at 0800 and 1700. Diets were formulated at 16% CP, 30% cNDF, and 30% starch across treatments. There were 3 experimental periods, each lasting 10 d, for a total of 30 d of fermentation. The first 7 d of each period were considered adaptation, and the last 3 d were used for collection. On d 8 and 9, samples were collected for pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactate, and ammonia kinetics. On d 8, 9, and 10, samples were collected for VFA and ammonia pool, digestibility, and bacterial analysis. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and significance was declared when P ≤ 0.05. No treatment effects were observed for pH or lactate. Compared with control SBM (16.9 mg/dL), both AR-SBM (8.24 mg/dL) and HT-SBM (7.99 mg/dL) had lower ammonia pool concentrations, indicating lower microbial fermentation of protein. Nitrogen efficiency and flows of NAN and bacterial N were greater for AR-SBM and HT-SBM compared with control. Digestibility values were not different between treatments. Isobutyrate (P < 0.01) and isovalerate (P = 0.03) pool concentrations were greater in control than AR-SBM and HT-SBM. Our results indicate that treatment of soybean meal could be effective in reducing microbial fermentation of protein in the rumen without adverse effects on digestibility or fermentation.
Ruminant Nutrition: Protein/Amino Acids Posters 1 In-Person Poster Ruminant Nutrition - Protein/Amino Acids 6/20/2022 7:30 t86616 Watch 2150M Effects of NexPro on feed intake, feed efficiency, feeding behavior, and apparent nutrient digestibility of early lactation dairy cows. 7 S. A. Hagerty corn fermented protein feed efficiency digestibility S. A. Hagerty1, M. L. Jolly-Breithaupt2, K. J. Herrick2, D. A. Balk2, P. D. French1 1PHD R&D, Fort Atkinson, WI, 2POET Bioproducts, Sioux Falls, SD The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean protein with NexPro (NP), a next-generation corn protein ingredient derived from the dry-mill bioethanol production process on DMI, feed efficiency, feeding behavior, and apparent nutrient digestibility of early lactation dairy cows. The typical composition of NP is 54% CP, 86% RUP (% CP), 76% RUP digestibility, 34% NDF, and 20–30% yeast biomass. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows (48 ± 18 DIM, 54.1 ± 7.6 kg milk/d), housed in one of 12 pens were used in a randomized, complete-block design and fed one of 3 dietary treatments: 1) NP produced at Fairmont, NE; 2) NP produced at Shell Rock, IA; or 3) Amino Plus, a soybean-based bypass protein ingredient. Diets were 53% forage (43% corn silage and 10% alfalfa haylage) and contained 17% CP, 26% NDF, 14.8% peNDF, 57% 24-h NDFD (% NDF), 30% starch, and 2% RUFAL. Protein source was incorporated into the diet at 7.8% of DM. The experimental period was 60-d preceded by a 7-d covariate period. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the MIXED procedure of SAS with protein source as a fixed effect and pen as a random effect and the experimental unit. Cows receiving NP from Fairmont and Shell Rock performed similarly, so only the overall effect of NP vs soybean protein will be discussed. Dietary protein source did not affect DMI (28.3 ± 0.3 kg), ECM feed efficiency (1.86 ± 0.03) or 4% FCM feed efficiency (1.75 ± 0.03). NexPro increased (P < 0.01) apparent OM (73.5 vs 71.5 ± 0.2%), NDF (45.7 vs 43.1 ± 0.4%), and fatty acid digestibility (69.9 vs 66.7 ± 1%). Dietary protein source did not affect apparent digestibility of starch (98.3 ± 0.2%) or protein (68.9 ± 0.6%). Daily time spent ruminating (530 ± 5 min) and eating (215 ± 5 min) was not affected by protein source. In conclusion, feeding NexPro at 7.8% of DM can be an effective replacement of soybean protein in early lactation diets. Improvements in OM and NDF digestibility may be due in part to the yeast content of NexPro.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 s9850                  
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t85966 Watch 1000 Development of a predictive model for milk spoilage due to psychrotolerant spore-formers along the supply chain. 1 C. Qian fluid milk psychrotolerant Monte Carlo simulation C. Qian1, S. L. Murphy1, T. T. Lott1, N. H. Martin1, M. Wiedmann1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Psychrotolerant spore-former spoilage poses a challenge to maintaining fluid milk quality. Dynamic temperature changes along the supply chain can favor germination and growth of these bacteria and lead to fluid milk spoilage. In this study, we aim to expand on our previous work on predicting milk spoilage due to psychrotolerant spore-formers. The key model innovations include 1) ability to account for changing temperature along the supply chain and 2) empirical determination and validation of a theoretical minimum growth temperature for psychrotolerant spore-formers. In this model, we first determined the frequency and concentrations of 8 Bacillales subtypes in fluid milk. Then, the model simulated spore-former growth in half-gallons of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurized fluid milk from processing facility to retail store and consumer. The Monte Carlo simulations predicted that 45% of half-gallon milk was spoiled (defined as bacterial concentration > 20,000 cfu/mL, a conservative estimate that represents the PMO limit) after 21 d of storage. Sensitivity analysis indicated that home storage temperature, transportation temperature from the processing facility to retail store, and initial spore concentration are the 3 most influential factors for bacterial concentration at d 21 of shelf life. Model validation showed that a theoretical minimum growth temperature of 1.15°C achieved the highest accuracy of predicting the microbial concentration throughout storage, with root mean square error of 0.203 log10cfu/mL. What-if scenarios indicated that microfiltration was the most effective strategy to reduce spoilage percentage. The implementation of this strategy (assumed to reduce initial spore counts by 2.2 log) was predicted to reduce the percentage of spoiled milk from 45% to 32.6% on d 21 of storage and could delay the date on which half of milk is spoiled from d 25 to d 33. Overall, the model provided a framework for assessing the risk of milk spoilage along the supply chain and evaluating the effectiveness of intervention strategies.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86050 Watch 1001 Impact of reverse osmosis and pH adjustment on the thermal precipitation of calcium phosphate from milk permeate. 2 N. Paugam by-products hydroxyapatite precipitation N. Paugam1,3, Y. Pouliot1,3, G. Remondetto2, G. Brisson1,3 1Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada, 2Agropur, Saint-Hubert, Québec, Canada, 3STELA Dairy Research Center, Québec, Québec, Canada Milk protein standardization by ultrafiltration (UF) is widely used in the cheese industry to improve yields. However, UF leads to the rejection of important volumes of milk permeate (MP) which poses an environmental problem since more than 75% of its solids consist of lactose. While lactose can be valorized by crystallization or bioconversion, these processes could be impaired by the minerals’ presence, particularly calcium (Ca) in MP. Thermally-induced calcium phosphate (Ca-P) precipitation could improve lactose purification while producing hydroxyapatite (HAp). HAp is a form of Ca-P used as a supplement in foods. The objective of our study was to characterize the impact of reverse osmosis (RO) concentration (FCV = 3X), pH and temperature adjustment, and seeding with di-calcium phosphate (DCP) on the extent of HAp precipitation from MP. The precipitates were recovered by centrifugation (8000g ´ 30 min), freeze-dried, and incinerated to eliminate the organic phase. The precipitation efficiency was determined by measuring the principal milk elements (K, Ca, Na, P, Mg) by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. The crystal phases formed were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and particle morphological analysis was made by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that RO allowed a significant increase in Ca-P precipitation (P < 0.05). Seeding with DCP combined with the pH adjustment resulted in a significant increase in precipitation percent that was further enhanced upon heating at 60°C. The mass ratio of Ca precipitated increased from 0 to 46 % in MP and from 3 % to 72 % in ROMP. The mass ratio of P precipitated augmented from 0 to 25 % in MP and from 2 to 38 % in ROMP. RO pre-concentration of MP did not influence significant changes in lactose precipitation with minerals (P < 0.05). FTIR and x-ray analysis demonstrated that alkalinization favored changes in Ca-P stoichiometry from DCP to other minerals intermediates toward HAp. These results demonstrate the potential of RO to improve Ca-P selective precipitation from MP into HAp for Ca supplementation.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86071 Watch 1002 Combination of ultra-high-pressure homogenization and reverse osmosis to modify buttermilk constituents’ structure. 3 L. Krebs buttermilk ultra-high-pressure homogenization reverse osmosis L. Krebs1, Y. Pouliot1, G. Brisson1 1Food Science Department, STELA Dairy Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada Buttermilk (BM) has a composition similar to skim milk (SM) except for a higher phospholipid (PL) content. The PLs provide good emulsifying properties to BM but it exhibits poorer techno-functional properties than SM in dairy products (e.g., high moisture in cheese). Our aim was to characterize the effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) and reverse osmosis (RO) on BM soluble-colloidal stability to improve its techno-functionality in dairy applications. Samples were treated at 15, 150, and 300 MPa, and the soluble-colloidal composition was measured. The particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction, and the MFGM fragments size was obtained after adding sodium citrate to dissociate the CN micelles. Modifications in the microstructure were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ultracentrifugation was used to follow changes in the soluble-colloidal equilibria of the main BM constituents. Three fractions were obtained: a soluble fraction and 2 colloidal fractions of a cloudy layer and a pellet. Their protein profiles were determined by PAGE (PAGE). The results showed that UHPH significantly decreased the particle size in BM and RO BM attributable to the dissociation of the MFGM fragments and, to a lesser extent, the CN micelles. Also, UHPH (300 MPa) enhanced recovery in the soluble fraction of lipids, calcium and CNs, the latter one suggesting CN micelle dissociation. The concentration by RO led to significant changes in the distribution of the PLs. While evenly distributed between the soluble phase and the pellet cloud in BM, a significant shift from the soluble fraction toward the pellet cloud was observed for RO samples with the PL content being 25.93 ± 2.32 % in the soluble fraction, 12.90 ± 1.79 % in the pellet, and 61.18 ± 1.23 % in the pellet cloud. Together, these changes led to important microstructural modifications in BM’s structure as revealed by CLSM. Our results showed that both pre-treatments have significant impacts on BM which could be used to modify its functional behavior in dairy products.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86186 Watch 1003 Understanding the relationships between interfacial behavior of dairy protein ingredients and characteristics of oil-in-water emulsion droplets. 4 Y. Lin small amplitude oscillatory dilatational rheology large amplitude oscillatory dilatational rheology emulsion Y. Lin1, T. Wagoner2, H. Zheng1 1Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Perfect Day Inc, Berkeley, CA The oil-water (o-w) interfacial behaviors of protein ingredients determine their emulsification capacity and droplet coalescence stability. However, the interfacial mechanics of protein stabilized interfacial films are not fully clear. In this research, we studied the o-w interfacial properties of 3 types of bovine milk protein ingredients: whey protein isolate (WPI), β-lactoglobulin enriched from WPI (βlg), and β-casein (β-CN). The full-spectrum surface properties including adsorption dynamics (diffusion adsorption and interface penetration rate constants: kdiff.and kp), surface excess concentration (Γ, mg/m2), adsorption isotherm, interfacial tension (γ, mN/m), surface pressure (Π, mN/m), powder surface free energy, and interfacial dilatational rheology were characterized. Protein solution samples for interfacial characterizations were prepared in duplicate and protein stabilized emulsion samples for particle size and ζ-potential measurements were prepared in duplicate. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods e.g., one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. The kdiff. and kp of β-CN was higher than other protein ingredients (P < 0.05) indicating β-CN had a faster emulsifying effect however the interfacial rheology results showed WPI and βlg stabilized o-w films had a stronger mechanical strength. Interfacial properties were significantly correlated with the emulsion characteristics e.g., mean size of droplets after storage (P < 0.05). Small and large amplitude oscillatory dilatational (SAOD and LAOD) rheology were performed to reveal detailed mechanics of protein stabilized o-w interfacial films. Upon applying different degrees of deformation (3–18%) to different interfacial films, the computed S-factors (stiffening-ratio) and T-factors (thickening-ratio) confirmed the weaker mechanical strength of β-CN stabilized o-w interfacial film. The obtained results may help food technologists better understand the stability of dairy emulsions throughout processing, storage, and digestion; the developed interfacial characterization technology can be used for quickly assessing ingredient functionality regarding the capacity of stabilizing o/w emulsion droplets over a period of storage.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86191 Watch 1004 Microwave vacuum drying of cheese: Effect of process parameters on product properties. 5 B. Gong cheese drying snack B. Gong1, J. Dumpler1, C. Moraru1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Microwave vacuum drying (MVD) has the potential to be used for creating crispy cheese snacks with a more desirable nutritional content than starch-based snacks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of MVD to create a variety of low-moisture cheese snacks, and assess the effect of vacuum level on the final product characteristics. In this study, whole-milk mozzarella, Colby Jack, mild and NY style extra-sharp (NYXS) cheddar were subjected to MVD at pressures of 2, 4, 6, and 8 kPa. All samples were cut into 3/8” cubes, and batches of 850 g were dried using 1.7 kW of microwave power for 30 min, in a nutraREV 10 kW MVD unit (Enwave, BC, Canada). Moisture content, water activity, degree of expansion, texture, and color were measured for all samples. All MVD runs and sample analyses were performed in triplicate and data analyzed for statistical significance (P < 0.05) using the Tukey HSD test. Drying speed increased at lower pressure for all cheese types. Dried whole-milk mozzarella and Colby Jack samples had significantly lower moisture contents and water activities (P = 1.4e-10 and 5.5e-12, respectively) at 2 kPa than at 8 kPa. Expansion significantly increased with drying pressure (P = 7.5e-19) for whole-milk mozzarella and Colby Jack, with maximum expansion occurring at 8 kPa and 6 kPa, respectively, while pressure seemed to have no significant effect on puffing in both types of cheddar, which was the hardest of all tested cheese types. A minimum in hardness (12.5 N) and toughness (14.6 N·s) (P = 2.0e-10 and 1.2e-7, respectively) for dried whole-milk mozzarella was observed at 8 kPa due to the highly porous structure of the highly expanded sample. For similar reasons, a minimum in crispiness (P = 2.7e-5) for dried Colby Jack was observed at 6 kPa. NYXS cheddar had a significantly higher color change (P = 3.1e-8) than the other cheese types because of age and higher degree of proteolysis, which were conducive to Maillard browning. This data demonstrates that it is possible to use MVD for producing a wide variety of novel puffed cheese snacks, without excessive browning and in a reasonable amount of processing time.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86361 Watch 1005 Soft matter strategy for creating novel food texturizer: Cold set whey protein gels constructed by fractal protein assemblies. 6 U. Amin protein assemblies rheology gels U. Amin1, H. Zheng1 1Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Polysaccharides such as starch are often used as a thickener in different food matrices for texturizing and improving the phase stability of processed foods. The market demands of clean label formulas stimulated the interests of developing functional protein ingredients, which provide macronutrient meanwhile modulate mouth feel and phase stability. In this work, whey proteins fractal assemblies (FA) were manufactured and used to form stable cold set gels at extremely low protein content which resulted in superior rheological properties compared with starch gels. Two types of FAs were constructed by heating solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI)(80°C, 24h) at concentrations of 62 g/L (FA-62) and 90 g/L (FA-90). The fractal structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle x-ray light scattering (SAXS) techniques. The Z-average of FA-90 (%aggregation = 77.83 ± 0.48%) were larger than FA-62 (%aggregation = 47.20 ± 0.85%) (P < 0.05). ζ-potential of FA-90 and FA-62 were −17.73 ± 0.56 and −18.51 ± 0.47 mV at pH 5.8 and −22.95 ± 0.36 and −23.54 ± 0.58 mV at pH 7.0 (P < 0.05). Eight cold set protein gels were developed using 2 types of fractal aggregates (2%, wt/vol) by manipulating the pH (5.8 and 7) and Ca2+ content (5 and 10 mM). Gels at pH 7 with 10mM Ca2+ and at pH 5.8 with 5mM Ca2+ were observed to be more stable without apparent syneresis. Full-spectrum rheological fingerprints including characteristics in both small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) regimens were studied for the protein gels. Critical strain (γLVE), yield strain (γyield), dlog(G’)/dlog(ω), dlog(G’’)/dlog(ω), and Lissajous plots confirmed that fractal protein assemblies are capable of forming stable gels having rheological characteristics ranging from soft resilient gels (G’max = 8.41 ± 1.50Pa, γyield = 75.78 ± 8.48%) to hard brittle gels (G’max = 689.16 ± 80.99Pa, γyield = 36.68 ± 2.08%) (P < 0.05) at the same low protein content. The obtained results may be utilized to create clean label formulas for both neutral and slightly acidified food products using whey protein as texturizer.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86821 Watch 1006 Characterizing flow behavior of milk protein powders using shear cell methodology. 7 K. Palmer rheology powder flowability K. Palmer1, A. Parhi1, A. Shetty2, V. Sunkesula3, P. Sharma1 1Utah State University, Logan, UT, 2Anton Paar USA, Ashland, VA, 3Idaho Milk Products, Jerome, ID Effective transport and storage of milk protein powders is achieved when hoppers and silos are designed based on powder rheology principles. In this study, powder flowability was characterized by the flow function coefficient (ffc), an index related to the general flowability and cohesion tendency. Three individual variables were altered to achieve optimum results: pre-shear normal force (kPa), shear normal force (kPa), and shear rotation speed (rpm). The use of a shear cell for testing flowability of milk protein powders has not been attempted previously. The development and optimization of a functional shear cell method, specifically for milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) was the intention of this study. This study investigated the rheological properties of 2 commercial milk protein powders: MPC (80% protein) and MPI (85% protein). Samples (5.75 ± 0.35 g) were subjected to shear tests using an Anton Paar MCR 302e rheometer at 22°C. Original pre-shear normal forces were set at 3, 6, and 9 kPa. Optimized pre-shear normal forces were 1, 3, and 6 kPa, with shear normal forces ranging from 0.2 to 3.6 kPa. Tests were performed in triplicate based on shear rpm. Results were reported as the flow function coefficient (ffc), a ratio of consolidation stress to unconfined yield strength of the powder, as obtained from Mohr circle analysis. Pre-shear normal stresses greater than 6 kPa resulted in frequent occurrences of “stick-slip,” inconsistent shear to failure points, and a high degree of variability in ffc values. Reducing normal stresses (≤6 kPa) and maintaining rotational speed at 0.006 rpm in the pre-shear and shearing phases, ensured shear failure of milk protein powders, resulting in more consistent ffc values. Under optimized test conditions, both milk protein powders behaved as easy or free-flowing bulk solids with ffc values > 4. The provision of a reliable shear cell method will allow for further enhancement of powder research in the dairy industry. Intrinsic flow behavior characteristics obtained from this approach can be applied for further development of powder handling equipment.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86394 Watch 1007 Evaluation of a typical floor cleaning protocol to remove Listeria monocytogenes biofilms from dairy floors. 8 B. Chowdhury Listeria monocytogenes dairy floors resistance B. Chowdhury1,2, S. Anand1,2, B. Kraus3 1Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Minneapolis, MN, 2Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 3Wells Enterprises Inc, Le Mars, IA Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a prevalent foodborne pathogen that forms biofilms on floors in dairy processing facilities and can potentially cross-contaminate processed products. Despite the fact that these facilities have comprehensive floor cleaning systems, Lm can still thrive. As a result, we conducted a study to assess the performance of a typical floor cleaning protocol utilized in a commercial dairy facility. For this study, we used an industrial Lm isolate to develop biofilms on clay brick tiles (a common flooring material used in dairy plants) of 1x1 inch2 dimensions for 24, 48, and 72 h using 7-log cfu/mL Lm spiked dairy effluent and incubation at 37°C for the specific duration. The dairy effluent was procured from a dairy facility and analyzed for pH, carbohydrate, fat, and protein content. The typical floor cleaning steps were then sequentially simulated on the biofilm-formed clay brick tiles. The cleaning steps include an initial application of a chlorinated alkaline cleaner, followed by scrubbing, rinsing, and finally, sanitizer use. After that, 3M quick swabs containing 1mL letheen broth were used to take pre-and post-treatment counts. The letheen broth was serially diluted before being plated on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar and incubated at 37°C for 24–48 h. The acquired biofilm counts were expressed as log cfu/inch2. Three independent trials were conducted with samples drawn in the replicates of 3 tiles for each set of experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the means. Pre-and post-treatment counts observed for the 72 h old biofilms were 4.66 ± 0.19 and 2.37 ± 0.24, for 48 h old biofilms were 4.38 ± 0.11 and 1.88 ± 0.18, and for the 24 h old biofilms were 3.92 ± 0.04 and 0.77 ± 0.26 respectively. The results show that when biofilms were allowed to develop for 24 h, the highest log reduction was seen (3.18 ± 0.26), followed by 48 h (2.5 ± 0.18) and 72 h (2.0 ± 0.00). It is worth noting that there were fewer survivors when the cleaning procedures were conducted on the 24 h old Lm biofilms. According to this study, dairy plants may follow a 24 h cleaning regimen to remove Listeria biofilms from dairy plants effectively.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86596 Watch 1008 Determining the mode of action of antimicrobial peptide of Bacillus subtilis isolated from membrane biofilm. 9 S. Jha biofilm Bacillus subtilis S. Jha1,2, S. Anand1,2 1Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center, Minneapolis, MN, 2South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Our previous studies revealed antimicrobial potential of B. subtilis (BS) to be prominent cause for its predominance in membrane biofilms. This study aims to characterize the mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide. BS was grown in tryptic soy broth (37°C/24h) followed by microfiltration and freeze-drying to prepare the freeze-dried cell-free extract (FDCFE). Its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against E. coli (EC) and B. licheniformis (BL) by agar well assay. To determine the composition of FDCFE treated cells corresponding to functional groups Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy was done. Both the MIC and FTIR spectra provided a comparative result. MIC was revealed to be 78.11mg/mL for EC and BL. FTIR of EC and BL treated with CFE denoted frequency increase at 2920cm-1 (assignment of fatty acids) and decrease at 1,400cm-1 (leakage of intracellular content) respectively. FDCFE was tested to be heat stable (upto 55°C/10min) and to a wide pH range 3–11. For evaluating its effectiveness as a part of the CIP protocol the sanitizer step was replaced with the FDCFE. The modified CIP was tested against in vitro biofilms of EC and BL developed on reverse osmosis membrane pieces (1inch2) using inoculated whey and Peroxyacetic acid as sanitizer control. Pre and post-CIP counts were enumerated using the 3M quick swabs and standard plate count technique, and one-way ANOVA to compare the means. The results revealed that the viable counts reduced from 7.48 ± 0.53 to 2.23 ± 0.28 and 7.22 ± 0.67 to 2.05 ± 0.16 logCFU/inch2 in EC and BL, respectively showing a significant decline (P < 0.05). The scanning electron microscopy conducted on FDCFE treated biofilm showed rupture of polymeric layer and microstructural damage. Confocal microscopy helped to distinguish live (STYO-9) and dead cells (Propidium iodide). Treated cells promoted shift in the staining pattern with increase in ratio of dead cells (PI-positive) showing impact on its viability. Results of the study provide evidence of the bactericidal effect of the antimicrobial peptide of BS with a potential to replace the sanitizer step of CIP protocol to control resilient biofilms.
ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition Oral Competition ADSA Dairy Foods Oral Competition (Graduate) 6/20/2022 9:30 t86598 Watch 1009 Association of dairy consumption patterns with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: Findings from Alberta’s Tomorrow project. 10 E. Yuzbashian dietary pattern dairy eating E. Yuzbashian1, M. Pakseresht2,1, J. Vena2, C. B. Chan1,3 1Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Epidemiological studies of the health effects of dairy have focused on it as a food group or single food. However, people's behavior toward food is very complex, and individuals consume a variety of dairy foods. It is probable that higher intakes of combinations of dairy foods concurrently influence the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, we aimed to assess the association of extracted dairy consumption patterns (DCP) with the risk of T2D among men and women from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP). This prospective study was conducted within the framework of ATP, a provincial cohort of middle-aged Canadian adults, in which 8,615 men and 15,016 women were followed up for almost 10 years. Participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. We calculated DCP using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the association between each extracted DCP and T2D incidence. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders that are associated with dairy intake and are risk factors for T2D. The incidence of T2D among men and women was 3.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Three major DCPs were identified using a PCA: low-fat dairy DCP (milk nonfat, cheese reduced fat, and cheese nonfat), 2%fat dairy DCP (milk 2% fat in cereal and milk 2% fat), and high-fat dairy DCP (whole milk, whole milk in cereal, and whole milk in coffee). After controlling for potential confounders, the OR for men in the highest compared with those in the lowest quartile of the high-fat dairy DCP was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.88, P-trend = 0.001). Low-fat dairy DCP and 2% fat dairy DCP were not associated with incident T2D in men or women. Adherence to a high-fat dairy DCP was associated with decreased risk of incident T2D in men only while following a low-fat dairy DCP and 2% fat dairy DCP had no association with T2D. Our results support current evidence that dairy fat might be favorable for health maintenance; however, it only was seen among men.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 s9981                  
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86827 Watch 1010 Improving cow cooling with methodologies used in other animal industries. 1 W. Strickland ventilation heat stress management W. Strickland1, J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA Principles and data collected in other sectors of controlled animal environment housing can be useful to look at when evaluating current methods of cow cooling in the dairy industry. Specifically, there are several parallels with work completed in poultry ventilation that could prove useful when managing cooling systems for dairy herd. Heat stress takes numerous tolls on the dairy industry with reduced production, reproductive performance and negative impacts on animal health predominating and costing the industry in excess of 850 million dollars annually. While there are methods to abate heat, herds in the southeast still experience some level of heat stress more than 25% of the year because of elevated temperature and humidity, both of which contribute to heat stress in cattle. To understand how to mitigate heat stress it must be understood that cows lose heat in 4 ways: radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation. While it varies due to environmental conditions, convection and evaporation are the primary ways cattle remove excess heat. Many methods can be used to assist in this heat removal. Barn design and maintenance, animal profile and density as well as other barn factors will affect an animal’s ability to utilize barn cooling technologies. Understanding fluid flow principles during the design and/or renovation phase of facilities is essential to maximize cooling ability. There are numerous obstructions to air flow in the parlor and freestalls, including the cows themselves. Design and maintenance play a crucial role in cooling and system efficiency, but herd management can as well. Research work in the poultry industry may be used to increase understading on how stocking density affects airflow through the barn, as well as managing the temperature-humidity curve crossover to improve understanding of what is felt on the animal level. Understanding these principles and how to apply them can improve cooling and therefore production and cow comfort.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86823 Watch 1011 Effects of increasing dietary omega-3 fatty acid concentrations on dairy cattle milk fat composition and reproduction. 2 C. Newman omega-3 milk fat composition reproduction C. Newman1, E. Eckelkamp1 1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN The use of fat in the diet of dairy cows has been questioned because of potential dry matter intake (DMI) and milk fat depression. However, evidence has suggested adding extruded flaxseed with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids to the diet at 5 to 12% on a dry matter basis (DM) could have positive impacts on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance. Flaxseed-fed cows increased milk α-linolenic acid (ALA) content 3.5 to 6.6 times compared with control cows. Milk eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) levels increased 2-fold when fed extruded flaxseed at 4% of dietary DM. Alpha linolenic acid and EPA are omega-3 fatty acids that reduced the risk of chronic health issues in humans. Feeding extruded flaxseed reduced saturated fatty acid (SFA) levels in milk by up to 12.4%. Reduction of SFA has been shown to have human health benefits. When fed extruded flaxseed at 4 to 5% of dietary DM, cows averaged 17 fewer days from first insemination to conception. Another study showed that cows fed whole flaxseed had no cases of embryo mortality, while cows fed micronized soybean showed 8% embryo mortality. The mechanism of these reproductive benefits is not fully understood, but evidence has suggested that increased omega-3 fatty acid intake could lower prostaglandin production and had a protective effect on the embryo. Several studies have looked at the effect of feeding extruded flaxseed on DMI with varying results. Some studies showed decreased DMI while others showed no effect or slightly increased DMI. Studies showed a variable effect on milk yield with either no effect or slightly increased (2.7%) milk yield when cows were fed extruded flaxseed at 4% of dietary DM. Milk fat percentage was reduced from 3.6% to 3.4% in flaxseed-fed cows compared with control cows. In summary, cows fed extruded flaxseed improved milk fatty acid profile and reproductive performance while having little effect on DMI and milk yield with a slight decreased in milk fat percentage.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86919 Watch 1012 Make every drop count: Improving water productivity on US dairies. 3 G. Norris water productivity sustainability dairy production animal welfare housing G. Norris1, D. Olver1 1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Production agriculture faces steep competition from growing urban populations for the extremely limited supply of usable freshwater on the planet. According to a 2020 article by Shine et al., only 0.04% of the global water supply is usable freshwater. Of this small percentage, 70% is utilized by the agriculture industry. Pererya et al. found in 2010 that there is a direct correlation between ambient air temperature and drinking water consumption by cows, so there are no practical methods to increase milk production per cow while decreasing water intake. Therefore, we must turn to decreasing non-drinking water usage in dairy operations. On dairy farms, water productivity is defined as the amount of milk a farm produces for each unit of water consumed by lactating cows. This not only includes drinking water but also water used in growing crops and maintaining facilities and milking equipment. A 2007 Ohio State study found that on one particular 940-cow dairy, the average total water use per cow was 35.9 gallons per day. By analyzing the farm’s water usage with flow meters at 13 different locations, this dairy reduced water flow in their plate coolers from 42 gallons per minute to 16 gallons per minute without compromising milk cooling. This adjustment resulted in a savings of 8 million gallons of water in one year. Putting monitoring systems like these in place while upgrading to milking and cooling systems that use less water could allow dairy farms to recycle over 80% of their total water usage back into potable water. Dairies can also turn to the use of alternative forages to reduce water usage. The National Drought Mitigation Center states that warm season grasses such as sorghum-sudangrass only use 2.5–3.5 inches of water per ton, while alfalfa uses 6.5 to 7.5 inches per ton. While many farms currently aim to reduce costs by managing feed efficiency and energy efficiency, water productivity should also be considered. Monitoring and reducing water usage will allow for continued growth in milk production per cow even as urban areas compete for water resources.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86943 Watch 1013 Room to grow: the impact of housing on dairy cattle welfare 4 I Revere dairy production animal welfare housing I Revere1, E Miller-Cushon1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States Dairy cattle welfare is an increasingly important topic to producers and consumers. Producers are concerned with the effect of welfare on production, due to the economic impacts, while consumers have ethical concerns driving purchasing habits. Understanding the influence of housing on the three aspects of animal welfare: health and functioning, affective states, and natural living is essential (Keyserlingk et al., 2022). Housing is a controlled factor that significantly influences dairy cattle welfare. Different types of housing for dairy cows, including tethered and loose housing, affect their health and welfare. Cows in tethered housing are tied via rope to distinct stalls, restricting movement and behaviors. Loose housing allows cows to move freely and access the entire area. Loose housing can consist of cubicle barns or free-stall housing, providing a space for cows to lie down, eat, drink, and have the freedom to move as they wish (McFarland et al., 2022). Research shows loose housing systems are advantageous with respect to behavior and health; however, the risk of injury is higher than in tethered housing (Haskell et al., 2006). Additionally, access to pastures can be incorporated into different housing systems and is shown to positively affect welfare. Dairy calf housing generally consists of individual or group housing. Individual housing systems keep calves separate, while group housing systems allow calves to be raised in contact with one another. Dairy calf housing can affect welfare and performance. Research shows calves housed individually are less likely to spread disease, while those housed in groups generally experience positive increases in social behaviors and growth (Costa et al., 2016). However, it is important to note that not all housing is the same, and minute differences in each operation’s housing affect welfare. Dairy cattle welfare is an important topic in dairy production. Housing is one variable that producers can use to improve the overall welfare of dairy cattle. Assessing dairy cattle health, social behaviors, and growth based on different housing systems is essential for optimizing and sustaining dairy production.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86992   1014 Pain management for disbudding dairy calves. 5 V. Rakoczy calf disbudding pain management V. Rakoczy1, J. Haines1, O. Horsman1, S. I. Kehoe1 1University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, WI Currently, the study of pain is a highly motivated subject within a variety of research facilities. From the neurologic basis to the resulting behaviors, there is little understanding of the central nervous system's ability to process and perceive pain signals, especially in livestock species. Over the years, behavioral studies in these species, including dairy cows specifically, have been on the rise. This may be due to an increased interest in animal welfare. Whatever the reason, being able to connect behavioral patterns to certain feelings may allow for farmers to better treat and understand their livestock, especially if a behavior correlates with pain. Pain management, in the farm setting, is becoming an expanding practice throughout the industry, as food production is scrutinized. One of the most common painful procedure practices in the dairy industry is disbudding. Most often completed by either hot iron or caustic paste, disbudding is done to ensure future safety of both the handlers and other cows. By destroying the corium tissue present on horn buds, no further horn growth is achieved. Corium tissue is neurologically sensitive as it connects the horn to the bone, so it contains nerves as well as blood vessels. The act of disbudding with either hot iron or caustic paste results in pain, which is determined by behavioral patterns expressed by the calf during and after the process. To tackle the pain associated with this procedure, there are different options for pain relief including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lidocaine blocks, topical anesthetics, and transdermal pain relief. There are advantages and disadvantages to each method; farms should determine the best method that will improve the welfare of their calves, increase safety for their employees, and result in healthy, productive animals.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Production Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Production ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86338 Watch 1015 Effects of heat stress on dry cows and heifers. 6 M. Sifford heat stress dry cows heifers M. Sifford1, D. Winston1, K. Daniels1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Heat stress is physiological stress experienced as a result of excessive heat. With global temperatures increasing, heat stress is becoming a bigger issue for dairy cattle. Studies indicate that temperatures above 20°C begin to affect dairy cattle. Much research has been conducted on the effects of heat stress on lactating cows. Results from these studies have shown a decrease in feed intake, reproduction, and milk production as well as an increase in reproductive culling, morbidity, and mortality. Florida researchers estimate that heat stress results in a $47.30 loss per cow, representing a $5.7 million loss annually for the industry. Heat stress is not just a problem for lactating cows; it also affects the health and productivity of both the dry cow and her offspring. Dry cows experience a decrease in future milk production when affected by heat stress. Urdaz et al. (2006) found that if dry cows are actively cooled in the last 28 d of gestation they had improved milk yield in the first 60 d of lactation compared with dry cows that were not cooled. Collier et al. (1982) found that heat stress during late gestation is correlated with reduced placental and maternal hormone production. This causes reduced mammary growth and postpartum function. Current research shows that not only is the dry cow being affected, but so is her offspring. Dahl et al. (2016) reported that calves from cooled dams were larger, had a stronger immune system, and improved reproductive performance. Laporta et al. (2020) found that daughters born from heat-stressed cows left the herd after their first calving 4.9 mo sooner than offspring who were born to cooled dams. In addition, heat-stressed offspring produce less milk up to 35 weeks in their first 3 lactations. Economically, daughters from heat-stressed dams on an average US dairy farm account for an extra $14.26 per cow per year in rearing costs. Cooling not only lactating cows but pregnant dry cows is an important strategy to reduce and eliminate the production, health, and economical effects of heat stress in the future.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 s9982                  
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86177 Watch 1016 Enhancing net food availability for people by feeding “leftover” feeds to dairy cows. 1 S. Puda by-product feed efficiency S. Puda1, K. Goldsmith1, J. Liesman1, M. VandeHaar1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Wheat straw, beet pulp, corn gluten feed, soybean hulls, and bakery waste are ecological leftovers from producing human food; these by-products are human-inedible. Cows can eat these foods to make milk but milk production may decrease compared with standard midwestern US diets. Our goal was to demonstrate the value of cows in the food production system. We fed 24 Holstein cows (193 ± 26 DIM; 43 ± 7 kg milk/d; 681 ± 55 kg BW; 33% primiparous) a diet containing 70% by-products (BYP) versus a standard control diet containing 20% by-products (CON). Cows were fed a 50:50 (MIX) blend of BYP and CON for 1 wk and assigned to blocks based on parity and ECM/BW. Half the cows were fed BYP for 28 d, MIX for 7 d, and then CON for 28 d; the other half were fed diets in reverse order. Data were analyzed using PROC GLM in SAS with ration and period as fixed effects and cow as random. Compared with cows fed CON, cows fed BYP produced less milk (41.5 vs 42.9 kg/d; P = 0.01) and gained less BW (0.33 vs 0.59 kg/d; P = 0.01) but ate the same amount of feed (28 kg/d). Cows fed CON also increased in BCS compared with cows fed BYP (0.13 vs 0.02 unit/28 d; P < 0.01). The protein content of milk remained the same between diets (3.1%), but cows fed CON had a higher milk fat content than cows fed BYP (3.67% vs 3.58%; P = 0.03). Cows fed CON converted a higher percentage of feed gross energy to milk energy than cows fed BYP (23.8% vs 22.7% P = 0.01). However, when using human food energy values for all feeds, cows fed CON converted 38% of feed calories and 29% of feed protein to milk; cows fed BYP returned 46% of calories and 28% of protein (P < 0.01 and P = 0.25, respectively). In our diets, only corn grain, soybean meal, the grain portion of corn silage, and the leaf portion of legume silage were human-edible. When considering only human-edible foods, cows fed CON returned 62% of calories and 74% of protein, whereas cows fed BYP returned 209% of calories and 170% of protein (both P < 0.01). Lysine is the most important amino acid in human nutrition; cows fed CON returned 116% and cows fed BYP returned 211% of human-edible lysine (P < 0.01). Dairy cows increase net food production when fed ecological leftovers.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86328 Watch 1017 Disbudding alters immune gene expression in leukocytes of Holstein calves. 2 A. Hohenshell dehorning immune stress A. Hohenshell1, E. Shangraw1, K. McCoy1, T. McFadden1 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Dehorning by disbudding is a standard procedure on dairy farms but it causes stress to the calf. Our aim was to determine if disbudding affects basal or induced expression of immune-related genes. Eight, 6-wk-old, Holstein heifer calves received lidocaine as a local anesthetic immediately before hot-iron disbudding; no further treatment was given. Blood was collected into heparinized tubes at 2 h before disbudding, and at 30 min and 24 h post-disbudding. Each blood sample was divided into 3, 2mL aliquots. One (control), was immediately centrifuged. Leukocytes (buffy coats) were collected and snap frozen. The other 2 aliquots were incubated in a 38C water bath for 3 h, in the presence or absence of 2 ug/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS), then leukocytes were isolated and frozen. Leukocyte differential counts were determined for each blood sample and RNA was isolated from leukocytes. Samples were analyzed by qPCR for expression of 5 target genes: IL1b, IL6, IL8, IL10 and TNF, and 2 reference genes. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Incubation (in the absence of LPS) did not affect gene expression except for a small increase in IL10 (P < 0.05). As expected, all target genes were markedly upregulated (>10 to > 100 times) by LPS (P < 0.0001). Relative to pre-disbudding controls, expression of IL1b, IL10 and TNF did not change post-disbudding but IL8 was higher in 30 min post-disbudding controls, and IL6 was higher at 30 min and 24 h post-disbudding (P < 0.01). These results indicate an effect of disbudding stress on basal expression of some immune genes. Also, for IL6, stress and treatment interacted (P = 0.05) suggesting the LPS response was blunted, after disbudding. Overall, percentages of segmented neutrophils increased (30.6 to 42.8%) and lymphocytes decreased (66.9 to 53.1%) at 24 h post-disbudding relative to pre-disbudding (P < 0.001). Among incubated samples, the percentage of monocytes was reduced by LPS (4.8 to 2.1%; P < 0.01). Results show that disbudding affected leukocyte number and immune gene expression, which may have implications for calf health and management.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86476 Watch 1018 Effect of plant maturity on yield, nutritional composition, and fiber digestion kinetics of small grains for silage. 3 A. Cappellina small grains fiber digestion kinetics maturity A. Cappellina1, C. Teets1, W. Thomason1, K. Payne2, S. Stewart1, G. Ferreira1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 2Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center, Blackstone, VA The objective of this study was to determine the effect of harvesting time on the digestion rate (k) of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the undegraded NDF (uNDF) of small grains for silage. There were 8 forages, which included 2 varieties of barley, 2 varieties of rye, and 4 varieties of triticale planted on 6 small plots at 3 sites (Blacksburg, Blackstone, and Orange, Virginia). All the plots were harvested in either early (E) or late (L) stages of maturity (boot and soft dough stages, respectively). All plants were harvested by hand with a hedge trimmer, weighed to determine dry matter yield (DMY), chopped, and frozen in the field. All samples were dried and ground (1-mm screen) before crude protein (CP), NDF, starch, and in situ digestibility analyses. Samples were inserted into porous filter bags and incubated in the rumen of 2 lactating Holstein cows for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 240 h. The digestion rate of NDF and the uNDF concentration were determined using the NONLIN procedure of SAS. The statistical model for contrasting k and uNDF included the fixed effects of site, forage, maturity, and all the possible interactions, the random effect of block, and the random residual error. Relative to E, harvesting at L increased the DMY (4.4 vs. 11.2 tons/ha; P < 0.01), decreased the concentration of CP (14.3 vs. 6.8% CP; P < 0.01), and increased the concentrations of NDF (47.8 vs. 59.4% NDF; P < 0.01) and starch (5.6 vs. 6.2% starch; P < 0.01) at all sites. Harvesting at L increased the concentration of uNDF (35.2 vs. 13.8% uNDF; P < 0.01) and decreased k (2.1 vs. 3.8%/h; P < 0.01) relative to E at all sites. In conclusion, harvesting small grains for silage in the E stage of maturity results in better quality forage based on the concentrations of CP, NDF, and starch and the faster k and lower uNDF than plants harvested in the L stage of maturity, although the yield is substantially less. This study will be continued with ration formulation and economic analyses to provide a more holistic perspective to better decide the most convenient harvesting time.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86735 Watch 1019 Effect of cow personality on their adaptation to an automated milking system following parturition. 4 J. E. Brasier personality robotic milking behavior J. E. Brasier1, A. J. Schwanke1, T. J. DeVries1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Animal personality, the individual differences in behavior that are consistent across time and situations, has been demonstrated to affect both the production and performance of dairy cows. Personality traits can aid in explaining these differences between cattle within automated milking system (AMS). The objectives of this study were to determine how personality affects adaptation to AMS upon parturition as well as performance in the AMS. Sixty Holstein cattle (19 primiparous, 41 multiparous; 2.2 ± 1.1 lactations) were assessed for personality traits using a combined arena test conducted at 24 d before parturition. The combined arena test comprised 3 parts: a novel arena test, novel object test, and a novel human test. Principal component analysis of the behaviors recoded during the personality assessment revealed 3 factors interpreted as personality traits (75% cumulative variance), which were interpreted as: Activeness, Boldness, and Exploration. Cows were given a score for each trait ranging from –3.0 to +3.0. Data from d 1 to 7 after introduction to the AMS were summarized by cow. Linear regressions were used to explore relationships between each trait score with adaptation and performance outcomes. A positive association was detected between Boldness and mean milk yield (Milk Yield [kg/d] = 3.26 × Boldness Score + 33.5; P < 0.01), as well as the latency to achieve 3 consecutive days without fetches (Latency [d] = −2.06 × Boldness Score + 10.02; P = 0.05). Activeness and mean number of fetches (Fetches [#/d] = −0.14 × Activeness Score + 1.70; P = 0.06) as well as the CV of milk yield (Milk Yield CV [%] = 2.58 × Activeness Score + 28.15; P = 0.09) tended to be associated. There tended to be an association between Exploration and the CV of fetches (Fetches CV [%] = −6.63 × Exploration Score + 56.71; P = 0.1) and the latency to achieve 3 consecutive days without fetches (Latency [d] = 2.09 × Exploration Score + 10.02; P = 0.1). These results indicate that personality traits of dairy cattle are associated with adaptation and performance in an AMS; specifically, cattle that score high for Boldness and Activeness adapt to the AMS and perform better.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86801 Watch 1020 Assessment of the associations between haptoglobin concentration during the late dry period and calving-related events in dairy cattle. 5 M. Shabloski dry period haptoglobin calving-related events M. Shabloski1, E. Jimenez1, M. Martinez1, E. Hovingh1, A. A. Barragan1 1Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA The objective of this study was to assess the associations between haptoglobin (HP) concentration during the late dry period and calving-related events (i.e., dystocia, twins, stillbirth, calf sex, retained fetal membranes). Heifers (n = 110) and cows (n = 184) from 7 dairy farms (700–2,800 milking cows) located in Pennsylvania were enrolled in this trial. Cows that were between 20 and 30 d from expected calving date were enrolled in the study. A blood sample was collected at enrollment and on-farm records were used to collect information regarding calving-related events. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. On average, enrolled cows and heifers calved 22.94 d after blood collection (stdev = 9.69 d). Regardless of calving-related events, cows and heifers from different farms had different HP concentration (Farm A = 40.01 ± 8.85 μg/mL; Farm B = 0 ± 8.50 μg/mL; Farm C = 15.18 ± 9.10 μg/mL; Farm D = 6.72 ± 10.62 μg/mL; Farm E = 20.39 ± 8.09 μg/mL; Farm F = 42.30 ± 8.73 μg/mL; Farm G = 5.72 ± 8.01 μg/mL). Cows had higher concentrations of HP compared with heifers (Cow = 27.01 ± 4.40 μg/mL; Heifer = 6.97 ± 5.38 μg/mL). With regard to calving-related events, cows and heifers that had a female calf tended (P > 0.05 ≤ 0.1) to have higher HP concentration compared with cows and heifers that had a male calf (Female calf cow/heifer = 30.46 ± 6.84 μg/mL; Male calf cow/heifer = 15.39 ± 6.17 μg/mL). Furthermore, cows and heifers that had a stillborn calf tended to have higher concentration of HP compared with cows and heifers that had an alive calf (stillborn calf cow/heifer = 47.07 ± 19.41 μg/mL; alive calf cow/heifer = 15.11 ± 4.03 μg/mL). The results from this study suggest that farm management during the dry period may affect cow inflammation, and that inflammation during the dry period may be associated to important calving events. Further research should be focused on developing preventive practices during the dry period to modulate cow inflammation.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86822 Watch 1022 Impact of region and year on profitability across the United States. 7 S. Jones economics cost of production milk price S. Jones1, C. Martinez1, E. Eckelkamp1 1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN Cost of production and milk price are the primary drivers of farm profitability. Regional differences in costs and production can lead to division and confusion among dairy producers. This study quantifies the differences in US costs of production, milk price, herd size, and milk production across regions and yr. Data from USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) are used (2005 to 2020) with 25 states grouped by US region (6) to assess yearly changes in each region for: total farm revenue, cost of production (total, feed, labor), herd size, RHA milk production, and income less total and variable costs. The MIXED procedure in SAS 9.4 was used to determine the yr and regional impact on each variable with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Table 1 presents an abbreviated list of variables and significance of region and yr. Overall, region significantly impacted all variables, with yr impacting all but grazed feed, opportunity cost of unpaid labor, total labor, and herd size. Income less total cost was negative for all regions and all years except 2014 ($0.73 ± 0.72/cwt). Regionally, there were significant differences in the cost of inputs and price of milk that led to profit differences. The Southeast region received the highest milk price but paid more for feed than most regions. The Midwest region received a lower a milk price but had the lowest purchased feed cost. This study highlights the need for regional considerations in policy and payment changes in the dairy industry. Table 1. Variables1 analyzed by region and yr
Variable   P-value
Total farm revenue ($/cwt) Reg2 <0.001
  Yr3 <0.001
Milk revenue ($/cwt) Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
Total feed $4 ($/cwt)5 Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
Total labor $4 ($/cwt)6 Reg <0.001
  Yr 0.80
Total operating $4 Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
Total $4 of production Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
Income less total $4 Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
Herd size Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
RHA milk Reg <0.001
  Yr <0.001
1Not shown: total costs. 2Reg (Region) included 25 states divided into Midwest, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, Southwest, and West. 3Yr was the USDA ERS mean per state (2005 to 2020). 4$ = cost. 5Not shown: purchased, harvested, and grazed feed $. 6Not shown: hired labor and opportunity cost of unpaid labor.
ADSA-SAD Original Research Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Original Research ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86881 Watch 1023 Assessing the impact of storage time and shape of the block on the slicability of commercial cheddar cheese. 8 N. Pace sliceability chedder cheese N. Pace1, A. Parhi1, P. Sharma1 1Utah State University, Logan, UT Cheddar cheese is one of the world's most popular cheeses and is consumed in blocks and slices. The sliceability of cheddar cheese can depend on textural and rheological properties. Understanding these characteristics can enhance desirability and reduce material loss occurring during slicing. In this study, we focused on 4 main parameters: slice thickness, cheese shape, storage period, and cheese type. Four thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm) and 2 shapes (triangular and square) of mild, medium, sharp, and extra sharp were selected. Cheeses were purchased from Walmart and the Utah State University creamery. At first, cheese blocks were cut into 7 × 7 x 5 cm3 cubes, separately packaged, and stored at 5°C. One block of each variety was extracted weekly over 5 weeks. Blocks were sliced into triplicates using an Intertek Beswood-250 food slicer. Square samples were cut to 7 × 7 cm2 and triangular at 7 × 7 x 9.9 cm3. Each slice was imaged and manually examined for defects such as broken corners, cracks, and pinholes. Samples received quality scores (QS) ranging from one (highest) to 5 (lowest). The QS (raw values) were analyzed using a completely randomized design with a linear regression model (significance level (α): 0.05) and with independent effects of storage periods and thicknesses in origin 2021. QS of sliced cheeses improved significantly (P < 0.05) with storage. Result scores (1–5) were a mean of all samples from each thickness. Sliced cheeses of 0.5 mm thickness received QS of 4.21 and 2.80 at d 0 and 35, respectively. Similarly, QS for 1.0 mm went from 3.00 to 2.30, while 1.5 mm samples improved from 2.96 to 2.17. At the same time, 2.0 mm had a QS of 2.79 on d 0 and 2.04 on d 35. The results showed that 0.5 mm had the most improvement and variability while those cut at 2.0 mm received the best scores. Square samples received significantly (P < 0.05) better QS over the triangular shapes due to reduced corner angle stress. This could be caused by enzyme breakdown, pH change, and bacterial growth. This study can assist the cheese industry produce more consistent and qualitative cheese in the form of slices.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 s9823 Watch                
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 t86253 Watch 1024 What are affective states and why do they matter? 1 M. Špinka affective states emotions moods M. Špinka1 1Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czechia Current findings in neurobiology and comparative psychology indicate that there are 2 ways in which mammalian brain processes information and governs behavior: cognition analyses how the situation is and affective states tells the animal how the situation matters and how it should handle it. The main function of affective states is that they focus attention, motivation and physiology of the animal toward the tasks that currently matter most for its survival, health, energy balance, social situation and reproduction. Beside this functional role, affective states have 2 further defining aspects. Neurobiologically, affective states are run by specific brain circuits supported by different neurotransmitters. Subjectively, affective states have the “feeling” aspect (called valence), defined by the dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. In terms of their duration and origin, affective states fall into 3 categories. First, homeostatic affective states, such as pain, hunger, nausea, satiation or thermal (dis)comfort are reactions to internal states and have short to long duration, depending on whether the internal state has been rectified or not. Second, emotions (e.g., fear, rage, sexual lust, maternal protection, separation panic in dependent progeny, joy from play) are reactions to external situations that demand immediate focused action by the animal. Third, moods (e.g., anxiety, depression, boredom, optimism) are long-term affective states that are not linked to a specific ongoing internal state or an external cue but rather integrate the long-term situation of the animal in terms of its general coping. Affective states matter for dairy cattle. First, they contribute to the ability of the animal to cope with challenges in a way that is sensitive to the current external and internal situation. Second, valence side of affective states means that these states are a major part of the overall quality of life as perceived by the animal. Functionally, both negative and positive affective states help to deal with life. From the welfare point of view, dairy husbandry should provide the animals with an environment and care that enables them to cope while experiencing a positive affective balance.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 t86840   1025 Key social behavioral aspects influencing calf and heifer performance and health. 2 J. H. C. Costa animal welfare behavioral development social housing J. H. C. Costa1, M. W. Setser1, A. G. Bradtmueller1, H. W. Neave2 1Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark The global dairy industry is undergoing a shift in how dairy calves are reared. Dairy calves have traditionally been housed individually, fed limited milk allowances, and provided few social interactions with conspecifics and human caretakers. However, a growing number of dairy farms now provide social housing, accelerated milk programs for dairy calves. There is growing evidence that early socialization for calves promotes appropriate physical, behavioral, and cognitive development that lasts into adulthood. Thus, here we will describe key elements of the social behavior of young dairy calves and how a rich social environment contributes to positive performance and health throughout life. As dairy cattle are a herd species it is essential to explore so how calves naturally develop a social behavior repertoire from a young age with conspecifics and humans. Affiliative behaviors like allogrooming and social play contribute to the development of social bonds and preferential relationships among calves. Emerging evidence in the last decade of dairy calf research has revealed positive physical (e.g., improved growth), behavioral (e.g., appropriate interactions with other calves, competitive success at the feeder), psychological (e.g., reduced fear of novelty and social buffering of the impact of other stressors), and cognitive benefits (e.g., improved performance in a learning task) linked to early socialization. Traditional restrictive milk allowances (<15% of body weight) lead to poor growth and hunger. These welfare concerns can be alleviated with proper enhanced milk allowances and gradual weaning programs. Finally, a positive relationship with caretakers is fundamental to calf welfare levels, and studies show reduced avoidance and easier transitions during challenging situations can be achieved with best practices. Future research will focus on positive reinforcement training, provision of more agency to the animals, and harnessing automated technologies; these strategies will provide more welfare-friendly housing systems and allow for evaluation of how these practices affect animals’ later performance.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 t86122 Watch 1026 A first time for everything: The influence of parity on the behavior of transition dairy cows. 3 K Proudfoot behavior parity transition K Proudfoot1, J Huzzey2 1University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada, 2California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA Over the last 20 years, there has been an increasing amount of research describing how dairy cow behavior changes during the few weeks before and after parturition, also known as the transition period. Cows face many challenges during this period, including pain associated with pregnancy and labor, social stressors associated group changes, changes in diet, and navigating new routines that include daily milking in a parlor or automatic milking system. Researchers have identified several factors that influence how cows change their behavior in response to these challenges, one of which is the number of times they have previously given birth (i.e., parity). Cows giving birth for the first time (here referred to as “primiparous”) have unique experiences compared with those who have experienced this transition previously (“multiparous”) that may result in different behavioral responses. The objective is to summarize the research published thus far describing differences in the behavior of primiparous and multiparous cows during the transition period. We will begin with a general description of how social, feeding, and standing behavior changes from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after calving for primiparous and multiparous cows and then we will summarize the ways in which management can influence these changes. We will focus on management associated with social stressors such as overcrowding or regrouping, as well as housing changes such as access to secluded areas to give birth and pasture. Implications of this research will be discussed, including potential differences in how to best manage primiparous and multiparous cows during this period. Finally, we will make recommendations for future research, including practical methods to provide primiparous animals with positive experiences to augment the inevitable challenges they will face during their first transition to lactation.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 t87134   1027 Implications of worker affective state on herd productivity. 4 A. E. Stone management personnel productivity A. E. Stone1 1Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS Understanding the effects of producer and farm workers’ affective states on animal care, health, hygiene, and production is imperative to improving animal welfare. Rates of suicide, depression, and opioid misuse are greater in the dairy producer population than people of other occupations. The causes behind these issues are complex, but not overly surprising for those involved in the dairy industry who understand the difficulties of this lifestyle and profession. Reasons include market insecurity, milk price variability, lack of sleep, risk of injury, weather, generational pressure to keep the farm, physically demanding tasks, compassion fatigue, social and geographical isolation, and more. However, realizing that a problem exists is not enough to solve it. Finding ways to minimize the effects of these issues on producer affective state is imperative to keeping the industry sustainable and viable for this and future generations of dairy producers and workers. Producers and those who care about them experience many direct and indirect effects of poor affective states and mental health issues, but the reach is far greater than can be easily documented. Suicide often takes with it a dairy farm, which has direct production effects. But the struggles leading up to that, or those with a less finite conclusion, may have significant and long-term effects on the industry as well. The mental health and affective state of dairy producers can affect their perception of and attitudes toward their cattle, which could mean that humans may not be the only ones struggling with these issues. Improving animal welfare by improving human wellbeing is a potential that needs to be explored. Part of this requires finding the root of management deficiencies and working through problems on a farm-by-farm and person-by-person basis. In other words, why one producer quickly attains a management, welfare, or production benchmark, may have more to do with their mental health than their understanding, motivation, or abilities. Finding ways to help producers and workers improve their mental health may, in turn, help their cattle as well.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 t87135 Watch 1028 Mental health and farming: Research updates and potential paths forward. 5 B. N. M. Hagen climate gender mental health B. N. M. Hagen1 1Department of Population Medicine, ON Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Farming is considered one of the world’s most stressful occupations, and farmers face disproportionately higher risks of mental health issues and suicide compared with other occupations. Further, farmer health and well-being are associated with animal health; poor mental health of farmers has been associated with poorer health and welfare for farmed animals. With this being said, farmer mental health is still not well understood, and research into what impacts farmer mental health is ongoing worldwide. Further, there are a lack of farm-specific programs to improve mental health (e.g., mental health literacy for those working with farmers). The objective of this session is to summarize the research published thus far and provide insights into the supports available for farmer mental health, with a special consideration to how gender and climate are impacting farmer mental health. This will include discussion of the 2021 national Canadian survey for famer mental health, along with the development and implementations of the Emergency Response Model to Agricultural Crises and ‘In the Know:’ A Mental Health Literacy Training for Agriculture. Finally, we will provide recommendations for future research and evidence-based program approaches to support farmer mental health and agriculture.
Animal Behavior and Well-Being Symposium: Associations of Cow and Worker Welfare Hybrid Symposium Animal Behavior and Well-Being 6/20/2022 9:30 n8695     Overall Questions and Discussion 6          
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 s9894                  
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t87010 Watch 1040 Effect of weaning age and pace on biosynthesis of oxylipids in Holstein dairy calves. 1 B. C. Agustinho calf oxidative stress oxylipids B. C. Agustinho1, A. Wolfe2, C. Y. Tsai1, L. P. de Moura1, D. E. Konetchy1, A. H. Laarman1,2, P. Rezamand1 1Department of Animal, Veterinary and Food Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Oxylipids are synthesized from oxidation of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids and are responsible for promoting or resolving inflammation. Their roles are related to the fatty acid source and pathways from which they are derived. There is currently no evidence in the literature on how weaning stress in dairy calves affects the biosynthesis of oxylipids. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning calves at 2 ages (42 vs. 56 d) and 2 weaning paces (abrupt over 3 d vs. gradual over 14 d) on plasma oxylipids. Seventy-two dairy calves, blocked by gender and body weight at birth, were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatments consisted of early-abrupt, early-gradual, late-abrupt, and late-gradual. The animals were housed in hutches (1 × 1.5 m), fed up to 1,200 g of milk replacer daily (DM basis), with free access to feed (alfalfa hay, starter grain) and water. Blood samples were obtained 1 d post-weaning, and oxylipids concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using mixed model of SAS. Age, pace, and age × pace were used as fixed effects, and gender and body weight as random effects. Significance was declared at P ≤ 0.05. Results showed that proinflammatory oxylipids 13-OxoODE and 9-OxoODE, derived from linoleic acid, were greater in calves abruptly weaned when compared with that for gradually weaned calves (P = 0.02, for both). On the other hand, calves gradually weaned showed greater concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE, 12,13-DiHOME, 9,10-DiHOME compared with that for abruptly weaned calves (P < 0.03, for both). Anti-inflammatory oxylipid 17,18-DiHETE, derived from arachidonic acid, was greater in calves abruptly weaned compared with that for gradual (P < 0.01). However, other plasma anti-inflammatory oxylipids such as 8,9-DiHET, 11,12-DiHET, and 14,15-DiHET, and proinflammatory oxylipids such as 11-HETE and 15-HETE were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.12). In summary, weaning pace affected the plasma concentration of oxylipids in dairy calves; however, there were no detectable weaning age or age × pace effects on circulating oxylipids.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86304 Watch 1030 Strategic management of bovine colostrum. 2 D. C. Sockett colostrum Brix radial immunodiffusion D. C. Sockett1, L. W. Smith1, N. S. Keuler2, T. J. Earleywine3 1Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 2Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 3Land O’Lakes, Cottage Grove, WI Bovine colostrum is essential for calf health. It is recommended that Holstein calves be initially fed 4 L of colostrum with an additional 2 L 6–12 h later. This large volume of colostrum often necessitates feeding colostrum via an esophageal feeder. The Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has received deceased calves that developed severe colic and abomasitis within 2–4 h of being tube fed the second feeding of colostrum. The colic was caused by over-distension of the abomasum with clotted colostrum. A stratified sampling design study was done to determine what the Brix percentage should be for estimating IgG concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/L. This information could be used to fed smaller volumes of high-quality colostrum to newborn calves thus reducing the risk of colic and abomasitis. One hundred eighty-three colostrum samples were collected from 4 dairy herds. Samples were shipped overnight to the laboratory and frozen at −80°C. Colostrum samples were thawed in a bead water bath and tested with a digital hand-held Brix refractometer. Samples were also tested for bovine IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID). The Brix percentages ranged from 13.7% to 34.1% with a mean of 24.4%. IgG ranged from 17.0 to 222 g/L with a mean of 98.29 g/L. Simple linear regression was used to compare colostral IgG concentration and Brix percentage. R squared and standard error of the regression (S) values were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to create false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) counts using the Brix percentage for each colostrum sample and its corresponding IgG value. The FP and FN counts were multiplied by the monetary loss for each FP and FN error such that the monetary loss for each Brix percentage cutoff were minimized. Preliminary data analysis had a r2 value of 0.728 with a S value of 22.0 g/L. Preliminary Brix percentages for estimating colostral IgG concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/L were 19, 23, 25 and 30 percent, respectively. Dairy producers should consider allowing newborn dairy calves to drink 2 L of colostrum that contains at least 100 g/L of bovine IgG within 2 h of birth, and 1 L of colostrum that contains at least 100 g/L of bovine IgG, 6–12 h later. Colostrum samples that contain less than 100 g/L of bovine IgG could be fortified with high-quality colostrum replacement product. This lower volume will reduce the high incidence (≥90%) of newborn calves that will not drink a second feeding of colostrum within 6–12 h after being fed 4 L of colostrum. It will reduce aspiration pneumonia, improve forestomach and abomasal health and eliminate colic caused by over distension of the abomasum which occurs sporadically in calves that are fed large volumes of colostrum.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86161 Watch 1031 Epidemiology of bovine colostrum yield: Associations with cow and management factors in New York State herds. 3 T. A. Westhoff colostrum Brix % management T. A. Westhoff1, C. M. Ryan1, T. R. Overton1, S. Mann1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Adequate colostrum supply is essential for calf health. This observational study evaluated cow and management factors associated with colostrum yield (CY). Farm personnel on 18 Holstein dairies (540 to 4,150 cows) recorded CY and digital Brix % (Bx) for primiparous (PP; n = 5,998) and multiparous (MP; n = 12,931) cows between Oct 2019 and Feb 2021. Mixed models were built for PP and MP cows for the dependent variable CY. Fixed effects of season, Bx, calf sex, age at first calving, d in the dry period (ddry), previous lactation 305ME (pm305), gestation length (GL), previous lactation DIM (pdim), stillborn calf (stillbirth), and parity with herd as a random effect were offered to initial models; final models were built by backward stepwise elimination. Table 1 shows that CY is seasonal and associated with Bx for both PP and MP cows. Cows with ddry > 67 d and entering parity 2 were associated with the greatest CY. Further research is warranted to determine causality of these management factors to increase CY. Funding for this project from the NYFVI Grant Program is acknowledged. Table 1.
Item Primiparous Multiparous
LSM (95% CI) P-value LSM (95% CI) P-value
Season   <0.0001   <0.0001
 Winter (Dec-Feb) 4.3 (3.7–5.1)x   4.8 (4.3–5.4)a  
 Spring (Mar-May) 4.7 (4.0–5.5)y   5.7 (5.1–6.4)b  
 Summer (June-Aug) 4.5 (3.8–5.2)xy   6.2 (5.5–7.0)c  
 Fall (Sept-Nov) 3.8 (3.2–4.5)z   4.9 (4.4–5.6)a  
Bx (%)   <0.0001   <0.0001
 ≤22 3.9 (3.3–4.6)x   6.4 (5.6–7.2)a  
 22.1-24.4 4.6 (3.9–5.3)y   6.0 (5.3–6.7)b  
 24.5-27 4.6 (3.9–5.3)y   5.2 (4.7–5.9)c  
 ≥27 4.2 (3.6–5.0)z   4.2 (3.8–4.8)d  
Calf Sex   0.0101   <0.0001
 Female 3.9 (3.4–4.5)x   4.8 (4.2–5.4)a  
 Male 4.1 (3.6–4.7)y   5.3 (4.7–6.0)b  
 Twin 4.9 (3.7–6.5)xy   6.2 (5.5–7.0)c  
ddry (d)       <0.0001
 <47     4.4 (3.9–4.9)a  
 47-67     5.3 (4.7–6.0)b  
 >67     6.7 (6.0–7.6)c  
Pm305 (kg)       <0.0001
 <13,081     5.1 (4.6–5.8)a  
 13,081-15,867     5.4 (4.8–6.1)b  
 >15,867     5.6 (5.0–6.3)b  
GL (d)       <.0001
 263-273     5.0 (4.5–5.7)a  
 274-282     5.4 (4.8–6.1)b  
 283-293     5.8 (5.1–6.5)c  
Stillbirth       0.0186
 Alive     5.7 (5.1–6.3)a  
 Dead     5.1 (4.5–5.9)b  
Pdim (d)       <0.0001
 <275     5.6 (4.9–6.4)a  
 275-345     5.0 (4.5–5.6)b  
 >345     5.6 (5.0–6.3)a  
Parity       <0.0001
 2     5.6 (5.0–6.3)a  
 3     5.4 (4.8–6.1)b  
 4+     5.2 (4.6–5.8)c  
LSM (95% CI) with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05).
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86085 Watch 1033 The effect of long-distance transportation on hematological parameters in surplus dairy calves. 5 H. M. Goetz male dairy calf dairy-beef veal industry H. M. Goetz1, D. F. Kelton1, J. H. C. Costa2, K. C. Creutzinger3, C. B. Winder1, D. L. Renaud1 1Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 3Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, WI The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of transport duration and age at the time of transportation on blood parameters in surplus dairy calves following 6, 12, or 16 h of continuous road transportation. Surplus calves from 5 commercial dairy farms in Ontario were enrolled and examined daily for 14 d before transport (n = 175). On the day of transportation, calves were randomly assigned to 6, 12, or 16 h of transportation and were weighed and blood sampled before loading. Blood samples were also collected immediately after transportation. Serum was analyzed at a commercial laboratory for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), creatine kinase (CK), cholesterol, and haptoglobin. In addition, blood gas values were assessed immediately after sampling. Repeated-measures mixed models were built to assess the impact of duration and age on these blood parameters. Immediately following transportation, NEFA and BHBA were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in calves transported for 12 (+ 0.22 mmol/L NEFA, 95% CI 0.1–0.30; + 43.51 μmol/L BHBA, 24.65–62.36) and 16 h (0.04 mmol/L NEFA, 0.27–0.42; 96.01 μmol/L BHBA, 77.41–114.77) compared with calves transported for 6 h. Glucose was lower immediately following transportation in calves transported for 16 compared with 6 h (−15.54 mg/dL, P < 0.01, −21.54 to −9.54). In addition, pH and HCO3- were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in calves transported for 12 (−0.09 pH, −0.13 to −0.05; −1.59 mmol/L HCO3-, −2.61 to −0.56) and 16 h (− 0.07 pH, −0.12 to −0.03; −1.95 mmol/L HCO3-, −2.95 to −0.95) compared with calves transported for 6 h. Calves 15–19 d old had a higher concentration of cholesterol and CK (0.27 mmol/L cholesterol, P < 0.01, 0.11–0.43; 37.18 U/L CK, P = 0.04, 1.99–72.36), and calves 12–14 d old had greater reduction in HCO3- (−0.92 mmol/L, P = 0.03, −1.77 to −0.07) compared with 2–6 d old calves. These findings show that transporting calves long distances results in hypoglycemia and suboptimal energy status, and the impact of this experience depends on the calf’s age.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86369 Watch 1034 Calf management risk factors associated with perinatal mortality in Canadian dairy farms. 6 S. G. U. Sedó stillbirth calving herd S. G. U. Sedó1, C. B. Winder1, R. A. Molano2, D. E. Santschi2, D. L. Renaud1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Lactanet, Saint-Anne-De-Bellevue, Québec, Canada The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the association of dairy calf management practices with perinatal mortality risk. From February 20 to June 2021, dairy farms from Québec (n = 1,832) and New Brunswick (n = 52), Canada, registered in the Dairy Herd Improvement program (DHI), were visited once. A questionnaire covering all areas of prepartum, calving and colostrum management was administered. Data regarding perinatal mortality were retrieved from the DHI database for the 365 d prior the last DHI test in 2020. Perinatal mortality was calculated for each farm as the proportion of calves dead at birth or dying within 24 h of life. The herd-level perinatal mortality risk ranged from 0 to 44.3 % with an average of 7.7 ± 0.13 % (SE). A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess factors associated with perinatal mortality. The final model included time to first colostrum intake, cow-calf contact time, proportion of males born and proportion of assisted calvings, which included calvings reported as fetal malposition, hard pulls, or those requiring surgical intervention. Having >59% male calves born was associated with 2.1 % (P < 0.001) greater perinatal mortality risk compared with herds with <40% male calves born. Herds that reported >10.7% calving assistance had 3.2% increased risk of perinatal mortality compared with herds that did not report assisted calvings. Herds that regularly delivered colostrum to calves after 6 h of life had 2.4 % (P = 0.009) increased perinatal mortality risk relative to herds that fed colostrum within the first hour of life. Herds that allowed for 7 to 12 h of cow–calf contact time following calving had a 1.0 % (P < 0.001) decreased risk of perinatal mortality compared with herds that removed calves from the dam within an hour of life. These results highlight that having a greater proportion of males born, more difficult calvings, and delayed colostrum management were factors associated with an increased herd-level perinatal mortality
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86728 Watch 1035 Effect of feeding Echinacea purpurea to dairy calves on health and growth. 7 B. K. McNeil feed additive medicinal herb pneumonia B. K. McNeil1, D. L. Renaud2, M. A. Steele1, A. J. Keunen3, T. J. DeVries1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Mapleview Agri Ltd, Palmerston, ON, Canada Echinacea purpurea is a perennial herb that has demonstrated immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects with potential to improve health and growth. The objective of this study was to investigate how supplementing calves with Echinacea purpurea affects their health and growth. Male Holstein calves (n = 240), sourced from local dairy farms or auction, arrived at a rearing facility between 5 and 14 d of age and kept in 1 of 3 rooms (80/room). Calves received MR 2x/d for 56 d (total = 36 kg of MR) and had ab libitum water and starter access. Within room, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control (C; n = 80), 2) 3g of Echinacea/d split over 2 milk feedings from experiment d 14–28 (E14; n = 80), and 3) 3g of Echinacea/d split over 2 milk feedings from experiment d 1–56 (E56; n = 80). Echinacea treatments were mixed into the milk replacer (MR). Serum total protein (STP) was determined on d 1 using a digital refractometer; failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) was defined as STP < 5.2g/dL. Calves were weighed on arrival and then weekly until d 56. Calves were health scored 2x/d, receiving fecal and respiratory scores until d 28 and 56, respectively. On d 1, 14, 28, and 57 hip heights were taken on all calves and rectal temperatures were taken on a subset of calves (n = 117, 39 calves/treatment). Data were analyzed in mixed-effect linear regression models, with repeated measures. Fixed effects included treatment, day, treatment by day interaction and covariates, including room, source, FTPI, and arrival BW; calf was considered random. Within calves that had FTPI (n = 76), C calves tended to have a higher temperature (39.2 ± 0.10°C) than E14 and E56 calves (both = 38.9 ± 0.10°C; P ≤ 0.09). On d 57, C calves tended to have a higher temperature (38.9 ± 0.10°C) than E14 calves (38.6 ± 0.10°C; P = 0.06). Of calves sourced from auction, C calves had a lower proportion of observations with no clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease (56.1 ± 3.48 %) than E56 calves (66.8 ± 3.58 %; P = 0.03) and tended to have a lower proportion than E14 calves (64.8 ± 3.46 %; P = 0.08). No treatment differences were detected (P ≥ 0.49) in ADG (C = 0.64, E14 = 0.67, and E56 = 0.69 ± 0.03 kg/d), hip height (C = 89.8, E14 = 90.0, and E56 = 89.7 ± 0.24 cm), or proportion of abnormal fecal observations (C = 13.2, E14 = 13.9, and E56 = 12.1 ± 0.37 %). Overall, the results indicate some health benefits of Echinacea purpurea supplementation for calves.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86754 Watch 1036 Treatment of pneumonic preweaning dairy calves with 2 commercial antibiotics reduced systemic inflammatory signs and the relative abundance of bacterial genera associated with the disease. 8 T. Tomazi microbiome bovine respiratory disease treatment A. C. C. H. Tomazi1, A. P. A. Vinhal1, T. Tomazi1,2, L. Bringhenti1,3, M. X. Rodrigues1,3, H. J. Huson1, T. R. Bilby2, R. C. Bicalho1,3 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ, 3FERA Animal Health LLC, College Station, TX This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 2 commercial antibiotics on the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota and health parameters of preweaned dairy calves with pneumonia accompanied by fever using pneumonic untreated calves as negative controls. Calves identified with pneumonia were randomly assigned to one of the following groups at the diagnosis day: (TLD; n = 36) single injection with 4 mg/kg of tildipirosin; (FLF; n = 33) single injection with 40 mg/kg of florfenicol plus 2.2 mg/kg of flunixin meglumine; and (NEG; n = 35) no treatment within the first 5 d post diagnosis. Healthy untreated calves (CTR; n = 31) were used as controls. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected daily from diagnosis (d0) until d5 and then weekly until weaning (~65 d of age). The URT microbiota was assessed using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Dichotomized outcomes (Table 1) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with binary distribution. Repeated measurements (i.e., body temperature, haptoglobin titers, and the bacterial mean relative abundance [MRA] at the genus level) were analyzed using general mixed linear models. The TLD and FLF groups had faster recovery from fever than the NEG group. In addition, antibiotic-treated calves reached the same haptoglobin titers as healthy calves on d 2 after diagnosis, whereas calves in the NEG group only reached the CTR titers in the first week after enrollment. Both drugs were effective in reducing the MRA of Mannheimia and Pasteurella genera, although the TLD group was associated with an increase in Mycoplasma MRA. In conclusion, both drugs were effective in reducing the need for retreatment and inflammatory signs of pneumonia. Also, both TLD and FLF were effective in reducing the MRA of important bacterial genera associated with pneumonia. Table 1. Effects of treatments on health parameters
Item LSM1 (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
TLD FLF NEG TLD FLF
Nasal discharge 40.0AB 21.2B 52.9A 0.59 (0.23, 1.56) 0.24 (0.08, 0.71) 0.04
Fever (≥39.5°C) at d5 20.4 B 8.4 B 49.9A 0.26 (0.08, 0.78) 0.09 (0.02, 0.39) 0.002
Treatment failure2 24.9AB 16.9B 46.5A 0.38 (0.13, 1.10) 0.23 (0.07, 0.76) 0.04
Pneum. retreatment3 27.7B 22.8B 54.7A 0.33 (0.11, 0.97) 0.25 (0.08, 0.77) 0.03
*Different uppercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments (P < 0.05). 1Least square means were adjusted incidences from the multivariable logistic regression models with binary distribution. 2Need for pneumonia treatment from d 5 to d 10 after diagnosis. 3Need for pneumonia treatment from d 5 to weaning.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86975   1037 Health assessment of calves raised in alternative rearing systems. 9 B. Gonçalves da Costa   B. Gonçalves da Costa1, K. Sharpe1, M. Endres1, B. Heins1 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of maternal contact on immunoglobulin absorption in the first 24 h of life and the occurrence of diarrhea and respiratory disease in dairy calves raised in alternative systems. Two hundred 41 Holstein (n = 61), ProCross, (n = 118), and GrazeCross (n = 61) calves were evaluated from Fall 2020 to Fall 2021. Analysis of passive transfer of immunoglobulins using total serum protein (TSP) was from a MISCO digital refractometer in 2 groups of calves: 1) separated from the dam (n = 170) and bottle-fed 4 L of colostrum in the first 12 h of life, and 2) dam-reared (n = 69) where calves suckled colostrum naturally. At 3 d of age, calves were divided into 4 housing groups: individually housed (n = 56), pair-housed (n = 54), group-housed (6 calves per pen; n = 60), and dam-reared (6 dam-calf pairs per paddock; n = 69). Dam-reared calves suckled milk naturally, while calves from all other treatments received 10L of milk per day until weaning at 63 d of age. Health scores were collected weekly using the Wisconsin Calf Health Scoring Chart until weaning. Statistical analyses for TSP were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS, and fixed effects were season, breed, and housing group. For health scores, analyses included PROC FREQ and PROC GLIMMIX of SAS with housing type, week, calf, breed, and season as fixed effects. There were no significant breed effects on the treatments. The TSP values were higher (P < 0.05) in dam-reared calves (TPR: 6.67 ± 0.32) than in separated calves (TPR: 6.16 ± 0.31). In total, respiratory disease was identified in 1.16% of observations, where 0.61% were from dam-reared calves, 0.29% from pair-housed, 0.20% from group-housed, and 0.06% from individually housed calves. Scours occurred in 4.44% of the observations and was higher (P < 0.05) in dam-reared calves (6.9 ± 1.01%) than group (4.1 ± 0.75%), pair (1.1 ± 0.35%), and individually (0.5 ± 0.23%) housed calves, but similar in individually and pair-housed calves (P = 0.15). The results suggest that dam-reared calves had higher absorption of immunoglobulins and that all rearing systems had a low occurrence of respiratory disease; however, scours were diagnosed more often in dam-reared calves.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86491 Watch 1038 ADSA®-EAAP PhD Student Travel Award Presentation: Effects of the novel concept “outdoor veal calf” on antimicrobial use, mortality, weight gain, and animal welfare parameters in Switzerland. 10 J. Becker antimicrobial use treatment incidence animal health J. Becker1, G. Schüpbach-Regula2, A. Steiner1, V. Perreten3, D. Wüthrich1,3, A. Hausherr1,3, M. Meylan1 1Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 2Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Liebefeld, Bern, Switzerland, 3Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Bern, Switzerland The aim of the intervention study ‘outdoor veal calf’ was to evaluate a novel concept for calf fattening which aimed at reducing antimicrobial use without compromising animal health. Management practices lead to high antimicrobial use and an elevated selection pressure on bacteria. The concept was implemented in 19 intervention farms (IF), and was based on 3 main measures: 1. purchased calves are transported directly from neighboring birth farms to the fattening facility instead of commingling calves in livestock dealer trucks; 2. each calf is vaccinated against pneumonia after arrival and completes a 3-week quarantine in an individual hutch; and 3. the calves spend the rest of the fattening period in outdoor hutches in groups not exceeding 10 calves. The covered and bedded paddock and the group hutches provide shelter from cold weather and direct sunshine, constant access to fresh air is warranted. Nineteen conventional calf fattening operations of similar size served as controls (CF). Every farm was visited once a month for a 1-year period, and data regarding animal welfare, treatments, and production parameters were collected, and organs of 339 calves were examined post-mortem. Treatment intensity was assessed by use of the defined daily dose method (TIDDD in days/animal year). Mean TIDDD was 5.3-fold lower in IF compared with CF (mean ± SD, 5.9 ± 6.5 vs. 31.5 ± 27.4 d/animal year; P < 0.001). Mortality was 2.1-fold lower in IF (3.1% ± 2.3 vs. 6.3 % ± 4.9; P = 0.020). Average daily gain did not differ between groups (1.29 ± 0.17 kg/day in IF vs. 1.35 ± 0.16 kg/day in CF; P = 0.244). Cough and nasal discharge were observed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less often in intervention than in control farms, mortality (3.1% vs. 6.3%, P = 0.020) and lung lesion prevalence (26% vs. 46%, P < 0.001) were lower. A drastic reduction in antimicrobial use and mortality was achieved without compromising animal health. The principles of risk reduction can be used to improve management and animal health, decrease the need for treatments and thus selection pressure on bacteria.
Animal Health 1 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 9:30 t86493 Watch 1039 Antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Pasteurellaceae at the beginning and at the end of the fattening process in veal calves: comparing “outdoor veal calf” and conventional operations. 11 J. Becker antimicrobial resistance antimicrobial use Escherichia coli J. Becker1, V. Perreten2, A. Steiner1, D. Stucki1, G. Schüpbach-Regula3, A. Collaud2, A. Rossano2, D. Wüthrich1,2, A. Muff-Hausherr1,2, M. Meylan1 1Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 2Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 3Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Liebefeld, Bern, Switzerland Animal husbandry requires practical measures to limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Therefore, a novel management and housing concept for veal calf fattening was implemented on 19 intervention farms (IF) and evaluated regarding its effects on AMR in Escherichia (E.) coli, Pasteurella (P.) multocida and Mannheimia (M.) haemolytica in comparison with 19 conventional control farms (CF). Treatment intensity (−80%, P > 0.001) and mortality (−50%, P = 0.020) were significantly lower in IF than in CF, however, production parameters did not differ significantly between groups. Rectal and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. Susceptibility testing by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration was performed on 5,420 isolates. The presence of AMR was described as prevalence of resistant isolates (%), by calculating the Antimicrobial Resistance Index (ARI: number of resistance of one isolate to single drugs/total number of drugs tested), by the occurrence of pansusceptible isolates (susceptible to all tested drugs, ARI = 0), and by calculating the prevalence of multidrug (≥3) resistant isolates (MDR). Before slaughter, odds for carrying pansusceptible E. coli were higher in IF than in CF (+65 %, P = 0.022), whereas ARI was lower (−16%, P = 0.003), and MDR isolates were less prevalent (−65%, P < 0.001). For P. multocida, odds for carrying pansusceptible isolates were higher in IF before slaughter compared with CF (+990%, P < 0.009). No differences between IF and CF were seen regarding the prevalence of pansuceptible M. haemolytica. These findings indicate that improvement of calf management can lead to a limitation of AMR in Swiss veal fattening farms.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 s9824 Watch                
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86039 Watch 1041 Genomic evaluation methods to include intermediate correlated features such as high-throughput or omics phenotypes. 1 A. Legarra omics MIRS genetic evaluation A. Legarra1, O. F. Christensen2 1INRAE, GenPhySE, Castanet-Tolosan, France, 2Aarhus University, Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Tjele, Denmark Gene expression is supposed to be intermediate between DNA and phenotype, but the gene expression of a particular gene is in fact controlled by the genotype at the gene (cis) and at other genes (trans). Thus, for a trait, we have intermediate measures, which are in fact a series of genetically controlled traits. Similarly, several traits may be measured or predicted using infrared spectra, accelerometers, and similar high-throughput measures. However, these measurements have errors, and many of these measures are heritable. For gene expression or Spectra or other measures (we will call of them “omics” for simplicity) the fact that a heritable trait may be predicted with some error based on heritable measures makes overall genetic evaluation far from obvious. Recent developments allow a hierarchical integrated framework for prediction, in which a trait is partially controlled by omics, partly by genetics (“residual BVs”), and partly by environment or residual. In addition, the omics measures are themselves partly controlled by genetics (“mediated BVs”) and partly by environment or residual. In such a framework, genetic evaluations consist of 2 nested GBLUP-based models; in the first, the effect of omics and “residual BVs” are estimated; the second model extracts the “mediated BVs” from the heritable part of the omics. The whole procedure is called GOBLUP and allows measures in only some individuals, i.e., it is a “single-step”-like method. In this model, the heritability is split into “mediated” and “not mediated” parts. This decomposition allows predicting how accurate the “omics” measure of the trait would be compared with the “direct” measure. The ideal “omics” measure is heritable and explains a large part of the phenotypic variation of the trait. Ideally, this could be the case for some low-heritable traits. Even if the accuracy of the omics measure is low, it might be an option for difficult to measure traits. These concepts will be presented. In addition, existing intermediate measures such as milk infrared spectra will be presented and their perspectives under this framework, discussed.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86187 Watch 1042 Lineage-resolved complete metagenomics with long-read sequencing for rumen microbial characterization. 2 D. M. Bickhart metagenome microbiome genomics D. M. Bickhart1, J. C. McClure1, S. B. Shin2, T. P. L. Smith2 1USDA ARS DFRC, Madison, WI, 2USDA ARS MARC, Clay Center, NE Metagenome assembled genomes (MAG) represent an important genetics resource in the characterization of microbial systems. This is particularly true in the case of agriculturally-relevant microbiomes, such as the cattle rumen microbial community. Unfortunately, many of our insights into the changing composition of the rumen microbiome are derived from 16S rDNA amplification surveys which often lack the discriminatory power to assign observations to the genus level of taxonomy, let alone identify individual microbial species. To use more precise means of measuring microbial prevalence, high-quality reference genomes for rumen microbial species are needed so that genomic information can be used to genotype populations. Furthermore, these references must be resolved to individual strain lineages and must contain the majority (>90%) of predicted single copy genes, making them “complete” genomes. The advent of low-error long-read DNA sequencing presents an opportunity to produce these genomics resources by spanning common microbial orthologous genes with relatively long and accurate sequence reads. We previously applied this new advance to a fecal microbial sample from sheep (Ovis aries) and generated 220 lineage-resolved complete MAGs from a single sample. Furthermore, we developed a novel variant phasing algorithm, MAGPhase, which identifies SNP haplotypes from HiFi reads mapped to MAGs. To further resolve rumen microbial communities, we collected a combined sample of rumen solids and liquids from 4 cannulated Holstein cows. We sequenced all 4 samples individually and generated 66 Gbp of reads with a minimum average quality of Q20 and a read N50 of 14 kbp. Assembly with metaFlye resulted in over 4 Gbp of assembled sequence. However, contigs from the rumen protist community were notably smaller than that of the bacterial community, suggesting new strategies will be required to resolve their genomes. This project represents the first high-quality metagenome resource for the Holstein cow rumen and will assist in the design of better microbial genotyping tools for future classification.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t85982 Watch 1043 ADSA®-EAAP Speaker Exchange Presentation: The long-term effects of genomic selection. 3 Y. C. J. Wientjes genomic prediction long-term response to selection genetic architecture Y. C. J. Wientjes1, P. Bijma1, J. van den Heuvel2, B. J. Zwaan2, Z. G. Vitezica3, M. P. L. Calus1 1Wageningen University and Research, Animal Breeding and Genomics, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 2Wageningen University and Research, Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 3INRAE, GenPhySE, Castanet-Tolosan, France Genomic selection (GS) has accelerated genetic change, thereby also changing the genetic architecture of traits, but little is known of its long-term effects. We investigated the changes in genetic architecture under genomic vs. traditional selection. We simulated a population for 50 generations with selection for a single trait, controlled by either only additive effects, or additive and nonadditive (dominance and epistatic) effects, and a mutational variance of 0.001σe2. Results show that GS always outcompeted pedigree-BLUP (PBLUP) and mass selection for short-term gain. For long-term gain, mass selection was close to GS, and even outcompeted it when nonadditive effects were present. GS and PBLUP both lost a considerably amount of genetic variation after 50 generations of selection, about 25% more than mass selection. As expected, allele frequency changes were slightly larger with GS than with PBLUP. Moreover, GS and PBLUP fixed a large number of loci, and about 6 times more unfavorable alleles became fixed than with mass selection. This was both due to increased genetic drift and due to genetic hitchhiking. With nonadditive effects, the average change in allele frequency was ~15% smaller, and less loci became fixed for all selection methods. This is probably related to the considerable changes in statistical additive effects across generations when nonadditive effects were present, because the correlation in statistical additive effects between generation 0 and 50 was ~0.5 for GS and PBLUP and ~0.7 for mass selection. The change in genetic architecture might be different in populations with e.g., a more complex family structure, a larger genome, different nonadditive effects, or a changing breeding goal over time. Nevertheless, we expect that the ranking of the selection methods will be similar. Therefore, this study shows that GS considerably changes allele frequencies and the genetic architecture of traits, which may result in a limited long-term gain due to the loss of favorable alleles. This finding emphasizes the need for measures to reduce the loss of favorable alleles with genomic selection.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86381 Watch 1044 Genetic trends, generation interval, and inbreeding changes since the implementation of genomic selection in US dairy cattle. 4 D. Lourenco genetic gain genomic predictions dairy breeds F. Guinan1, G. Wiggans2, D. Norman2, J. Dürr2, J. Cole3, C. Van Tassell4, I. Misztal1, A. Cesarani1, D. Lourenco1 1Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 2Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, Bowie, MD, 3URUS Group LP, Madison, WI, 4Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD Official genomic evaluations for dairy cattle in the United States were released in 2009 for Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and Brown Swiss (BS), 2013 for Ayrshire (AY), and 2016 for Guernsey (GU). In this study, we assessed the genetic gains in US dairy cattle due to the implementation of genomic selection. This included the investigation of changes in genetic trends and generation intervals. Additionally, inbreeding was computed over the years. Genomic predictions were obtained from the official evaluation in August of 2021, which used a multibreed BLUP followed by a single-breed estimation of SNP effects. Mean Predicted Breeding Values (PBV) were analyzed per year to calculate genetic trends for bulls and cows, with a genetic base of 2015 for each breed separately. The data contained 154,602 bulls and 27,802,645 cows born since 1975, including 1.32 million genotypes for approximately 80k SNP. Breakpoints for trends were estimated using linear regression, and nonlinear regression was used to fit the piecewise model for the small sample number in some years. Generation intervals and inbreeding levels were also investigated since 1975. Milk, fat, protein, somatic cell score, productive life, daughter pregnancy rate, and livability PBV were documented. Trends were upward for production and downward for fertility in most breeds. Holsteins and JE have benefited most from genomics, with up to almost a 6-fold increase in genetic gain. Due to the low number of observations, AY, BS, and GU trends are difficult to infer. Levels of genomic inbreeding coefficients are increasing at an alarming rate in HO bulls and cows. In 2017, genomic inbreeding levels were at 12.64% for bulls and 8.82% for cows. Generation intervals for bulls decreased from 9.4 to 2.2 years for HO and from 9.9 to 3.1 years JE. A decrease of 3.1 years was observed for BS, but no decrease for AY and GU. Overall, genomics has mainly benefited HO and JE because of the amount of data and early implementation of genomic selection. Progress for smaller breeds will need to be reassessed when more data are available.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86508 Watch 1045 Genetic gains for milk traits from various genetic evaluation methods. 5 H. D. Norman evaluation methods genetic trend milk traits H. D. Norman1, F. L. Guinan2, J. W. Durr1 1Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding, Bowie, MD, 2University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI Genetic evaluation procedures available and adopted by dairy producers have a significant impact on the rate of genetic improvement. The objective of this research was to compare the progress made from various evaluation methods. Several genetic evaluation procedures were implemented by USDA following the Daughter-Dam Comparison (DD) which had been used for decades. These included the Herdmate Comparison (HC, 1962), an improved Herdmate Comparison (IHC, 1968), Modified Contemporary Comparison (MCC, Nov. 1974), Animal Model (AM, July 1989), and the genomic evaluation (GE, Jan. 2009). The AM and GE were assumed to have best linear unbiased prediction properties. About 3 years are normally necessary before the results are evident in the milking population as 9 mo are needed before their first offspring are born, and 2 more years before they start to lactate. Cows’ current estimated breeding values for milk, fat, and protein yields determined the average genetic levels by birth year. Linear trends and approximate standard errors were derived within each of the evaluation periods. The standard errors for milk, fat, and protein in Holsteins (HO) were less than 0.08, 0.004, and 0.003 kg for the 3 most recent methods and in Jerseys (JE) less than 0.24, 0.008, and 0.007 kg. Genetic gains for milk traits have increased since DHI records were computerized around 1960. A reason for the reductions after 1992 remains unresolved. The current genomic evaluation is delivering substantial genetic increases, especially for fat and protein yield. Table 1. Annual genetic gains in milk traits for Holsteins and Jerseys from genetic evaluation methods
Genetic evaluation method Cow with birth years included Linear gains for milk (kg) Linear gains for fat (kg) Linear gains for protein (kg)
HO JE HO JE HO JE
DD (1938) 1958 to 1964 21.8 18.0 0.76 0.76
HC (1961) 1964 to 1970 40.8 50.0 1.51 1.66
IHC (June 1967) 1970 to 1977 68.5 81.5 2.07 2.66 1.01
MCC (Nov 1974) 1977 to 1992 89.1 106.5 3.21 3.78 2.45 3.05
AM (July 1989) 1992 to 2011 75.7 87.6 2.53 3.06 2.46 2.72
GE (Jan. 2009) 2011 to 2019 105.6 87.1 5.73 4.03 4.08 3.40
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t87106   1046 Tools and resources for accurate imputation of cattle sequence. 7 R. D. Schnabel cattle sequence imputation R. D. Schnabel1 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Imputation has become a foundation of most genomic analyses today. Various tools and resources have been developed over the years, starting from imputations of “low-density” to “high-density” SNP-chip assays and more recently to “sequence level.” Most recently, various communities have begun developing methods to implement “low-pass” sequencing and imputation as an alternative to SNP-chip genotyping. These methods have one thing in common, they all use indirect measures to ascertain the underlying true genotype of an individual. All of these tools and methods are built on simplifying assumptions regarding the underlying biology. Genomic prediction has progressed rapidly in the last decade but violation of these assumptions may be limiting as we approach a theoretical prediction accuracy of one. As we generate ever larger amounts of data and move into the era of imputation to “sequence level,” it is important to revisit some of the underlying model assumptions and quantify deviations from the assumptions. Data from the 1000 Bulls Project Run9 (n = 6191 genomes) will be presented examining multiple alleles, private alleles, genotype concordance between runs and variant filtering thresholds.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86956   1047 Mixed-model GWAS on milk production traits of 1.16M genotyped Holstein cattle. 8 J. Jiang GWAS mixed model milk production J. Jiang1, J. Cheng1, C. Maltecca1, L. Ma2, P. M. VanRaden3, J. R. O'Connell4 1Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, 4Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits. The mixed-model method is usually needed to account for sample relatedness and polygenic effects in GWAS, but it is computationally challenging to apply it to large-scale samples. We here present a new solution to mixed-model GWAS, which we refer to as SLEMM (https://github.com/jiang18/slemm), and apply it to the largest-to-date GWAS on milk production traits by using data from the US Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding. SLEMM enables million-scale genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation and accurate approximation of mixed-model association statistics. We used deregressed estimated breeding values and ~76K autosomal SNP genotypes of ~1.16M Holstein cattle in mixed-model association analysis. The mixed model’s polygenic term was accounted for by ~48K LD-pruned SNPs. Single-marker association statistics were computed for the 76K SNPs. This GWAS identified few new associations on milk production traits compared with our previous analysis with only 27K Holstein bulls. GWAS with subsamples of 50K, 100K, 150K, and 200K individuals showed that the increase in sample size has a bigger effect on P-values of significant SNPs than nonsignificant ones; that is, nonsignificant SNPs rarely become significant as the sample size increases. In summary, this study suggests that dairy GWAS in Holsteins reach saturation at relatively small sample sizes.
Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Beyond Genetic Markers – Additional Data to Improve Long-Term Selection Hybrid Symposium Breeding and Genetics 6/20/2022 9:30 t86558 Watch 1048 SLEMM: Million-scale genomic best linear unbiased predictions with window-based SNP weighting. 9 J. Cheng genomic prediction BLUP SLEMM J. Cheng1, C. Maltecca1, P. Vanraden2, J. O'Connell3, L. Ma4, J. Jiang1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, 3University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 4University of Maryland, College Park, MD The amount of animal genomic data is increasing exponentially. Using a large number of genotyped and phenotyped animals for genomic predictions is appealing yet challenging. The genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model and various SNP-based Bayesian alphabet models such as Bayes R remain widely popular for genomic prediction. The Bayesian models are typically advantageous for traits that have genes of large effect. However, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method often used by Bayesian models is time-consuming. Here we present an alternative approach in a framework of multi-step evaluation for million-scale genomic predictions, which we refer to as SLEMM. Unlike MCMC, SLEMM relies on an efficient implementation of the stochastic Lanczos algorithm for REML and BLUP. We further develop a window-based SNP weighting method to improve prediction accuracy. SLEMM was compared with GBLUP and Bayes R in terms of prediction accuracy. Extensive data analyses, covering a spectrum of polygenic traits in multiple plant and animal species, show that SLEMM had comparable accuracies with Bayes R (0.3% lower than Bayes R and 3% greater than GBLUP for animals; 2% greater than Bayes R and 0.2% greater than GBLUP for plants, where most traits are highly polygenic). SLEMM was further applied on a large-scale Holstein cow data set (5 milk production traits from about 300K animals with 60K SNPs) from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding. Prediction accuracies using SLEMM were consistently greater than using Bayes R (0.1 to 2% greater) and GBLUP (0.3 to 1% greater). Simulation analyses show that SLEMM can complete genomic predictions for 0.5M genotyped animals and 50K SNPs in ~0.4 h with 9 GB of memory while Bayes R used ~6.6 h with 24.5 GB of memory. SLEMM used ~5.5 h and 63 GB of memory for prediction of 3M animals whereas Bayes R had a limitation of 0.5M animals in this case. In short, SLEMM paves the way for million-scale genomic predictions. Further comparison with single-step GBLUP will be evaluated. SLEMM is freely available at https://github.com/jiang18/ssgp.
Extension Education Symposium: Using Social Media to Engage Dairy Consumers and Community Hybrid Symposium Extension Education 6/20/2022 9:30 s9826 Watch                
Extension Education Symposium: Using Social Media to Engage Dairy Consumers and Community Hybrid Symposium Extension Education 6/20/2022 9:30 t86579   1054 Engaging the next generation of animal scientists through social media. 1 A. Faciola internet scientific collaboration science communication A. Faciola1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Access to information today is very different than it used to be. An abundance of information is available at the convenience of your phone or watch! However, online information may or may not be factual. Social media gives everyone a platform to have your voice heard. There are many challenges that come with a social media presence, including time commitment, misinterpretation of information, judgment, confrontation, bullying, and image damaging. However, there are immense opportunities to be gained and perhaps even a responsibility - as an educator and animal scientists to educate the general public on our expertise. The goal of this presentation is to share social media experiences from my network, comprised of 4,944 contacts across Twitter (1,431), Facebook (773), Instagram (1,040), and LinkedIn (1,700); which have enabled the engagement of a variety of stakeholders. I will present positive and negative qualitative experiences that helped me engage, recruit, and motivate students, also foster scientific collaborations, and secure extramural funding for my research program, as well as engage with the general public and promote animal science research. My hope is that this presentation will spark dialog and brainstorm among other animal scientists so that we can more effectively connect and build trust with students, collaborators, sponsors, administrators, the government, and the public at large, including social media influencers so we can advance our mission to educate and promote responsible animal research and production.
Extension Education Symposium: Using Social Media to Engage Dairy Consumers and Community Hybrid Symposium Extension Education 6/20/2022 9:30 t86850   1055 Using short videos to enhance communication and engage stakeholders. 2 J. Bohlen social media video engagement J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA The way people communicate, engage with each other, and receive information is ever evolving. Today social media dominates societal interaction because information is readily available, diverse, entertaining, it allows them to make worldwide connections instantaneously, provides new learning opportunities, and offers an outlet for their thoughts. The internet created a feeling of accessibility and social media has taken it a step further to now serve as a primary source of news and information for society, a trend transcending generations. For extension, its robustness allows accessibility to novel and larger stakeholder populations. These stakeholder connections allow not only for information transference but also for meaningful opportunities to engage them in the activities of the university, thus building community understanding and support. The difficulty often comes in how to present information in this novel medium and in a way that will be educational, well received, and digestible. Short videos presented on social media provide an opportunity to build stakeholder relationships and they do so with higher interactions and engagements than do text or images. Data shows that videos have higher click rates, are more likely to be shared and viewers often note a higher retention rate of information relative to other forms of media. The nuance with this social media medium is making sure the video is clicked. To make a video more “clickable” the video must be created like any other extension presentation, with purpose. To do this, video content should be relevant, titled interestingly, and related to a target audience. The video itself should be no longer than 5 min, information should be simple, video closed captioned, and the thumbnail image chosen to attract interest. If prepared correctly, short videos on social media can reach a wider audience than most if not all other extension programming efforts. This ability to draw an audience into activities they are unfamiliar or unaware of is how the engagement of stakeholders is achieved and how the greater community surrounding extension’s work is created.
Extension Education Symposium: Using Social Media to Engage Dairy Consumers and Community Hybrid Symposium Extension Education 6/20/2022 9:30 t86802   1056 Dairy farming: Engaging youth and consumers through social media. 4 A. Ryan   A. Ryan1 1MVP Dairy LLC, Today’s consumers not only want to know where their food comes from, but they also want to know that it was produced in a responsible manner by people they can trust. With the average consumer at least 3–4 generations removed from the farm, people are searching for answers online more than ever. Social media can be a valuable tool for farmers and industry members alike to engage with the non-farming community but finding the most effective approach can be challenging. During this session we’ll discuss finding the right approach for you, including different levels of online engagement. Best practices in answering tough questions or dealing with negative comments will also be shared. You will also gain insights for navigating multiple platforms, algorithms, and audiences while learning tips and tricks to create effective content to reach outside the agricultural community.
Extension Education Symposium: Using Social Media to Engage Dairy Consumers and Community Hybrid Symposium Extension Education 6/20/2022 9:30 t86458   1057 Building a successful YouTube channel for extension clientele. 5 B. Beam YouTube extension video B. Beam1 1The Ohio State University, Hillsboro, OH Due to the pandemic, OSU extension educators created the Southern Ohio Farm Show (SOFS), a weekly television-style program they produce and distribute. They have had viewers in 38 states and 7 countries. Averaging over 1,700 views per episode, the SOFS has increased participation in county extension programs by 3,000%. Additionally, OSU extension Educators created a series of virtual reality (VR) equipment demonstrations for the online Farm Science Review. These VR experiences generated over 19,000 views online. Participant feedback from extension clientele is positive for these kinds of virtual programming effots.
Growth & Development 1 In-Person Oral Growth and Development 6/20/2022 9:30 s9906                  
Growth & Development 1 In-Person Oral Growth and Development 6/20/2022 9:30 t85847 Watch 1058 Dam body condition score alters offspring serum cortisol concentration in Holstein calves but did not affect neonatal leptin surge. 1 W. E. Brown neonate developmental programming W. E. Brown1, H. T. Holdorf1, H. M. White1 1Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI The neonatal leptin surge is important for hypothalamic development, feed intake regulation and long-term metabolic control. In sheep, the leptin surge is eliminated with elevated dam body condition score (BCS), but this has not been assessed in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to characterize the neonatal serum leptin and cortisol profile in calves born to Holstein cows. Dam (BCS) was determined 21d before expected parturition. Cows with BCS between 3.0 and 3.5 (LO) and > 3.75 (HI) carrying Angus (ANG) or Holstein-sired (HOL) calves were enrolled in the study (2x2 factorial; n = 11/trt). Serum was collected from calves within 4 h of birth (d 0), and on d 1, 3, 5, and 7. Calves were fed 3.78 L colostrum at birth and thereafter 1.0 kg DM/d (HOL) or 0.8 kg DM/d (ANG) milk replacer over 2 feedings. Serum was analyzed for leptin and cortisol concentration using internally validated commercial ELISA kits. Insufficient LO-ANG calves were born, so analysis was performed separately for HOL and ANG. Linear mixed models using repeated measures were used to determine effects of continuous dam BCS and neonatal age on serum leptin and cortisol. Dam BCS was 3.7 ± 0.43 for HOL and 4.2 ± 0.24 for ANG. There was tendency for a time effect on leptin (P = 0.09) with decreasing leptin from birth to d 7 in HOL, but not ANG (P = 0.51). There was no evidence of an effect of BCS (P = 0.12) or BCSxTime (P = 0.58) on leptin in either breed. For HOL, there was an interaction of BCSxTime (P = 0.02) on serum cortisol. Serum cortisol increased with increasing BCS on d 0 (P = 0.01) and the rate of change across BCS on d 0 differed from d 1, 3, and 7 (P = 0.04). In HOL, serum cortisol tended to decrease from d 0 to 7 (P = 0.08), but there was no evidence of time or BCS effects on serum cortisol in ANG (P = 0.13). Overall, increasing dam BCS increased serum cortisol on d 0 in HOL, consistent with previous ruminant research. Serum leptin declined from d 0 and did not exhibit a characteristic neonatal surge as expected. The lack of leptin surge and the breed specific cortisol response warrants further investigation.
Growth & Development 1 In-Person Oral Growth and Development 6/20/2022 9:30 t86959 Watch 1059 Peripheral blood mononuclear cell mitochondrial enzyme activity in calves indicates future lactation performance. 2 A. M. Niesen mitochondria A. M. Niesen1, H. A. Rossow1 1UC Davis, Mitochondria are central to metabolism, nutrition, health and are the primary energy producers for all biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine if the mitochondrial enzyme activity rates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in calves and heifers indicate lactation performance as adults. Twenty-three Holstein and 23 Jersey heifer calves were enrolled and blood data were collected from age 4 d to 2 y on surviving animals. Blood samples were collected at 1, 2, 9, 36, 52 wk and 2 y of age to determine complete blood counts as an indicator of health, and to isolate the PBMC fraction. First-lactation milk production data were collected from herd management software on animals that completed their first lactation (10 Holsteins, 16 Jerseys). Body weight was measured at each time point via a hydraulic spring scale (1–9 wk) and using a breed specific weigh tape (36 wk – 2 y) to determine ADG. Mitochondrial isolation from PBMC and enzyme activities for citrate synthase, complex I, complex IV, and complex V were determined using kits from Abcam (Cambridge, MA). Data were analyzed using GLM and the Mixed procedure of SAS (Version 9.4, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine if calf mitochondrial enzymatic activity was associated with lactation performance. Milk production parameters (yield, ECM, RELV, 305ME, fat yield, TS yield and SCC) were regressed on enzymatic activity rates by time point and breed with ADG and blood parameters as covariates with the criteria for inclusion being P ≤ 0.1. For Holsteins, first-lactation 305ME was correlated to wk 1 citrate synthase activity (a marker of mitochondrial number), mean corpuscular volume (a marker of red cell capacity) and prewean ADG (R2 = 0.64). For Jerseys first-lactation 305ME was correlated to wk 1 complex V activity and mean corpuscular volume (R2 = 0.36). These findings suggest that predictions of cow performance could be improved by considering the impact of mitochondrial enzymatic activity in calves near birth.
Growth & Development 1 In-Person Oral Growth and Development 6/20/2022 9:30 t86480 Watch 1060 Effect of colostrum management and meloxicam administration on indicators of stress and inflammation in transported preweaned calves. 3 K. Elmore calf colostrum meloxicam K. Elmore1, D. Konetchy1, M. Chahine2, A. Laarman3,1, B. Agustinho1, P. Rezamand1, G. Chibisa1 1Department of Animal, Veterinary, and Food Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 2Department of Animal, Veterinary, and Food Sciences, Twin Falls Research and Extension Center University of Idaho, Twin Falls, ID, 3Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutrition Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada The rise in morbidity and mortality rates in pre-weaned calves related to poor colostrum management and subsequent transportation may be attenuated by the pre-transport administration of meloxicam (MEL). Our objective was to determine the effects and potential interaction of colostrum management and MEL administration on indicators of stress and inflammation in transported pre-weaned calves. Male dairy calves (n = 48) were collected at birth and used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments; colostrum feeding according to recommendations or milk replacer (MR) in place of colostrum, and administration of MEL or a placebo before transportation. Blood samples were collected (<2 d old) before transportation (300 km), on arrival, and 12 h and 36 h post arrival to be analyzed for plasma cortisol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After harvest (36 h post-arrival), liver and gut tissue were used to quantify transcript abundance of markers of inflammation; tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL) 6, IL-8, IL-1β, intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). Data analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. There was no colostrum × MEL interaction (P ≥ 0.34) for plasma cortisol, NEFA, serum TAC, and transcript abundance of markers of inflammation. However, feeding colostrum led to a decrease (P < 0.01) in plasma cortisol and an increase (P < 0.01) in plasma NEFA and serum TAC. Feeding colostrum also downregulated (P ≤ 0.02) the expression of markers of inflammation in the liver (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, ICAM-1), rumen (IL-6, ICAM-1), and jejunum (IL-6). Overall, feeding colostrum reduced blood cortisol concentration and TAC, and downregulated gene expression of proinflammatory markers in liver and gut tissue. However, MEL administration had no detectable effect on variables measured, suggesting that proper colostrum management is key to limiting the negative health impact of transportation stress in pre-weaned calves.
Growth & Development 1 In-Person Oral Growth and Development 6/20/2022 9:30 t86784   1061 Growth and health costs of dairy calves raised in individual, pair, or group housing compared with dairy calves raised on cows. 4 K. Sharpe individual pair group K. Sharpe1, B. Gonçalves da Costa2, M. Endres2, B. Heins1,2 1West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN, 2University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN The objective of this study was to determine growth, health treatment costs, and incidence of treatments for scours, respiratory, and other health issues of dairy calves raised in individual (I), pair (P), group (G), or dam-raised (D) housing systems. The study was conducted at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN, dairy. Two hundred 39 Holstein and crossbred calves were randomly assigned to housing treatments by birth order during 3 calving seasons from September to December 2020, March to May 2021, and September to November 2021. The I, P, and G calves were introduced to a housing system at 3 d and were fed 10 L of milk per d. Dam-raised calves isolated with the dam for 3 d after birth. After 3 d, the pair was introduced to a larger group where calves suckled ad libitum. All calves were weaned at 63 d. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and FREQ of SAS. Independent variables were the fixed effects of breed, pen, birthweight, season, and treatment, and pen within season was a random effect. Hip height was not different (P > 0.05) for I, P, G, and D calves. The D calves had higher (P < 0.05) weaning weight (113.9 kg vs. 99.3, 101.4, and 102.9 kg, respectively), larger (P < 0.05) heart girth (115.2 cm vs. 111, 111.8, and 112.9 cm, respectively), higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (1.15 kg/d vs. 0.98, 0.98, and 0.99 kg/d, respectively), and higher (P < 0.05) total gain (75.5 kg vs. 62.1, 62.0, and 64 kg/d, respectively) than I, P, and G calves. More (P < 0.05) D calves tripled their birthweight (56.5%) than I, P, and G calves (10.7, 9.3, and 18.3%, respectively). The G calves had higher (P < 0.05) health costs ($3.34/calf) than I, P, and D calves ($1.37, $0.27, and $2.20, respectively). Treatments for respiratory and other issues were not different (P > 0.05) for I, P, G, and D calves. The G calves had greater (P < 0.05) incidence rate for treatment of scours (18.3%) than I, P, and D calves (3.57, 1.85, and 10.14, respectively). The results from this study indicate growth advantages to raising dairy calves with their dams during the preweaning phase.
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 s9825 Watch                
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 n8723     Welcome 1          
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 t86777 Watch 1049 Impact of microbial populations in raw milk on processed dairy product quality. 2 N. Martin quality bacteria raw milk N. Martin1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Raw milk is sterile as it leaves the udder of the animal, however through a variety of pathways becomes contaminated with bacteria originating from environmental sources, the cow herself and contact with contaminated equipment. While the types of bacteria found in raw milk are very diverse, there are select groups that are particularly important from the perspective of finished product quality. In particular, psychrophilic bacteria that grow quickly at low temperatures, like Pseudomonas, and spore-forming bacteria that survive processing hurdles in spore form, are the 2 primary groups of bacteria of concern related to impact on processed dairy products. High initial concentrations of psychrophilic bacteria, or growth due to improper cooling or excessive storage times leads to heat-stable enzyme development by Pseudomonas and other related psychrophilic bacteria. Even though the bacterial cells themselves do not survive processing hurdles, the enzymes continue breaking down milk components even after processing, leading to flavor, odor and body defects in finished products. Spore-forming bacteria, in contrast to Pseudomonas and other psychrophilic gram-negative bacteria, do survive processing hurdles when they are present in spore form in the raw milk. After processing, spores germinate and return to their metabolically active vegetative state and go on to cause dairy product spoilage. Understanding factors leading to the presence of these important bacterial groups in raw milk is key to reducing their impact on processed dairy product quality.
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 t86798   1050 Understanding the oxidative stability and susceptibility of raw milk. 3 J. K. Amamcharla oxidation milk flavor J. K. Amamcharla1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Flavor is an important attribute of fluid milk and has an impact on consumer liking of fluid milk. Oxidized flavor (OF) is one of the most prevalent off-flavors in milk and published reports suggest that OF is a serious concern in North America as well as in Europe. OF in milk and milk products is often described as metallic, cappy, oily, cardboard, tallowy, or fishy. The induction period and intensity of OF may vary from herd-to-herd and season-to-season. Variations in the development of OF in milk are due to the presence and availability of antioxidants, pro-oxidants, and substrate. The principle pro-oxidants in milk are metal ions of Cu and Fe. Metals may be present in milk as a result of external contamination or may be indigenous to milk. Milk may also be exposed to either sunlight or artificial light between milking and consumption, which triggers degradation of sulfur containing amino acids and results in light induced OF. The concentration and availability of pro- and antioxidants are influenced by dietary factors and the cow itself. Stress (calving, metabolic and infectious diseases) can also cause a drop in the level of antioxidants in milk. Factors such as breed, health status, and herd size also influence the distribution and concentration of anti- and pro-oxidant factors in milk. In addition to these factors, processing and handling also has a significant influence on the development of OF in milk. Initial type and load of microbial populations in milk also has an impact on the oxidative stability of milk. Numerous factors (internal and external) influence the development of OF in raw milk and subsequently in milk products.
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 t86432   1051 Ensuring dairy product sensory quality by minimizing farm-related defects. 4 S. Clark environment nutrition sanitation S. Clark1 1Iowa State University, Ames, IA The entire dairy industry suffers when a consumer has a negative dairy experience, because of the multitude non-dairy beverage and food companies eager to earn loyal customers. To maximize the potential for high sensory quality dairy products and life-long dairy consumers, control of milk quality, from cow to consumer, is essential. It all starts at the farm—no process outside the farm gate can improve milk quality, but innumerable factors can reduce the organoleptic quality of fluid milk, butter, fermented products, ice cream, and concentrated and dried dairy ingredients. Coverage of the current status of raw milk and processed dairy product sensory quality, along with advancements in the field with respect to genetic, nutritional, environmental, and management practices will be discussed in the presentation with a look toward the future.
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 t86562 Watch 1052 Farm factors affecting nontraditional aspects of raw milk quality. 5 D. F. Kelton free fatty acids iodine milk quality D. F. Kelton1 1University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Traditional measures of raw milk quality on dairy farms, based on routine testing of bulk tank samples, include somatic cell count (SCC), bacteria counts, freezing point as an indicator of added water and antibiotic residues. Through careful attention to farm management and standard operating procedures, the dairy industry has been able to document continual improvement in all of these indicators. In recent years, often generated by consumer concerns, other aspects of raw milk quality have been identified and research is ongoing to elucidate farm-level practices that can positively or negatively affect these nontraditional milk quality attributes. Examples include the iodine content related to human health and safety, relative fatty acid content and its impact on butter hardness, free fatty acids affecting milk frothing properties and presence of bismuth residue from internal teat sealants affecting aged cheeses. This presentation will highlight results of several large observational studies that have identified risk factors associated with each of these issues and in some cases have led to the implementation of changes in farm management or milk procurement strategies.
Joint Dairy Foods/National Mastitis Council Symposium: Redefining Raw Milk Quality Hybrid Symposium Dairy Foods 6/20/2022 9:30 t87013   1053 Bridging the gap: Optimizing partnerships between producers and processors for enhanced milk quality. 6 M. Wustenberg quality raw milk best practices M. Wustenberg1 1Tillamook County Creamery Association, Tillamook, OR Advancements in raw milk quality ultimately benefit the entire dairy industry, with improved on-farm outcomes, higher quality finished products and happy consumers. However, without strong partnerships between producers and processors, the dairy industry misses the opportunity to maximize the benefits of high-quality raw milk throughout the entire dairy chain. Barriers include lack of traceability, use of different and often incompatible data management systems and more. Here we will identify and discuss best practices for eliminating the barriers to efficient partnerships between dairy industry stakeholders.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 s9911                  
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86874 Watch 1062 ADSA®-EAAP PhD Student Travel Award Presentation: From promising enteric methane reducing strategies to actual reduction: Challenges along the way. 1 D. Van Wesemael enteric methane feeding strategies Covenant Cattle Enteric Emissions D. Van Wesemael1, L. Vandaele1, J. Van Mullem1, S. De Campeneere1, N. Peiren1 1ILVO, Melle, Belgium Both in the EU and the US agriculture generated around 10% of their total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2019. Within agricultural GHG emissions, enteric methane (CH4) accounted for 43% in the EU and for 28% in the US. In the past decades numerous enteric CH4 reducing strategies have been assessed for their potential, but the number of strategies that have been applied to date on dairy farms remains rather limited. The reason for this discrepancy lies in many challenges along the way and those will be briefly discussed. The most promising CH4 reducing strategies are often feeding strategies. A first step toward implementation is mostly in vitro testing. A promising in vitro result, however, does not necessarily lead to the same promising in vivo result later on. The complexity, and often resilience, of the rumen microbial environment, and possible interactions with other feed ingredients, diminishes or erases the effect. Besides, the tested amounts or concentrations in vitro can be too high for use in vivo or result in negative effects on milk production and/or milk quality. When in vivo test results are successful in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negative side-effects, a broad application in practice is usually not achieved. Often restrictions are set for the composition of the basal diet or the availability of the active feed component(s) is limited, an example is the combination of brewers’ grains and rapeseed meal in diets in Flanders. This combination is on the list of the Flemish Covenant Cattle Enteric Emissions, an auto-regulatory and voluntary approach that aims at reducing the yearly enteric CH4 emissions in Flanders with 19%, compared with 2005, by 2030. Although it is a good initiative to tackle enteric CH4 emissions without foolhardy cuts in animal numbers, several challenges remain, i.e., how will these strategies be monitored; how will possible additional costs for the dairy farmers be accounted for and how will the national GHG inventory account for the achieved GHG reduction?
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t85978 Watch 1063 Predicting climate neutrality for the California dairy industry. 2 C. J. McCabe atmospheric warming sustainable agriculture GWP*(Star) C. J. McCabe1, H. E. El Mashad1, F. M. Mitloehner1 1University of California, Davis, Davis, CA The California dairy industry consists of 1.7 million lactating cows producing more than 40 billion pounds of milk a year. Increasing concerns on the greenhouse gas impact of dairy cattle production have driven policy decisions, which have mandated the dairy industry to reduce the 2013 manure management methane emissions 40% by 2030. The main accounting metric to measure greenhouse gases has been the global warming potential 100 (GWP100). However, methane is the main greenhouse gas of production and has a relatively short lifespan of 12 atmospheric years. A relatively new metric, GWP Star (GWP*), can more accurately account for atmospheric removal of methane. Climate neutrality focuses on the warming impact of greenhouse gases and ensuring they have a net zero impact on climate. Therefore, GWP* accounting systems can more accurately assess the dairy industry’s impact on planet warming. The objectives of the study were to quantify baseline emissions, projected emissions, and climate warming resulting from the state’s dairy industry from 1990 through 2030. Dairy production and greenhouse gas emission data were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture and the California Air Resources Board, respectively. Various scenarios were considered to track the industry’s greenhouse gas emissions using GWP*. These included business-as-usual and a combination of 40% reduction of manure management greenhouse gases (40MAN) and enteric fermentation feed additives (EF). Preliminary results showed that the dairy industry’s 40MAN scenario could reach climate neutrality by 2027 through net negative atmospheric warming. Whereas the combination of 40MAN and EF could achieve climate neutrality in the same year with greater negative warming by 2030. These scenarios are a vast improvement over the business-as-usual approach, which would have the industry reduce its warming from present day but continue adding annual warming. To achieve the climate goals of California dairy industry, the appropriate technologies, decisions, and policies must be implemented to ensure the country’s largest dairy state can continue its ongoing environmental progress.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t85827 Watch 1064 Survey of California nutritionists on almond hull usage. 3 J. Heguy almond hulls California J. Heguy1, J. Asmus2, E. DePeters3 1University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, Modesto, CA, 2January Innovations, Lodi, CA, 3University of California-Davis, Davis, CA USA Almond hulls (AH) are a common ingredient in California dairy rations. In 2018, harvested California almond acreage produced 2.1 billion kg of AH. Members of the California chapter of the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) were surveyed on AH usage practices. In February 2019, an electronic survey was emailed to the entire California ARPAS membership list. Forty-two surveys were returned by 40 nutritionists and 2 feed suppliers. Total number of potential returned surveys is hard to gauge, as an unknown percentage of ARPAS members do not formulate rations. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the previous 5 years (2014 – 2018), AH usage increased (41%) or remained the same (44%), while only 15% of respondents reported decreased usage. When asked about average feeding rates for lactating cows across clientele herds, respondents reporting feeding 2.3 kg/lactating cow/day (SD = 0.7; range: 0.5 – 4.5), with AH feeding levels in their highest AH fed herds at 4.6 kg/cow/day (average; SD = 1.3; range: 0.9 – 8.2). The majority of respondents considered AH both a forage and concentrate (71%), as compared with solely a forage (29%) or concentrate (0%). When formulating growing rations, AH were considered both a forage and concentrate (62%), compared with solely a forage (29%) or a concentrate (9%), with similar responses for dry cow rations (forage and concentrate = 62%, forage = 31%, concentrate = 7%). Sixty-two percent of respondents said that changes in AH price affected how the hulls were used in ration formulations. Price, consistency, mold, and quality were variables that respondents felt they were “very responsive” to addressing when including AH in rations. Almond hull feeding is an important topic in California, as increasing almond orchard acreage increases the amount of AH available for ration inclusion.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t85872 Watch 1065 The effect of feeding rumen-protected capsicum during the transition period on performance of early lactation dairy cows. 4 G. Acetoze transition period dairy cattle phytomolecules G. Acetoze1, K. Preisinger1 1Archer Daniels Midland, Decatur, IL A recent study suggests that rumen-protected capsicum (RPC) is capable of decreasing blood insulin concentrations (Oh et al., 2017). This decrease could potentially lead to repartitioning of available glucose toward the mammary gland for milk production. The objective of this study was to evaluate early lactation performance of dairy cows fed RPC (Pancosma, Decatur, IL, USA) during the transition period on a commercial robotic dairy in Indiana. Using a randomized complete block design, 105 Holstein dairy cows (72 multiparous and 33 primiparous) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments as they entered the pre-fresh pen (−21 d relative to calving): Control (no additive) and Treatment (RPC at 1 g/hd/d). Cows were blocked by calving date, and balanced by lactation and previous 305ME milk production (multiparous). All cows received the same TMR’s (pre-fresh or fresh). RPC was orally administered daily in the pre-fresh pen and provided in the robot grain, manufactured by a commercial feed mill, at the dairy throughout 60 DIM. The study was conducted beginning in July 2020 and ended in February 2021. Measurements included blood glucose, daily milk yield and components (fat and protein). Statistical analysis was performed using the repeated-measures model procedure of JMP16 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Energy-corrected milk (ECM) and milk yield were significantly (P < 0.01) increased (51.9 vs 56.4 kg/hd/d ECM and 42.1 vs 44.7 kg/hd/d milk, control vs treatment, respectively) throughout 60 DIM for RPC cows. Milk fat yield was also greater (P < 0.01) for RPC cows compared with control (2.04 vs 1.86 kg/hd/d, respectively). No differences were observed for overall blood glucose levels (P = 0.94), however there was a tendency (P = 0.10) for RPC treated multiparous cows to have increased blood glucose 3 d after calving versus control multiparous cows. These results indicate that transition cows supplemented with RPC may have more blood glucose available for milk synthesis as seen through significantly improved milk production during early lactation.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t85898 Watch 1066 Effect of feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to Holstein cows under heat stress conditions on milk production efficiency—A pen-level randomized controlled trial. 5 M. Stangaferro feed efficiency body temperature body condition M. Thomas1, R. C. Serrenho1, S. O. Puga1, J. M. Torres1, S. O. Puga1, M. Stangaferro1 1Dairy Health and Management Services, Lowville, NY The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on milk production efficiency of Holstein cows during heat stress. The study was conducted in 2 commercial farms in Mexico from July to October 2020 and included 1 wk covariate period, 3 wk adaptation, and 12 wk data collection. Cows (n = 1,843; ≥ 21 DIM and < 100 d carried calf) were enrolled and balanced for parity, milk yield, and DIM. Within each pair, pens were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet either without (CTR) or with SCFP (TRT; 19g/d, NutriTek, Diamond V). Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (ECM), milk components, linear somatic cell score (LS), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (FE; Milk/DMI and ECM/DMI), body condition score (BCS), and the incidence of clinical mastitis, pneumonia, and culling were monitored. Vaginal temperature was assessed on a subset of cows (n = 162). Statistical analyses included mixed linear and logistic models accounting for repeated measures with pen as the experimental unit and treatment, time (week of trial), parity (1st vs. 2+), and their interactions as fixed and pen nested within farm and treatment as random effect. Parity 2+ cows fed SCFP produced more milk than CTR cows (42.1 vs. 41.2 kg/d, P = 0.05); there were no production differences between primiparous groups. The TRT cows had lower DMI (25.2 vs. 26.0 kg/d, P = 0.01) and greater FE (1.59 vs. 1.53, P = 0.003) and ECM FE (1.73 vs. 1.68, P = 0.019) than CTR cows. Milk components, LS, health events, and culling were not different between groups. At the end of the trial, TRT cows had greater BCS than CTR (3.33 vs. 3.23 in 1st and 3.11 vs. 3.04 in 2+ parity cows; P ≤ 0.05). Vaginal temperatures were different between groups (P < 0.05), with average hourly temperatures across days lower for 50% and greater for 8% of the day in TRT cows. Supplementation with SCFP improved milk yield only in multiparous cows, and increased FE and final BCS across parities, while decreasing body temperature during heat stress conditions.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86145 Watch 1067 A tannin and saponin blend impacts methane production in lactating dairy cows. 6 A. Carrazco enteric emissions methane feed additives A. Carrazco1, E. Ross1, Y. Zhao2, Y. Pan1, E. DePeters1, F. Mitloehner1 1Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 2Air Quality Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA It is increasingly important that strategies for reducing CH4 and other gaseous emissions in lactating dairy cows be investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if a commercial feed additive blend comprised of quebracho and chestnut tannins and saponins (TAN; SilvaFeed BX) could reduce enteric greenhouse gas and ammonia (NH3) emissions without negatively impacting the productive performance of dairy cows. Twenty early- to mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were blocked by days in milk and parity in a randomized complete block design and were assigned one of 2 treatments: TAN or control (n = 2/block). Cows were individually fed, group-housed in a freestall pen, and milked twice daily. The treatments were administered as a top-dress at each of 2 feedings per day. Control comprised of 50 g of ground corn; TAN treatment included the concentrated blend at a rate of 0.07% of dry matter, combined with ground corn to total 50g. Cow blocks were sampled for enteric gaseous emissions in head chambers for 12 h on their respective treatment d 0, 16, 32, and 48. Enteric gas emissions, milk yield, and components, and dry matter intake were analyzed for pairwise comparison in R. Supplemental TAN decreased enteric production (g or mg/h gas) of nitrous oxide (N2O; P = 0.03), tended to decrease CH4 (P = 0.07) and carbon dioxide (CO2; P = 0.09), and tended to increase NH3 (P = 0.07) production in TAN-fed cows. Gaseous emission yield (g or mg gas/h/kg DMI) did not differ between TAN- and control-fed cows for CH4, CO2, or N2O, though TAN-fed cows had significantly higher NH3 yield (P = 0.04). Gaseous intensity (g or mg gas/h/kg ECM) did not differ between treatment groups for CH4, CO2, N2O, or NH3 intensity. No differences were found in energy-corrected milk, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, and dry matter intake in TAN- versus control-fed cows. In conclusion, supplementing cows with TAN may have a favorable impact on enteric CH4 production in dairy cows without negatively impacting productive performance, although it may negatively impact enteric NH3 emissions.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86317 Watch 1068 Impact of OmniGen AF in dry cows heat stressed with an electric blanket model. 7 K. A. Forbes hyperthermia dry period immunomodulator K. A. Forbes1, L. T. Casarotto1, L. Cattaneo1,2, K. M. Glosson3, B. D. Humphrey3, J. D. Chapman3, G. E. Dahl1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Universita Cattolica de Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy, 3Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ Heat stress (HT) in the dry period reduces yield and health in the next lactation. Previous work indicates that feeding OmniGen AF (OMN) mitigates the detrimental effects of HT. Electric blankets (EB) can induce heat stress in lactating cows, but EB have not been used with dry cows. The objectives of this study were to explore the efficacy of the EB on cows during the dry period as well as examine the impact of feeding OMN to HT cows. We hypothesized that EB would increase body temperature in dry cows and OMN would ameliorate the impacts of HT. Thirty Holstein cows were housed individually in a tie-stall barn upon dry-off (225 ± 3 d carried calf) and cows were fitted with EB or no blanket (NB). Within EB and NB, cows were fed OMN (OMN; 56 g/d) or did not receive OMN (CON), which resulted in a 2x2 factorial of 4 treatments: EBCON, NBCON, EBOMN, and NBOMN. All cows remained in the barn with EB on until calving except for one hour a day where they were allowed to exercise outside with the EB unplugged. Throughout the experiment, DMI (kg/d), and respiration rates (RR: bpm) were measured daily, as well as rectal temperature (RT: °C), which was measured twice daily. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Use of EB increased RT regardless of diet (EBCON = 39.4, NBCON = 39.1, EBOMN = 39.2, NBOMN = 39.0 ± 0.1°C; P < 0.05), and RR relative to NB (EBCON = 53.1 ± 4.1, NBCON = 47.6 ± 4.1, EBOMN = 53.6 ± 3.7, and NBOMN = 42.1 ± 3.7 bpm; P < 0.05) whereas OMN decreased RT regardless of blanket treatment. DMI was reduced by EB (EBCON = 11.8 ± 2.5 kg/d, NBCON = 14.3 ± 2.7 kg/d, EBOMN = 13.6 ± 2.3 kg/d, NBOMN = 13.9 ± 2.3 kg/d) and OMN feeding reversed this effect (P < 0.05). Water intake did not vary among treatments. Treatment did not impact gestation length, but OMN cows had longer dry periods (EBCON = 43.2 ± 3.0 d, NBCON = 42.6 ± 3.1 d, EBOMN = 47.7 ± 2.6 d, NBOMN = 47.4 ± 2.5 d; P < 0.05). These data support the hypotheses that EB induce heat stress in dry cows and that OMN effectively mitigates the detrimental effects of heat stress.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86808 Watch 1069 Nitrogen efficiency as performance indicator and its relationship with diet composition in commercial dairy herds. 8 F. X. Amaro commercial diets dairy cow protein F. X. Amaro1, F. Ferreira2, D. R. Bruno3, A. Vieira-Neto4, J. M. Piñeiro5, D. Vyas1 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California-Davis, Tulare, CA, 3University of California Cooperative Extension, Fresno, CA, 4Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 5Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Amarillo, TX We aimed to evaluate nitrogen efficiency (NE; milk N/N intake) as performance indicator for dairy herds in California (n = 14) and Texas (n = 9). Additionally, we determined dietary predictors of NE on commercial dairies. Pen dry matter intake (DMI) was measured and individual feed ingredients were collected for diet reconstitution and chemical composition analysis. Nitrogen intake was estimated using cow DMI and dietary crude protein (CP). Yields of milk and milk components were measured from individual cows. Production responses from pens (n = 285; 247 ± 110 cows/pen) were modeled using PROC MIXED including linear and quadratic effects of NE (NEL and NEQ), parity (P; primiparous vs. multiparous), lactation stage (LS; Early vs. Mid vs. Late), and interactions (NEL × P; NEQ × P; NEL × LS, NEQ × LS) as fixed factors. Pen nested within herd and sampling location (state) were used as random effect. A stepwise backward elimination was used to remove all nonsignificant interactions. PROC CORR was used to evaluate the correlation between NE and diet composition. Nitrogen efficiency was classified as Low, Medium and High (NE = 18, 28 and 38%, respectively; Table 1). Association between MY and NE was observed and NEQ effect may suggest that maximum MY can be obtained between Medium and High NE. Protein and fat percent were positively associated with NE, while NE effect on protein and fat yield were dependent on P and LS. The NE was negatively correlated with CP and positively correlated with dietary starch and aNDFom. In conclusion, NE can be used as an indicator for MY in dairy cows and is correlated with dietary composition. Table 1. Responses to nitrogen efficiency in early, mid and late lactation
Item Early   Mid   Late SE
Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High
Milk yield, kg/d §¶#* 31.6 38.3 39.1   34.4 41.1 41.9   26.4 33.1 33.9 2.91
Protein, % §* 3.06 3.26 3.47   2.97 3.17 3.37   3.31 3.51 3.71 0.19
Fat, % §* 4.01 4.15 4.30   3.77 3.92 4.06   4.10 4.24 4.39 0.20
Protein yield, kg/d #*%$‡ 0.96 1.22 1.31   1.00 1.28 1.40   0.83 1.17 1.37 0.06
Fat yield, kg/d #*%$‡ 1.34 1.55 1.67   1.28 1.57 1.82   1.04 1.40 1.74 0.06
P ≤ 0.05: §NEL; NEQ; #P; *LS; %NEL×P; $NEQ×P; NEQ×LS.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86871 Watch 1071 Association between feeding management practices and milk production on automatic milking farms. 9 D. Swartz automatic milking robotic milking milk yield D. Swartz1, B. Gednalske1, M. Schutz1, J. Salfer1, M. Endres1 1University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the association between feed management practices and milk production on farms using automatic milking systems (AMS). Farms (n = 36) were visited once to collect partial mixed ration (PMR) samples for nutrient and particle size analyses. Robot software 30-d data such as average parity, days in milk, concentrate intake, milk per cow and milk per robot, total cows and cows per robot was also collected. A questionnaire was used for information on management practices such as feed push-up method, the number of feeds fed in the robot, the use of liquid feed, and feed table strategy (categorized into low, medium, or high intensity). A mixed model (R, lme4 package) was used for analysis with farm as a random effect. A type II Anova using Satterthwaite’s method was used to determine significance. For categorical variables, the Tukey method was used for comparisons of estimated marginal means. Feed management factors positively associated with milk production per cow (MPC) and milk production per robot (MPR) included average concentrate intake (MPC: P < 0.001, MPR:P < 0.001), percentage of feed on the top screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) (MPC:P = 0.045, MPR:P = 0.049), percentage of feed on the bottom screen of the PSPS (MPC:P = 0.029, MPR: P = 0.035), high and medium feed intensity compared with low feed intensity (MPR:P = 0.003 and P = 0.021, MCR:P = 0.003 and P = 0.021, respectively) and cows per robot (MPR: P < 0.001). Practices negatively associated with milk production included cows per robot (MPC: P = 0.002), the percentage of dry matter in the PMR (MPC:P = 0.003, MPR:P = 0.005), and the use of liquid feed (MPC:P = 0.005, MPR: P = 0.005). Various feed management practices are used across dairies and finding associations among practices and milk production might be helpful for improving AMS dairy farm success. More research is needed to further evaluate these factors.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t86789 Watch 1072 Effects of automated feeding systems on milk components and ration consistency. 10 K. Kamau automated feeding systems feeding management precision feeding K. Kamau1, B. J. Thorpe2, K. E. Meier2, M. I. Endres1, I. J. Salfer1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 2Lely North America, Pella, IA Automated feeding systems are increasingly being used on North American dairy farms to potentially improve feeding efficiency, and cow health while also reducing dependency on human labor. Automated feeding robots (AFR) mix, deliver and push up feed to the cows many times throughout the day. The study objective was to investigate the impact of AFR (Vector, Lely Industries N.V., Maassluis, The Netherlands) on milk components and ration consistency across the day. The experiment was conducted on 14 commercial dairies with automated milking systems (AMS) in the upper Midwest region of the United States. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design with 7 blocks based on breed, herd size and geographic location. Each block had 2 herds, with each treatment (AFR vs non-AFR) represented once per block. Average herd size was 79 cows. Partially mixed ration (PMR) samples were collected at 4 equally spaced time points (0500, 1100, 1900, and 2300 h) for 3 consecutive days and analyzed for DM, CP, ADF, NDF, ash, and particle size distribution. The coefficient of variation (CV) among the 4 time points was determined for each day. Bulk tank milk samples were collected once per day for 3 d and analyzed for fat, protein, MUN and lactose. A linear mixed effects model in lme4 package of R (ver. 4.0.2) tested the fixed effects of feeding system, block, and the random effect of day nested within block. Significance was determined at P < 0.05 with a tendency declared at 0.05 < P < 0.10. The CV of feed bunk DM, ADF, NDF and lignin was lesser in AFR herds (P < 0.05). Milk fat, protein, and MUN (P > 0.10) were not different between AFR and non-AFR herds. Lactose concentration was greater in AFR herds (P = 0.02). The CV of particle size distribution was not different between AFR and non-AFR herds. These data suggest that AFR systems can improve ration consistency throughout the day compared with conventional feeding systems.
Production, Management & the Environment 1 In-Person Oral Production, Management and the Environment 6/20/2022 9:30 t87025 Watch 1073 Identifying on-farm factors associated with the level of free fatty acids in bulk tank milk. 11 H. M. Woodhouse milk fat free fatty acids non-foaming H. M. Woodhouse1, D. F. Kelton1, S. J. LeBlanc1, T. J. DeVries2 1University of Guelph Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2University of Guelph Department of Animal Biosciences, Guelph, ON, Canada Elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) in bulk tank milk are a recent concern in the dairy industry. FFA result from triglyceride hydrolysis and milk with > 1.2 mmol FFA/100g of milk fat is associated with undesirable characteristics, such as off-flavor, rancidity, reduced frothing ability, and inhibited cheese coagulation. Previous research indicates that elevated FFA are multifactorial, and this study aimed to identify the major contributing factors at the farm level. We hypothesized that automated milking systems (AMS), fat additives in the lactating ration, and a narrow pipeline diameter are associated with higher concentrations of FFA. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to identify on-farm factors associated with elevated FFA in bulk tank milk. A total of 300 Canadian dairy farms in Ontario (240) and British Columbia (60) were visited once to complete a survey, assess milking systems, and gather ration data. Bulk tank FFA values for each farm were obtained from the provinces’ milk marketing boards and a monthly FFA average around the farm visit date was used as the outcome variable. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify explanatory variables associated with bulk tank FFA. Of the 300 study farms, 70 were tie-stall, 110 were freestall with parlors, and 120 were freestall with AMS. The mean bulk tank FFA was 0.83 mmol FFA/100g of fat (SD = 0.39, range = 0.26 to 3.67) and 9.0% (27) of herds had elevated FFA. Contrary to our hypothesis, milking pipeline diameter was not associated with FFA concentration. In the final multivariable linear regression model, tie-stall milking systems (β = 0.32, P < 0.001), increased milking frequency (β = 0.30 per milking, P < 0.001), and the use of fat supplements in the lactating ration (β = 0.09, P = 0.04) were associated with higher FFA concentration. Pre-cooling milk was associated with lower FFA (β = −0.16, P = 0.016). However, these variables explained only 23% of the variability in FFA in bulk milk, which suggests that more factors affecting FFA still need to be identified.
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 s9832 Watch                
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 n8750     Welcome and Overview 1          
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 t86926   1074 Revisiting the 43rd Discover Conference—Dairy cattle reproduction: Lessons learned and future frontiers. 2 J. O. Giordano Discover conference dairy cow reproduction J. O. Giordano1, E. S. Ribeiro2, J. Dalton3, A. C. Denicol4, A. DeVries5, M. C. Lucy6 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Department of Animal, Veterinary and Food Sciences, University of Idaho, Caldwell, ID, 4Department of Animal Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 5Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO The 43rd ADSA Discover Conference focused on lessons learned and future frontiers in dairy cattle reproduction. A review of the remarkable gains in reproductive performance of dairy cattle over the last 2 decades set the stage for a vibrant discussion of significant accomplishments in recent years and the future of dairy cattle reproduction. Recent advancements in understanding basic biological processes controlling ovarian function, oocyte quality, uterine biology, and pregnancy loss were linked to potential future applications in reproductive management. A comprehensive review of the current understanding of postpartum inflammation and metabolic regulation of reproduction paved the way for an in-depth discussion of practical feeding strategies for optimal reproduction and non-nutritional strategies to mitigate detrimental effects of poor health on fertility. Precision technologies and advanced data analytics continue to evolve, offering new opportunities for data-assisted reproductive management and automation. Thus, the use of digital tools for unraveling cow biology and predicting performance for improved herd management, profitability, and sustainability were discussed. Major emphasis was also placed on existing and future tools for automated monitoring and management of cattle, and the potential of leveraging data from multiple sources for improving decision-making in farms. Recent developments about the contribution of genetics to female and male fertility and the future of genetic selection for fertility were discussed. Presentations and panel discussions focused on recent developments of assisted reproductive technologies and potential strategies for fostering on-farm implementation. Major relevance was also given to the use of cutting-edge tools for breeding and the major challenges and opportunities with mainstream application in a dairy industry driven by constant change. Given the critical contributions of industry and academia in advancing reproductive knowledge and management, evolving models of collaboration between industry and academia were also discussed. In conclusion, the 43rd ADSA Discover Conference on Dairy Cattle Reproduction served as a conduit for the scientific community and industry stakeholders to reflect on the state of the art and establish a solid foundation for the next big leaps in the science of dairy cattle reproductive biology and management.
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 t85942   1075 Parity, milk production, and reproduction in different production systems. 3 I. Lean longevity milk protein parity I. Lean1,2, H. Golder1,2, S. LeBlanc4, T. Duffield4, J. Santos3 1Scibus, Camden, NSW, Australia, 2Dairy UP, University of Sydney, Camden, New South Wales, Australia, 3Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 4Department of Population Medicine, ON Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objective was to evaluate associations of parity, milk, fat and protein percent and yield, and production system [intensively fed (n = 28,675 cows) or mainly pasture-fed (n = 4,108)] on reproduction. We examined hazard of not being bred (HNBRED), of pregnancy (HPREG), probability of pregnancy to first mating (PREG1), and odds of becoming pregnant in a lactation (OPAL) using logistic regression and survival analysis including interactions. Cows were from 13 studies conducted in Australia (14.6%), Canada (2.4%), and the USA (83.0% of cows). Cows were 38.5% parity 1, 27.3% parity 2, 16.7% parity 3, 9.0% parity 4, and 8.6% parity ≥ 5. Parity ≥ 5 cows compared with cows of parity 1 had a greater HNBRED (HR = 2.45), lesser HPREG (HR = 0.73), and reduced OPAL (OR = 0.36); however, the parity ≥ 5 cows had similar PREG1 to parities 2 to 4, but differed to parity 2, 3 and 4 for all other measures. This suggests a possibility of a higher proportion of subfertile parity ≥ 5 cows than other parities. Associations between parity and reproduction were influenced by milk yield, and milk component percentages and yields at approximately 70 DIM. All milk production measures had quadratic associations with OPAL such that either low or high production or concentration of solids reduced OPAL. This reduced OPAL reflected a greater HNBRED for lower milk yield, and milk protein and fat yielding cows. Milk yield and protein percent had quadratic associations with HPREG. When centered milk yield was categorized into quartiles, there were small differences in HPREG. In contrast, the association of milk protein percent with HPREG was optimal at approximately 0.5% above group mean milk protein percentage. Milk fat percentage (HR = 0.90), fat yield (kg/d; HR = 0.78), protein yield (kg/d; HR = 0.71), and milk solids yield (kg/d; HR = 0.84) were all linearly associated with reduced HPREG. Production system was not associated with PREG1, but was for HNBRED, HPREG, and OPAL. Marked associations of increased parity with reduced reproductive performance should focus research on physiological changes with age to increase productive life of cows.
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 t86773 Watch 1076V Metabolomics of uterine luminal fluid according to genomic merit for fertility traits. 4 G. Madureira breeding value histotroph reproduction G. Madureira1, A. Fleming2, E. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Lactanet Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objective was to evaluate the association between uterine luminal fluid (ULF) composition at late diestrus and genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for fertility traits. Holstein cows (n = 88) had the estrous cycle synchronized using a 7-d CIDR program, and the d of the final GnRH was considered d0. Transcervical flushing of the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum was performed on d 14 (59 ± 3 DIM). A subset of 62 good quality flushings were selected for mass spectroscopy (MS) analyses of primary metabolites (ALEX-CIS GC-TOF MS), complex lipids (CSH-QTOF MS/MS), and oxylipins (UPLC MS/MS). Two Canadian fertility traits were considered: Daughter Fertility index (DF) and 56-d Nonreturn Rate for Cows (NRRc). Within parity, cows were ranked based on the GEBV and classified in terciles. Cows in terciles 1 (T1; low genomic merit; n = 20) and 3 (T3; high genomic merit; n = 20) were then compared. Statistical analyses were performed using a t-test in MetaboAnalyst 5.0, and parity and batch of samples representing 2 collection periods were included as covariates. For DF, compared with cows in T1 (GEBV 96 ± 2), cows in T3 (GEBV 105 ± 3) had greater abundance of 5 primary metabolites (ribitol, threonine, methionine, allantoic acid, and oleamide) and 10 complex lipids [5 lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 3 ceramides, and 2 phosphatidylcholine (PC)], and reduced abundance of 3 complex lipids (TG 58:1, TG 58:3, and FA 14:1) and 2 oxylipins (15,16-DiHODE and 9-Nitrooleate). For NRRc, compared with cows in T1 (GEBV 96 ± 2), cows in T3 (GEBV 105 ± 3) had greater abundance of one primary metabolite (threonine) and 9 complex lipids (4 LPC, 2 PC, 2 lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and DHA), and reduced abundance of 2 primary metabolites (succinate semialdehyde and 3-hydroxypropionic acid), 6 complex lipids (PC 36:5-D, PC 36:5-B, PE 36:3, SM 30:1, TG 58:1, and CE 20:5), and 2 oxylipins (15,16-DiHODE and 13S-HODE). In conclusion, GEBV for fertility traits was associated with important differences in ULF composition, which may help explain the underpinning biology associated with genetic regulation of fertility in lactating cows.
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 t86960 Watch 1077 Impaired interferon-tau production and action during embryo mortality in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. 6 C. L. Gonzalez-Berrios early embryo mortality maternal recognition dairy cattle C. L. Gonzalez-Berrios1, J. V. Bishop1, H. Van Campen1, M. G. Thomas1, T. R. Hansen1 1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Early embryo mortality (EM) contributes to infertility and occurs on days (d) 7–19 of pregnancy in cows. However, the exact mechanism of why a pregnancy with EM fails is unknown. We hypothesized that pregnancies with EM are associated with impaired conceptus-derived interferon-tau (IFNT) paracrine action on the endometrium (ENDO) and endocrine action on the corpus luteum (CL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) leading to luteolytic signals disrupting pregnancy. We randomly sorted Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 22) into non-pregnant (NP; not exposed to semen; n = 7) or pregnant (P; artificially inseminated; n = 15) groups. We re-sorted P cows, on d16 based on conceptus morphology of normal (N); translucent and elongated (n = 9) or EM; pink and non-elongated (n = 6). ENDO, CL and PBMC tissues were collected. RNA-Seq data were analyzed with DeSeq2 in R and RT-qPCR data with Proc GLM-ANOVA in SAS.Previously, we reported N conceptuses were longer (P < 0.0001) and had greater (P < 0.01) IFNT mRNA levels than EM conceptuses in RNA-Seq analysis. RNA-Seq also revealed that ENDO IFN stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) mRNA levels were greater (P < 0.05) in N and EM compared with NP, but did not differ between N and EM cows. Herein, we report that RNA-Seq revealed an upregulation (P < 0.05) of ISG15 mRNA levels in N compared with NP CL and PBMC with no difference between EM and NP or EM and N in CL and PBMC. RT-qPCR confirmed that ISG15 mRNA levels were greater in N (P < 0.0001) and tended (P < 0.07) to be greater in EM compared with NP ENDO. RT-qPCR also revealed in the CL and PBMC, N had greater (P < 0.05) ISG15 mRNA levels compared with NP, but EM levels did not differ from NP or N. In most comparisons, EM ISG15 mRNA levels were intermediate and did not differ from NP or P; whereas N had greater ISG15mRNA levels compared with NP. Pregnancies with EM are associated with conceptuses restricted in elongation and diminished IFNT action in which ENDO, CL and PBMC ISG15 responses do not different from NP cows. Impaired IFNT action in pregnancies with EM might occur by shorter conceptuses, reduced cells releasing and expressing IFNT and/or reduced maternal target tissue responses. USDA-NIFA#2019–07133.
Reproduction Platform Session: 43rd Discover® Conference: Dairy Cattle Reproduction: Lessons Learned and Future Frontiers Hybrid Platform Session Reproduction 6/20/2022 9:30 t86287 Watch 1078 Combining data for estrus expression during the voluntary waiting period and predictors of reproductive outcomes identified subgroups of cows with different reproductive performance. 7 C. Rial dairy cow reproduction automated estrus C. Rial1, A. L. Laplacette1, J. O. Giordano1 1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Our objective was to evaluate reproductive outcomes for dairy cows grouped based on the combination of estrus, health, and performance data collected during the voluntary waiting period (VWP). Lactating Holstein cows (n = 995) were grouped based on the combination of estrus event data as determined by automated estrus alerts (AEA) from an ear-attached sensor (Smartbow, Zoetis), health disorder events, and milk yield up until a VWP of 50 DIM. Records of at least one AEA were deemed positively associated with reproductive performance. Occurrence of at least one health disorder and high milk yield (grouped in high, medium, and low) were risk factors (RF) for poor reproductive performance. Thus, cows were grouped into an estrus and no RF (E-NRF; n = 320), no estrus and RF (NE-RF; n = 242), no estrus and no RF (NE-NRF; n = 220), and estrus and RF (E-RF; n = 213) group. Cows were AI at detected estrus (AIE) for 2 to 4 wk after the end of the VWP, and if not AIE were timed AI after Ovsynch plus progesterone. Binary data were analyzed with logistic regression and time to pregnancy with Cox’s regression. The proportion of cows AI at detected estrus (AIE) for first service differed (P < 0.01) among all groups (E-NRF = 91.1%, E-RF = 82.0%, NE-NRF = 55.9%, and NE-RF = 45.6%). Pregnancies per AI differed (P < 0.01) as it were greatest for E-NRF (54.8%), intermediate for NE-NRF (45.6%), and lowest for E-RF (35.1%) and NE-RF (34.6%). The hazard ratio for time to pregnancy was greater (P < 0.01) for the E-NRF than the NE-NRF [1.5 (95%CI 1.2–1.8)], E-RF [1.6 (95%CI 1.3–1.9)], and NE-RF [2.1 (95%CI 1.8–2.7)] groups with median days to pregnancy of 76, 86, 94, and 108. More (P < 0.01) cows were pregnant at 150 DIM for E-NRF (86.4%) and E-RF (80.1%) than for NE-RF (67.0%). The NE-NRF group (80.0%) did not differ from any group. We conclude that combining estrus event data during the VWP with other predictors of reproductive performance might be used as a strategy to identify subgroups or cows with larger differences in expected reproductive performance than when these predictors are used alone. Supported by USDA-NIFA FFF projects NYC127851 and 127945 and by Zoetis.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 9:30 s9990                  
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 9:30 t85887 Watch 1079 Effect of different lipids sources added to milk replacers on body weight, body condition score, fecal score, and biometric measurements in bull calves. 1 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez calf fatty acids meat production N. C. Pedersen1, P. P. K Petersen1, S. S. Abdullah2, P. F. Lomar1, H. H. Hansen1, A. L. Alves Neves1, R. A. M. Vieira3, E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 3Laboratório de Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil The objective of this study was to determine if lipid supplementation to milk replacer (MR) increased body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and biometric measurements or affected fecal score (FS) in bull calves. Eighteen Holstein × Belgian Blue bull calves were assigned to 3 treatments (control and 2 lipid source groups) balanced according to body weight (70 ± 12, 69 ± 12, and 70 ± 12kg). For 21 d, all animals received a control (16% fat) MR with no lipid supplementation. Thereafter, 2 of the groups of animals were fed each a different lipid source, of differential saturation (BoviLM and Bovi85 from NLM Vantinge, Denmark), added as 5% of the dry matter (DM) of the MR. Animals assigned to the control group continued to receive the MR with no added lipid sources. BoviLM fatty acid contents (g/100g) were 40 of C16:0 and 40 C18:0, while Bovi85 had 45 of C16:0 and 40 of C18:1 cis-9. On d 0 (start of the study), 7, 14 and 21; BW, BCS (1 = emaciated to 5 = overly fat), FS (1 = watery to 5 = firm), rectal temperature, and biometrics [withers height (WH), hip height (HH), body length (BL), and heart girth (HG)] were measured. All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) in a model that included treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects and calf within treatment as random effect. The treatments and their interactions with time did not influence BW (77 ± 16kg), BCS (3.7 ± 0.62), FS (3.3 ± 1.14), rectal temperature (38 ± 0.4°C), WH (83 ± 5cm), HH (89 ± 5cm), BL (82 ± 4cm), and HG (98 ± 7cm). Moreover, in all calves, BW (69 to 84 kg), WH (81 to 85 cm), HH (86 to 92 cm), BL (80 to 83 cm), and HG (94 to 102 cm) increased (P < 0.05) from d 0 to 21, while FS decreased (P < 0.05) from 3.6 to 2.5 in the same time period. The average daily gain was similar among treatments (0.66 ± 0.47g). Overall, adding lipid sources of different saturation degrees at 5% DM inclusion rate to the MR did not increase nor decrease the growth performance and biometric measurements of young bull calves.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Gut physiology, fermentation, and digestion 6/20/2022 9:30 t85851 Watch 1080 Impact of calcium gluconate feeding on intestinal microbial populations in a growing steer model. 2 O. Y. Koyun calcium gluconate butyrate hindgut microbiota O. Y. Koyun1, E. E. Rowland1, J. M. Lourenco1, J. J. Baloyi1, F. L. Fluharty1, T. D. Pringle1, A. M. Stelzleni1, R. L. Stewart1, M. McCarthy2, S. Fry2, K. E. Griswold2, T. R. Callaway1 1Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 2Micronutrients Inc, Indianapolis, IN We examined the effect of fat-embedded ruminally-protected calcium gluconate product (Selko Lactibute, Trouw Nutrition) on the gut microbiota of growing steers. Steers (n = 20) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: the control group (CON, n = 10) receieved a daily feedlot ration ad libitum; and the calcium gluconate treatment group (LAC, n = 10) was fed the control diet top-dressed with fat-embedded calcium gluconate product at 16 g/hd/d, for 55d. At slaughter (d56), digesta samples were collected from rumen, cecum, colon, and rectum. To determine the microbial composition within each section of the gut, DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted. Data were analyzed using a General linear Model with dietary treatment as the main effect. No significant differences were observed in species richness of microbial communities from the rumen, cecum, colon, and rectum of all steers, but populations in each compartment were different in composition (P = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the abundance of major phyla in the rumen and rectum microbiota of steers fed LAC, compared with CON. The abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was higher (P = 0.05), and of Bacteroidetes was lower (P = 0.05) in the cecum of steers fed LAC. In the colonic microbiota of LAC-fed steers, Actinobacteria abundance was lower (P = 0.05), and Bacteroidetes abundance tended to be higher (P = 0.075). Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was greater (P = 0.05) in the cecum, and lower (P = 0.05) in the colon of steers fed LAC. Several family-level changes (P = 0.05) were caused by calcium gluconate treatment in different sections of the intestinal tract. At the genus level, abundance of Paeniclostridium, Romboutsia, Clostridium, and Turicibacter in the microbiota of different intestinal sections were significantly (P = 0.05) affected. In summary, supplementing the ration of growing steers with fat-embedded rumen-protected calcium gluconate impacted the microbial population in the hindgut, most of which are important in gut homeostasis and health, and the formation of beneficial end products.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 9:30 t85888 Watch 1082 Impact of different fat sources added to milk replacers and starter feed for bull calves on in vitro organic matter degradation and volatile fatty acids. 4 E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez beef calf lipids rumen E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez1, S. S. Abdullah2, K. Tajonar3, R. Dhakal1, A. L. Alves Neves1, R. A. M. Vieira4, H. H. Hansen1 1Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, 3Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Rumiantes, Facultad de Medicina Veterinária y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, 4Laboratório de Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil The objective was to determine if adding different fats and doses affected in vitro rumen fermentation of milk replacers (MR) and starter feed (SF) used for bull calves. Each feed was tested with 3 doses fat in a 24-h in vitro trial and replicated (n = 4 bottles each feed/fat/dos/rep). Rumen fluid was taken from pre- (for MR) and post-weaned (for SF) calves. After incubation, samples were filtered, volatile fatty acids and organic matter (OM) residue determined. Fats used were BoviLM, Bovi85, Glycofat (NLM Vantinge, Denmark), Bergafat F-100 (Berg&Schmidt; GmbH & Co.), and retail rapeseed and sunflower oils. These fats were tested on each of 2 commercial MR with additive doses of 0, 6, and 9%OM and thereafter on SF with additive doses of 0, 4 and 6%OM. VFA data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), while degradation data were analyzed using the LMER procedures of R (R Core Team 2019). OM degradation was greatest (P < 0.05) in when no fat was added to either MR (94%) at any dose or with any additive. Adding 9% significantly reduced degradation in MR compared with 6%. Degradation of OM with retail oils (89%) was not significantly different from BoviLM (87%) and F-100 (86%) but greater than Glycofat (85%) and Bovi85 (84%) (P < 0.05). Lipid or dose did not have significant effects on total VFA (g/L) or individual proportions (g/100g), except for dose on valeric and propionic acids (P < 0.05). Adding all types of additives at 9% to both MRs resulted in significantly less propionic acid (24.8) then either 0 or 6%. In contrast, the most valeric acid (11.1) was found (P < 0.05) at 0% (12.0), but there was no difference between 6 (11.1) and 9% (11.2). With SF, OM degradation was not different between treatments. Total VFA concentration (31.8) and individual proportions of acetic (35.7), propionic (28.0), butyric (26.2), isobutyric (1.5), valeric (3.6), isovaleric (3.2), and caproic (1.7) acids, were not affected by lipids or dose. Adding fats to MR reduced degradation while addition of fats to a starter feed had no effect on in vitro fermentation parameters.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Calves and Heifers 6/20/2022 9:30 t86924 Watch 1083 Effect of varying levels of a phytogenic compound in combination with a functional mineral compound and yeast cell wall extract on calf growth and health. 5 S. E. Schuling dairy calf phytogenic compound yeast cell wall S. E. Schuling1, D. E. Schimek1 1NutriQuest, Mason City, IA Two hundred fifty female Holstein calves were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effect of varying levels of a phytogenic compound (PC) in combination with a functional bentonite (FV) and yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on growth and health. Calves were 1–2 d old at arrival and allocated to one of 5 lines of individual hutches. In each treatment, except control, FV and MOS were fed at 5 and 4 g/calf/d, respectively. Each line was randomly assigned to one of 5 treatments 1) control (CON), 2) CON + 100 mg PC+FV+YCW, 3) CON + 300 mg PC+FV+YCW, 4) CON + 500 mg PC+FV+YCW, and 5) CON + FV+YCW. Calves were fed whole milk reconstituted to a 14% solids level and were fed 2x/d from d 1–51 and 1x/d from d 52–54. Solids feeding rate ranged from 0.34 – 1 kg/day. A 19.25% CP calf starter and water were offered ad libitum. Body weights were measured biweekly through 12 weeks, and ADG was calculated from arrival and by weighing interval. At weaning, calves were moved to group pens (12 calves/group) and were fed an 18% CP grower pellet. Scour, pneumonia, and other health events were recorded by calf managers. Calf starter intake was measured weekly. Performance and health data were analyzed using the MIXED and LOGSITICS procedures of SAS, respectively. There was a treatment*week interaction for BW, ADG, period ADG, and starter intake. At weaning and 12 weeks, calves fed PC had increased BW compared with calves fed CON and FV+YCW. At 12 weeks, BW were 99, 106, 104, 106, and 101 ± 2.20 kg for treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. From wk 6–8 and 10–12 calves fed 500 mg PC+FV+YCW had increased ADG compared with CON (0.98 and 0.87 ± 0.03 kg and 1.13 and 0.98 ± 0.05 kg, respectively). There was no difference in scour events among treatments. In wk 6 and 7, starter intake was improved for the 3 PC treatments and FV+YCW compared with control. Feeding PC at 100, 300 or 500 mg in combination with FV and YCW improved starter intake 2 weeks before weaning, which resulted in increased BW and ADG at weaning and beyond.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 9:30 t86217 Watch 1084 Effect of increasing monensin concentration on the performance of lactating dairy cows. 6 A. C. Benoit monensin dairy cattle milk yield A. C. Benoit1, P. A. LaPierre1, G. D. Mechor2, D. M. Barbano1, M. E. Van Amburgh1 1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN Monensin studies have reported improved feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows although few have evaluated the effect of increasing monensin supplementation on milk performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate increasing dietary monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) concentration on milk and component yield, milk FA profile, and dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows fed contemporary diets. One hundred ninety-two cows (120 ± 50 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 12 pens of 16 cows, and pens were assigned a treatment diet following a 4 wk covariate period where all cows received 11 g/ton (DM basis) monensin. The treatment diets contained, on a DM basis, 0 g/ton (CON), 11 g/ton (R11), 14.5 g/ton (R14.5), and 18 g/ton monensin (R18). Results are presented in the following sequence: CON, R11, R14.5, and R18. The DMI was not significantly affected by monensin treatment, although increased numerically in the R18 group. Milk yield was not affected by monensin treatment (39.3, 39.9, 39.7, and 39.6 kg/d). Milk fat percentage was greater than 4.6% and milk true protein percent was equal to or greater than 3.35% for all treatments. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was numerically greater in R11, R14.5, and R18 compared with CON (46.0, 47.1, 46.8, and 46.9 kg/d). Milk fat yield (1.79, 1.83, 1.85, and 1.83 kg/d) and milk protein yield (1.30, 1.33, 1.33, and 1.33 kg/d) were not significantly different among treatments. There was a quadratic effect of monensin on milk production efficiency for milk, ECM, and fat-corrected milk with the highest efficiency in the R11 and R14.5 groups. In addition, milk de novo and mixed-origin FA yield were positively linearly affected by monensin feeding while FA unsaturation was significantly reduced in R14.5 and R18 compared with CON. Increasing monensin supplementation resulted in a non-significant 2% increase in ECM while linearly increasing FA yield. This suggests monensin can be fed at higher concentrations to achieve high milk component yield in lactating dairy cows fed contemporary diets, and further research is needed to understand the role of monensin in FA synthesis.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition 6/20/2022 9:30 t86636 Watch 1085 Effect of partially replacing baleage with forage canola on energy utilization in dairy cows. 7 A. F. Brito brassica energy use efficiency grazing L. H. P. Silva1,2, Y. Zang1, M. Ghelickhan1, Y. Geng3, S. L. Dillard4, K. J. Soder5, A. F. Brito1 1University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 2Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, 3Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, 4Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 5USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, University Park, PA Forage canola (CAN) is an annual crop that can be used to extend the fall grazing season. Our research revealed increased DM digestibility and decreased CH4 production in cows grazing CAN, suggesting changes in dietary energy utilization. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CAN, as grazed herbage, on energy balance in dairy cows. Twelve multiparous and 6 primiparous mid-lactating organic certified Jersey cows were blocked by parity or milk yield in pairs and, within pair, randomly assigned to control (CTRL) or CAN in a randomized complete block design. Control cows were kept confined, while CAN cows stayed in the barn during the day and grazed overnight. Diets were formulated to yield a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio, with 50% of legume-grass baleage replaced by grazed CAN (herbage allowance = 12 kg of DM/cow). Cows in both diets had access to 2 GreenFeed units to measure CH4 and CO2 production. The experiment lasted 7 wk (2-wk covariate) with gaseous and digestibility measurements done in wk 3 and 5. Feed and fecal samples were analyzed for gross energy (GE), while energy in milk, urine, tissue, and heat production (HP) were estimated using published equations. Although GE intake was similar between treatments (mean = 95.8 Mcal/d), CAN cows had greater digestible energy intake (P < 0.01; 66.7 vs. 60.9 Mcal/d) due to lower (P < 0.001) fecal energy (28.2 Mcal/d) compared with CTRL (35.7 Mcal/d). Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was greatest in CAN (58.9 vs. 52.1 MCal/d) because of less energy loss as CH4 (4.91 vs. 5.90 Mcal/d; P < 0.001). Digestible energy was more efficiently converted to ME in CAN than CTRL (88.1 vs. 85.6%; P < 0.001). Intake of NEL increased in CAN vs. CTRL (38.5 vs. 32.7 Mcal/d; P < 0.001), and CAN cows partitioned less ME into HP (43.5 vs. 50.8%; P < 0.001) and were more efficient in converting ME into NEL than CTRL. However, compared with CTRL, the CAN diet led to more tissue energy (11.9 vs. 4.55 Mcal/d; P < 0.001) and less milk energy (18.8 vs. 20.0 Mcal/d; P = 0.05). In conclusion, CAN cows were more efficient in converting GE into NEL, but increased NEL intake did not result in more milk energy.
Ruminant Nutrition 1: Calf Growth - Applied Nutrition In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - General 6/20/2022 9:30 t86899 Watch 1086 Occurrence of mycotoxins in US dairy total mixed rations 2018–2022. 8 E. Schwandt mycotoxins total mixed ration E. Schwandt1, P. Gott1, L. Zheng1, U. Hofstetter2, A. Levy1 1DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ, 2DSM Austria GmbH, Getzersdorf, Austria Mycotoxins are harmful secondary fungal metabolites which have been identified in a broad range of feed ingredients that can affect animal health and performance. This study investigated mycotoxin occurrence and contamination levels in total mixed ration (TMR) samples from dairies across the US. Samples were screened via LC-MS/MS technique for: aflatoxins, type A trichothecenes, type B trichothecenes (B-Trich), fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A. Detailed information was collected about each sample including state of origin and whether or not clinical signs of mycotoxicosis were present on-farm. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure (SAS 9.4, Cary, NC) to investigate the interaction of clinical sign (yes/no) and harvest year. No interaction was statistically significant for each of the toxin groups, so main effects of harvest year are presented in Table 1. Twenty samples from 7 states have been submitted for analysis so far in 2022. Although the sample set is small compared with previous years, detectable levels of B-Trich have been identified in 95% of samples with ZEN and FUM detected less frequently in 55 and 10%, respectively. Mean contamination levels (parts per billion, ppb) are presented on dry matter basis and were similar in 2022 compared with 2021 and 2020 for B-Trich, FUM, and ZEN (P > 0.05). Although feed ingredient sources vary widely across the US, historical and preliminary survey results indicate B-Trich occur frequently in US TMR samples and co-contamination with ZEN was detected in more than half of the samples analyzed. Table 1. Mycotoxin contamination in US Total Mixed Ration (TMR) samples (DM basis)
Item TMR Pooled SEM P-value
2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Number 218 247 213 171 20    
B-Trich              
 Prevalence, % 94 100 98 97 95 155.1 <0.001
 Mean, ppb 884c 2,404a 2,659a 2,011b 2,483a
FUM              
 Prevalence, % 11 26 22 18 10 57.8 0.02
 Mean, ppb 880a 859a 715ab 463b 427b
ZEN              
 Prevalence, % 29 65 56 30 55 31.0 <0.001
 Mean, ppb 313b 365ab 339ab 277b 452a
a–cValues across rows are different (P < 0.05).
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 s9818                  
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86104 Watch 1087 The form, more than the fatty acids profile of fat supplements, influences digestibility but not necessarily the production performance of dairy cows. 1 U. Moallem CSFA free fatty acids palmitic acid J. Shpirer1,2, L. Lifshitz1, H. Kamer1, Y. Portnik1, U. Moallem1 1Department of Ruminants Science, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel, 2Department of Animal Science, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel The form of fat supplement, degree of saturation, and the fatty acids (FA) profile influence the cows' productive response. The objective was to examine the effects of fat supplements differing in form or FA profile on nutrient digestibility and cows’ performance. Forty-two dairy cows were assigned into 3 groups and fed for 13 wks rations contained (on DM basis): 1) CS45:35 – 2.4% of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) comprised of 45% palmitic acid (PA) and 35% oleic acid (OA); 2) CS80:10 – 2.4% of CSFA comprised of 80% PA and 10% OA; 3) FF80:10–2.0% of free FA comprised of 80% PA and 10% OA. Rumen and fecal samples were taken for VFA and digestibility measurements, respectively. Production data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, and rumen and digestibility data with GLM models of SAS. Milk yields tended to be higher in FF80:10 than in CS80:10 cows (P = 0.07). Fat percentage was highest in the FF80:10 (4.02%), intermediate in the CS80:10 (3.89%), and lowest in the CS45:35 cows (3.75%; P = 0.001). The 4% FCM yields were highest in the FF80:10 cows and ECM yields were higher in the FF80:10 than in the CS80:10 cows. DMI did not differ among groups, and the calculated EB was lower in the FF80:10 cows (P = 0.0001). Efficiency calculations for FCM and ECM were higher in the FF80:10 cows. The rumen acetate/propionate was lowest in FF80:10 (P = 0.0005), and the total VFA was lowest in CS80:10 cows (P = 0.004). Digestibility of DM and OM were higher in the CS80:10 than in FF80:10 cows (P = 0.03), protein digestibility was lowest in the FF80:10 group (P = 0.02), and NDF and ADF digestibilities were highest in CS80:10 cows (P = 0.0002). Crude fat and 16-carbon FA digestibilities were lower in the FF80:10 (P = 0.05), and that of 18-carbon FAs was lower in the FF80:10 than in the CS80:10 cows (P = 0.008). In conclusion, the form, more than the FA profile of the fat supplements influences digestibility. However, it appears that energy partitioning toward production was higher in the FF80:10, although the digestibility was lower in this group than in cows fed both CSFA products.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86550 Watch 1088 Interaction between DGAT1 polymorphism, parity, and acetate supplementation on feeding behavior, milk synthesis, and plasma metabolites in dairy cows. 2 C. Matamoros genetic potential lipogenesis milk fat C. Matamoros1, C. D. Dechow1, K. J. Harvatine1 1Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Acetate supplementation increases milk fat, but interactions with animal-related factors are relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the interaction of acetate supplementation, genetic potential for milk fat synthesis (genomic PTA or DGAT1 SNP), and parity on milk fat synthesis. A total of 96 cows (49 multiparous and 47 primiparous) were arranged into 2 blocks of 48 in a crossover design with 14-d experimental periods and loosely housed with Calan gates. Treatments were a basal TMR as a control or sodium acetate mixed in the TMR at ~10 mol/d of acetate. Milk yield and composition and DMI were determined during the last week of each period. Blood samples were taken at 2 time points at the last day of each period. Data were analyzed with a model that included the fixed effect of treatment, DGAT1 SNP, parity, block, and all their possible interaction and the random effect of period(block) and cow(block). For analysis with genomic PTA, DGAT1 was replaced with genomic PTA for milk fat percentage or yield. Variables that were measured through time were similarly analyzed with repeated measured. All models were hierarchically reduced and Studentized residuals outside of ± 3 were considered outliers and eliminated. The DGAT1 K232A SNP frequency was 45% AA and 51% KA, with 4% cows with either a KK or unimputable genotype. Acetate supplementation increased DMI by 1.7 kg/d in KA multiparous cows, but there was no difference in other types of cows (acetate × DGAT1 × parity P = 0.10). There was no effect of acetate on milk yield (P = 0.86) and no interaction with DGAT1 polymorphism or parity. Acetate supplementation increased milk fat yield and concentration by 117 g/d and 0.31 percentage units, respectively (P < 0.001 for both) and there was no interaction with DGAT1 polymorphism or parity. There was also no interaction of acetate and genomic PTA for milk fat yield (acetate P < 0.001 both analyses). In conclusions, acetate supplementation increases milk fat synthesis regardless of parity or genetic potential for milk fat synthesis.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86978 Watch 1089 Interaction between trans-10,cis-12 CLA and acetate supplementation on milk fat production and milk fatty acids. 3 C. Matamoros de novo lipogenesis milk fat depression C. Matamoros1, K. J. Harvatine1 1Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Acetate supplementation increases milk fat synthesis under normal dietary conditions. It is not known if acetate can recover milk fat synthesis when milk fat depression (MFD) is induced with trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of this study was to characterize the interaction between trans-10,cis-12 CLA and acetate supplementation on milk fat synthesis and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Ten ruminally cannulated cows were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment design with 7-d periods and 14-d washout periods. Treatment factors were CLA (10 g/d infused to the abomasum) or sodium acetate providing 600 g/d of acetate as a continuous ruminal infusion. Milk samples were collected at each milking during the last 2 d of each period and all variables were averaged across the period for analysis. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included the fixed effect of acetate, CLA, and their 2-way interaction and the random effect of cow and period. Acetate supplementation decreased milk yield by 2 kg/d (P = 0.02), regardless of CLA supplementation. As expected, CLA supplementation decreased milk fat percentage by 40% (P < 0.001) and milk fat yield by 655 g/d (P < 0.001). Acetate increased milk fat percentage by 9% (P = 0.01) and there was no effect of acetate on milk fat yield (P = 0.34). There was no interaction between factors in any milk production variable. Acetate supplementation increased the concentration of 16 C FA by 7% (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease the concentration of FA >16 C (P = 0.08). Supplementation of CLA decreased the concentration of FA <16 C and 16 C FA by 20 and 12% (P < 0.001 for both), respectively, and increased the concentration of FA >16 C by 20% (P < 0.001). There was no interaction between factors in any milk FA category. In conclusion, acetate supplementation did not recover milk fat synthesis when MFD was induced with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Acetate supplementation did stimulate mammary lipogenesis regardless of occurrence of CLA-induced MFD.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86448 Watch 1090 Rumen and abomasal infusion of an exogenous emulsifier improves nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows. 4 J. M. dos Santos Neto absorption emulsifier fatty acid J. M. dos Santos Neto1, C. M. Prom1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI We evaluated the effects of infusing an exogenous emulsifier either into the rumen or abomasum on DMI and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Nine rumen-cannulated multiparous cows (170 ± 13.6 DIM; 43.6 ± 5.20 kg of milk) were assigned in 3 × 3 Latin squares with 18 d periods consisting of 7 d of washout and 11 d of infusion with sampling on the last 4 d. Treatments were infusions of: 1) water carrier only into the rumen and abomasum (CON); 2) 30 g/d polysorbate-C18:1 (Tween-80; T80) infused into the rumen (RUM); and 3) 30 g/d T80 infused into the abomasum (ABO). Cows were fed the same diet which contained (%DM) 32.2% NDF, 16.1% CP, 26.5% starch and 3.41% fatty acids (FA; 1.96% FA supplement containing 28% C16:0 and 55% C18:0). The statistical model included the random effect of cow within square and the fixed effects of treatment, period, square, and their interactions. We evaluated 2 orthogonal contrasts: 1) the overall effect of T80 infusions (CON vs. the average of ABO and RUM) and 2) RUM vs. ABO. Overall, T80 had no effect on DMI (P = 0.16), decreased 16-carbon FA intake (4.50 g/d; P = 0.04), and increased the digestibility of NDF (2.85 percentage units; P = 0.05), total FA (4.65 percentage units), 16-carbon FA (3.25 percentage units), and 18-carbon FA (4.60 percentage units; P < 0.01). Infusing T80 did not affect 16-carbon absorption (P = 0.20) and tended to increase 18-carbon (P = 0.07) and total FA (P = 0.09) absorption. Compared with RUM, ABO had no effect on DMI (P = 0.16) but decreased the intake of total FA (28 g/d; P = 0.02), 16-carbon FA (7 g/d; P = 0.01), and 18-carbon FA (19.0 g/d; P = 0.03). Compared with RUM, ABO had no effect on the digestibility of NDF (P = 0.88) or 16-carbon FA digestibility (P = 0.13) but tended to increase total FA and 18-carbon FA (P = 0.07) digestibility with no effect on the absorption of total FA, 16-carbon FA, or 18-carbon FA (P > 0.60). In conclusion, infusion of polysorbate-C18:1 into both the rumen and abomasum increased total FA, 16-carbon FA, and 18-carbon FA digestibility. Responses were marginally better for the abomasum compared with rumen infusion.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86577 Watch 1091 Meta-analysis examining the effect of palmitic acid supplementation on molar changes in de novo and preformed milk fatty acids in dairy cows. 5 A. C. Benoit fatty acid mammary gland milk fat A. C. Benoit1, J. M. dos Santos Neto1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of palmitic acid (C16:0) supplementation on changes in milk FA yield in moles per day (mol/d). Our analysis included 1,215 individual observations from 16 studies conducted in early to late lactation cows. Treatments were control diets (CON) with no supplemental FA (n = 557) and diets supplemented at 1.5% DM with C16:0-enriched supplements or FA blends containing ≥ 80% C16:0 (PA; n = 658). Diets (% DM) included (mean ± SD) 29.8 ± 2.1 NDF, 27.2 ± 2.2 starch, and 16.9 ± 0.51 CP. Production across treatments was 28.5 ± 3.4 kg/d DMI, 45.5 ± 4.5 kg/d milk, 1.70 ± 0.22 kg/d milk fat, and 1.45 ± 0.13 kg/d milk protein. The statistical model included the random effect of study, cow within study, and period or day of treatment within study. Sources of milk FA were classified as de novo (<16 carbons), mixed (16 carbons), and performed (>16 carbons). Compared with CON, PA had no effect on de novo yield (P = 0.22) but increased C4:0 yield (P < 0.01) by 4.4% and decreased yields of C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 by 5.0%, 9.6%, 11.0%, and 6.1%, respectively (P < 0.01). Compared with CON, PA increased mixed yield (P < 0.01) by 16.5% and increased C16:0 and C16:1 yields (P < 0.01) by 17.3% and 8.4%, respectively. PA had no effect on preformed yield (P = 0.69) but decreased C18:0 yield by 2.5% and increased C18:1 yield by 3.2% (P < 0.01) compared with CON. Overall, the relative molar yield of FA sources for CON were 34.3% de novo, 33.0% mixed, and 32.6% preformed compared with 32.4% de novo, 36.7% mixed, and 30.9% preformed for PA. In conclusion, our results indicate that C16:0 supplementation increases the inclusion of mixed FA into milk fat without decreasing the yields of de novo or performed FA. However, C16:0 supplementation does shift de novo synthesis toward greater C4:0 yield and lower yields of longer-chain de novo FA and shifts preformed FA yield toward greater C18:1 rather than C18:0. This could be due to positional distribution of specific FA in triglycerides for maintenance of milk fat fluidity.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86440 Watch 1092 Effect of palmitic acid supplementation on production responses of primiparous dairy cows during early lactation. 6 J. Parales-Giron fat supplementation first lactation periparturient J. Parales-Giron1, J. M. dos Santos Neto1, L. C. Worden1, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Palmitic acid (C16:0) supplementation has been shown to increase energy partitioning toward milk production, improving the yields of milk fat, 3.5% FCM, and ECM in multiparous cows at different stages of lactation, including early lactation. In the current study we evaluated the effect of C16:0 supplementation on DMI, the yields of milk and milk components, and BW and BCS of primiparous dairy cows during early lactation. Twenty-eight first-lactation Holstein cows (2,359 ± 130 GTPI) were used in a complete randomized block design and assigned to either a control diet containing no supplemental fat (CON), or a diet supplemented with a C16:0-enriched supplement at 1.5% diet DM (PA) from calving to 23 DIM. The diets contained (% DM) 26.2% forage NDF, 25.1% starch, and 17.9% CP. The C16:0-enriched supplement (91% C16:0) replaced soyhulls in CON. The study ran from August 2019 to March 2020, when it had to be stopped due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The statistical model included the random effects of block, cow within block and treatment, and Julian date, and the fixed effects of treatment, time, and their interactions. When the interaction between treatment and time was significant, mean comparisons were made within week of lactation. Treatment did not affect DMI, milk yield, milk protein content and yield, or BW and BCS change (P > 0.34). PA tended to increase the yields of milk fat (P = 0.07) and 3.5% FCM (P = 0.09). Treatment interacted with time; in the second week of lactation, PA increased milk fat content (4.40, 4.76 %; P < 0.01) and the yields of milk fat (1.23, 1.42 kg/d; P < 0.05), 3.5% FCM (32.2, 36.0 kg/d; P < 0.01), and ECM (31.7, 34.9 kg/d; P < 0.05), and tended to increase DMI (P = 0.09). In the third week of lactation, PA increased milk fat content (4.07, 4.44%; P < 0.05) and tended to increase milk fat yield (P = 0.06). These data provide evidence for beneficial effects of palmitic acid supplementation in early lactation primiparous cows. However, the fewer number of experimental units than initially intended did reduce the statistical power and ability to detect treatment differences.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86910 Watch 1093 Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate blended in a fatty acid supplement on lactating dairy cow performance when feeding diets with increased risk for diet-induced milk fat depression. 7 S. L. Bennett HMTBa milk fat depression S. L. Bennett1, R. Bomberger1, J. Albrecht2, O. Drehmel2, C. Soderholm2, M. Scott2, K. J. Harvatine1 1Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, 2Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a rumen available methionine analog which has been shown to reduce the risk of biohydrogenation induced milk fat depression as a rumen modifier. Blending HMTBa with a fat supplement may impact its rumen availability and digestibility of the supplement. Our objective was to investigate the effect of HMTBa blended with a FA supplement on milk fat depression and fatty acid digestibility. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d periods. Each period consisted of 2 dietary phases. During the first 18 d, a moderate-risk diet was fed (28.5% NDF, 0.75% soy oil) and during the final 3 d a high-risk diet was fed (28.0% NDF, 1.5% soy oil). The fat supplement was included at 1.5% DM in all diets. Treatments were fat supplements that contained 0% (CON), 3.7% (LOW), and 7.3% (HIGH) HMTBa in the FA prill targeting 0, 12.5 and 25 g/d of HMTBa. Digestibility was measured using iNDF as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the random effects of cow and period and the fixed effects of treatment, phase, and their interaction. There was a treatment by phase interaction (P = 0.02) on milk yield, where yield decreased during the high-risk phase for CON cows and increased for LOW cows (45.7 vs 47.6 kg/d). The high-risk diet did not decrease milk fat as expected, however milk protein increased (2.94% vs 2.96%, P = 0.02) and lactose decreased (4.85% vs 4.83%, P = 0.05) between phases. There were no effects of treatment on milk fatty acid profile, though there were phase effects. Both de novo and mixed source FA proportions decreased, while total 18 carbon FA, trans-10 C18:1 and trans-11 C18:1 increased in the high-risk phase. Total-tract DM digestibility was lower in cows fed diets that contained HMTBa, regardless of dose (57.9% vs 55.6%, P = 0.01). There were no effects of treatment on any other nutrient digestibility parameters. Overall, feeding HMTBa blended with a FA supplement had no effect on milk production, components or digestion.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t87046 Watch 1094 Dietary effects on branched-chain volatile fatty acid use for bacterial lipid synthesis in dual-flow cultures varying in forage and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. 8 K. E. Mitchell cellulolytic fatty acids aldehyde K. E. Mitchell1, S. L. Kienzle1, B. A. Wenner1, C. Lee2, D. H. Kleinschmit3, M. T. Socha3, J. L. Firkins1 1Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 3Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN Rumen bacteria utilize branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) or aldehydes (BCALD) to maintain membrane homeostasis, and cellulolytics require branched-chain volatile fatty acid (BCVFA). Our objective was to assess BCVFA usage in continuous cultures (CC) administered high (HF) and low (LF) forage diets. We hypothesized that BCVFA would be used more in the HF diet because of the greater proportion of cellulolytic bacteria. However, supplemental PUFA would inhibit cellulolytic bacteria, so less BCVFA was expected to be recovered in BCFA and BCALD. The study was an incomplete block design with 8 CC used in 4 periods with treatments (n = 4) arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial. The factors were: HF or LF (67 or 33% forage, 33:67 alfalfa:orchard grass), without or with supplemental corn oil (3% CO, 1.5% PUFA), and without or with 2.15 mmol/d (5 mg/d 13C) each of isovalerate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate. Bacteria pellets were collected. After methylation, FA and fatty aldehydes were separated before analysis by GC/IRMS. A mixed model had random effects of period and fermenter and fixed effects of diet, CO, BCVFA, and their interactions. Label was only recovered in branched-chain lipids, contrary to previously reported results performed on a shorter column, which probably caused coelution. Dose recovery in bacterial lipids decreased (P = 0.02, Diet × CO) from 2.07% with HF to 1.47% with LF, but CO in the HF diet decreased the recovery by 19.8%. Fatty aldehydes were less than 6% of total bacterial lipids, but 26.5% of 13C recovered in lipids were recovered in BCALD. HF increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, which increased the dose recovery in lipids, but CO only affected recovery with a HF diet because the bacterial profile shifted toward a population that was more sensitive to PUFA supplementation. Because BCFA and BCALD play an important role in the function and growth of bacteria, especially cellulolytics, BCVFA supplementation can support the rumen microbial consortium, increasing fiber degradation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t87066 Watch 1095 Oleic acid limits lipolysis and improves mitochondrial function in adipose tissue from periparturient dairy cows. 9 U. Abou-Rjeileh oleic acid lipolysis PLIN5 U. Abou-Rjeileh1, D. Salcedo1, J. Parales1, C. Prom1, M. Chirivi1, N. J. O'Boyle2, J. Laguna1, A. L. Lock1, G. A. Contreras1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2University of Nottingham, Loughborough, United Kingdom Oleic acid (OA) has been shown to modulate lipid mobilization and enhance mitochondrial function. In the liver, OA promotes lipid droplet formation by activating perilipin 5 (PLIN5) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα); however it is unknown if this mechanism occurs in adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesize that OA limits lipolysis and improves mitochondrial function in bovine AT. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 12) were infused abomasally following parturition with ethanol (CON) or OA (60 g/d) for 15 d. Subcutaneous AT samples were obtained at 11 ± 3.6d before calving (PreP), and 6 ± 1d (PP1) and 13 ± 1.4d (PP2) after parturition. Adipocyte morphometry was performed on H&E-stained sections. Isoproterenol (ISO, 1μM) stimulated lipolysis and insulin (1μg/L) inhibition of ISO were determined using an in vitro explant culture by measuring glycerol release. PLIN5 and PPARα expression were determined by capillary electrophoresis. NGS RNA sequencing was used to evaluate the transcriptomic profile of bioenergetics gene pathways. Statistical analyses were performed using a mixed effect model which included the random effect of cow, and the fixed effect of treatment, time, and their interactions. At PP2, compared with CON, OA reduced AT response to ISO and increased AT sensitivity to insulin (P < 0.01). Compared with CON, OA decreased the percentage of smaller adipocytes (<3,000 μm2) at PP2 (P < 0.001) hence limiting adipocyte size reduction. Compared with CON, OA tended to have higher PPARα content at PP1 (P < 0.10), and increased PLIN5 protein expression at PP2 (P < 0.05). At PP2, OA increased PARP3 fragments per kilobase million mapped reads (FPKM) which mediates DNA strand break repair (P < 0.05) and tended to increase SOD2 FPKM which plays an antiapoptotic role against oxidative stress (P = 0.06). OA decreased SIRT3 FPKM at PP2 (P < 0.05) supporting a shift to lipogenesis. Our results provide initial evidence that OA may limit lipolysis by enhancing lipogenesis through the activation of PPARα through PLIN5. RNa-seq results show that OA improves mitochondrial integrity reflecting a state of lipogenesis.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86444 Watch 1096 Rumen vs. abomasal infusion of oleic acid as an approach to determine the potential for an oleic acid-enriched calcium-salt to affect digestibility and production of dairy cows. 10 A. M. Burch absorption fatty acid milk fat A. M. Burch1, J. de Souza2, A. L. Lock1 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2Perdue AgriBusiness, Salisbury, MD We determined the effects of a high oleic acid (OA; C18:1) Ca-Salt (23% C16:0 and 64% C18:1) alongside rumen and abomasal infusion of OA on digestibility and production responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous cows (46.2 ± 5.96 kg/d of milk; 161 ± 11 DIM) were assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4x4 Latin square design with 18-d periods, consisting of 7-d of washout and 11-d of infusion. Treatments were: water infusions (CON), abomasal infusion of OA (ABO), ruminal infusion of OA (RUM), or rumen supplementation of a high OA Ca-salt (SALT). Treatments delivered 50 g/d of C18:1. Cows were fed the same diet that contained (%DM) 30% NDF, 16% CP, 30% starch, and 3.1% FA. The statistical model included the random effect of cow within square and the fixed effects of period, treatment, and their interaction. Pre-planned contrasts were: CON vs the average of the 3 C18:1 treatments (CON vs FAT), OA infusion in the abomasum vs rumen (ABO vs RUM) and OA ruminal infusion vs Ca-salt (RUM vs SALT). Results are presented in the following order: CON, ABO, RUM, and SALT. Treatment had no effect on DMI or NDF intake (P > 0.39). FAT tended to decrease 16-carbon FA digestibility (62.2, 62.8, 55.5, 61.3; P = 0.09) compared with CON. FAT increased 3.5% FCM (42.6, 44.8, 43.9, 43.3 kg/d; P = 0.03), decreased milk fat content (3.56, 3.44, 3.45, 3.47%; P = 0.03), and tended to increase milk protein yield (1.31, 1.37, 1.34, 1.33 kg/d; P = 0.07) and content (3.01, 3.04, 3.03, 3.06%; P = 0.07) compared with CON. ABO increased digestibility of NDF (48.4 vs 46.3, P = 0.04), 16-carbon FA (P < 0.01), 18-carbon FA (62.0 vs 56.2, P = 0.01), and total FA (62.5 vs 56.4, P = 0.01) compared with RUM. SALT increased digestibility of DM (67.0 vs 69.1, P < 0.01), NDF (46.3 vs 49.0, P = 0.01), 16-carbon FA (P < 0.01), 18-carbon FA (56.2 vs 60.2; P = 0.04), and total FA (56.4 vs 60.8; P = 0.03) compared with RUM. In summary, abomasal infusion of OA and rumen supplementation of a high OA Ca-salt improved the digestibility of NDF and FA compared with ruminal infusion of OA in mid-lactation dairy cows.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t87023 Watch 1097 Effect of dietary fiber to starch ratio on bovine milk oligosaccharide profiles. 11 S. D. Durham bovine milk oligosaccharides diet fiber S. D. Durham1, D. G. Lemay2, Z. Wei1, K. F. Kalscheur3, J. W. Finley4, N. Fukagawa5, D. Barile1,6 1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 2Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 3Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Dairy Forage Center, Madison, WI, 4Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Office of National Programs, Beltsville, MD, 5Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, 6Foods for Health Institute, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) have several demonstrated and hypothesized benefits including roles in cognitive development as well as prebiotic and antipathogenic activities, making them promising ingredients for infant formulas and nutraceuticals. BMO extraction from bovine milk is challenged by low concentrations relative to non-bioactive simple sugars. BMO abundances are known to vary with lactation stage, breed, and parity, but these characteristics are difficult to modify in existing dairy herds. In contrast, diet modification is an accessible target, and is already known to influence milk yield, lipid content, protein levels, and monosaccharide compositions. In this study, milk samples were collected from 59 mid-lactation Holstein dairy cattle in a crossover study design that included sampling during a pre-experimental baseline period and 2 subsequent 70-d treatment periods in which cows were fed either a high fiber low starch diet (HFLS; 37% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 13% starch) or a low fiber high starch diet (LFHS; 29% NDF, 27% starch). At the end of each period, cows were assigned to the opposite diet, such that each cow acted as its own control. BMOs were extracted from collected milk samples and isobarically labeled with carbonyl-reactive tandem mass tags to improve the detection of low-abundance BMOs and reduce analysis time by 75% for this large sample set. BMO analysis was conducted by nano-liquid chromatography chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nineteen BMOs were identified across the sample set, including 4 large fucosylated compounds. Seven BMOs were found to have significantly more positive percent changes in yield-adjusted abundance from the baseline period for milk samples collected during feeding with the HFLS diet compared with the LFHS diet (P < 0.05). Additionally, this study affords the opportunity to investigate the impact of other potential influences on BMO abundances. Understanding how BMO profiles are affected by cow diet will aid in developing dairy herd dietary management practices to positively affect milk composition and improve their potential for use as functional ingredients.
Ruminant Nutrition 2: Lipids & Carbohydrates In-Person Oral Ruminant Nutrition - Carbohydrates and Lipids 6/20/2022 9:30 t86783 Watch 1098 Rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces hepatic triacylglycerol content by increasing hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein secretion. 12 U. Arshad choline lipoprotein triacylglycerol U. Arshad1, A. Husnain1, M. B. Poindexter1, R. Zimpel1, J. E. P. Santos1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Objectives were to determine the effect of supplementing sources of RPC with a low (L, 28.8%) or high (H, 60.0%) concentration of choline chloride on hepatic lipid metabolism. Holstein cows at 234 ± 2.2 d of gestation were blocked by body condition (3.79 ± 0.50) and assigned to receive 0 (CON) or 25.8 g/d of choline ion either as L25.8 or H25.8 (n = 33; 11/treatment). Treatments were fed for 14 d, with cows feed-restricted to 50% of the net energy for lactation required in the last 9 d of the experiment. Intake of metabolizable methionine was maintained at 20 g/d for the 14-d experiment with rumen-protected methionine. Hepatic tissue was collected on d 13 to determine composition and mRNA expression. On d 14, cows received intravenously a 10% solution of tyloxapol at 120 mg/kg of body weight to block very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) catabolism. Blood was sampled sequentially for 720 min and the area under the curve (AUC) of triacylglycerol (TAG) was calculated. Lymph was sampled 6 h post-infusion. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models, and orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the effect of supplementing RPC (CON vs. 1/2 L25.8 + 1/2 H25.8) and source of RPC (L25.8 vs. H25.8). Supplementing RPC reduced hepatic TAG content and increased AUC for serum TAG indicating increased hepatic secretion of TAG-rich lipoproteins. Supplementing RPC increased the mRNA expression of genes associated with autophagy (ATG3) and assembly of lipoproteins (MTTP), whereas it decreased the expression of a gene associated with hepatic lipidosis (PLIN2). Reduction in hepatic TAG in cows supplemented with RPC is mediated by increased hepatic TAG secretion. Table 1.
Item CON L25.8 H25.8 SE RPC Source
Liver, as-is %            
 TAG 8.26 3.99 4.76 0.44 0.01 0.16
 Glycogen 1.77 3.40 3.96 0.15 0.01 0.01
 AUC TAG, mg/dL/min 21,747 32,323 28,699 3,706 0.03 0.43
Lymph            
 NEFA, mM 0.43 0.46 0.53 0.14 0.65 0.66
 BHB, mM 0.87 0.86 0.89 0.08 0.97 0.73
 Glucose, mM 2.90 3.17 2.94 0.15 0.33 0.25
 TAG, mg/dL 16.7 13.8 11.9 1.9 0.07 0.42
Hepatic mRNA, fold change            
 ATG3 1.0 1.10 1.12 0.08 0.79
 DGAT2 1.0 0.85 0.99 0.20 0.05
 MTTP 1.0 0.98 1.58 0.10 0.01
 PLIN2 1.0 0.66 0.62 0.03 0.80
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 s9980                  
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86837 Watch 1099 The legalization of raw milk sales: A method to aid in the safety of unpasteurized dairy products. 1 R. Hutton raw milk legal safety R. Hutton1, J. Bohlen1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA The routine process of pasteurizing milk was widely implemented by the 1950s in the United States, effectively reducing food borne illness outbreaks related to dairy products for decades. During the pasteurization process, milk is heated to extreme temperatures to ensure the eradication of pathogenic microorganisms such as Brucella, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella, all known to cause serious diseases and even death. However, there is an increasing desirability for unpasteurized (raw) milk by consumers. The popularity of organic, limited processed foods, perceived notions of raw milk’s increased nutritional benefits, and its superior taste all fuel this movement away from pasteurized dairy products. When it comes to accessing these raw products, laws vary extensively by state. In states where raw milk sales are legal, they are then accessed in accordance to the state law by direct from the farm, cow-share programs, or retail stores. In those states where raw milk sales for human consumption are illegal, advocates for raw milk find loopholes in the system. An example is in Georgia where consumers are obtaining raw milk legally sold as pet food from producers with licenses under commercial feed laws. These farmers are not under strict regulations to produce a product viable for human consumption, which makes its use by consumers a potential catastrophe on the horizon. The dairy industry is built on providing a product that is advantageous to human health in a safe and legal manner. Legalization of raw milk sales for human consumption will allow at a minimum, regulation of the milk’s quality and safety with standards in place for storage temperature, testing for pathogen kind and count, somatic cell count, drug residue testing and farm sanitation requirements. Though the idea of legalized raw milk sales is not palatable to everyone, it may just provide the safest product for those determined to access an unpasteurized product.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86347 Watch 1100 Quality control methods for detection of the A1 variant of β-casein in bulked milk. 2 J. Becker A1 allele beta-casein milk processing J. Becker1, K. Daniels1, D. Winston1 1Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA The A1 variant of bovine milk protein β-casein (A1 β-CN) is linked to allergies in humans and can reportedly cause stomach pain, bloating, and other digestive issues. Dairy products that are marketed as “A1-free,” or to exclusively contain A2 β-CN protein, are a relatively new category of dairy products; these apparently do not contain A1 β-CN and consumption is not generally linked to gastrointestinal upset. Genotyping of cows and selective retention of cows that only make the A2 variant of β-CN is gaining popularity on some US dairy farms, with resultant milk sold to specialty milk processors. The US does not currently have guidelines or regulations for quality control at milk processing plants to ensure that A2 β-CN sourced milk is in fact free from A1 β-CN. Nor is there an agreed upon definition of “A1-free” milk. There is therefore an urgent need for quality control methods for detection of A1 β-CN contamination in bulked milk intended to be sold as “A1-free.” There are several promising analytical methods for this purpose in milk samples, such as: (1) ELISA for measurement of A1 β-CN, (2) post-PCR SNP genotyping for presence of the A1 allele, and (3) chromatography followed by mass spectrometry for identification of intact A1 β-CN. Each method has pros and cons associated with it. To be of practical use for verification of “A1-free” status, these analytical methods should be: sensitive, specific, low-cost, and yield rapid results. Further, there is a need for regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration, to establish consensus on what constitutes “A1-free” milk so that milk processors can perform quality checks on bulk milk supplies and compare results to agreed-upon federal standards. Until these hurdles are overcome, quality assurance of “A1-free” labeled dairy products across the US cannot be reliably guaranteed.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86457 Watch 1101 Are dairy foods healthy or is it just a coincidence? 3 C Langford yogurt whey milk C Langford1, G Mazon1, J. H. C. Costa1 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY An increasing viewpoint among consumers is that milk can have adverse health effects, leading to its removal from their diets (Paula et al., 2014). But these consumer viewpoints do not align with the research and disregard the health benefits associated with the consumption of dairy products. The consumption of dairy products has been researched to determine its relationship to disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Hernandez Ledesma et al. (2014) investigated the relationship between fermented milk and hypertension and diabetes and found the consumption of fermented milk was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure. This decrease in systolic blood pressure occurs because dairy products naturally contain angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting peptides, which can be used to treat hypertension (Rai, 2017). Gomez-Cortes (2018) found a correlation between milk consumption and a reduced risk of diabetes and obesity due to the high-quality protein in dairy products that has a satiating effect that prevents over consumption and leads to a reduction in body fat storage. Additionally, whey protein in dairy products can help combat diabetes by reducing postprandial plasma glucose and due to its leucine content that stimulates the glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) (Gomez-Cortes 2018). High glucose levels in the blood stimulates GIP to signal insulin production to lower glucose (Gomez-Cortes 2018). Dairy consumption has also been linked to a reduced risk in developing colon cancer in men consuming 525 g of milk each day (Ralston et al., 2014). This reduced risk arises due to milk binding to secondary bile acids and the colorectal epithelium (Lamprecht et al., 2001). Binding of calcium has been shown to reduce cell proliferation in the colon and rectum. Thus, reducing the reported cases of colon cancer (Ahearn et al., 2011). Overall, research has shown that dairy consumption has health benefits to the consumer such as reduced risk of diabetes, hypertension, and colon cancer. Dairy products contain ACE, CLA, and calcium that all serve to support health. Future research should investigate other potential health benefits from dairy foods consumption.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86765 Watch 1102 Synthetic milk: Milk without the moo. 4 S. Hettinger dairy products synthetic milk cellular agriculture S. Hettinger1 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines the standard identity of milk as the “the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows” (FDA Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream, 2021). Synthetic milk is an imitation of natural milk produced through cellular agriculture. Cellular agriculture encompasses a group of technologies that allow the manufacture of livestock products using culturing techniques. The most common method of producing synthetic milk is through the extraction of DNA containing the genes responsible for producing casein and whey. This bovine DNA is then incorporated into the genome of yeast or bacteria, creating recombinant strains. These microorganisms, upon exposure to plant-based fats, plant-based sugars, and water, excrete casein as well as whey through fermentation. These proteins are isolated in powder form and made into dairy products (Newman et al., 2021). Start-up companies around the world that produce and sell synthetic milk and dairy products in the United States use “clean milk” to describe their products (Perfect Day Foods Inc., n.d.) These companies claim the taste of their protein-based dairy products is indistinguishable from traditional milk and that the products include the added benefits of lacking impurities, lactose, bacteria, negative environmental impacts, and cholesterol (Milburn, 2018). Limited peer-reviewed research is available to back these claims. As it becomes more accessible to consumers, synthetic milk, including its production and marketing strategies, represents a major threat to the production and sale of traditional dairy products. Further research into food safety, environmental impact, and nutrient content differences between synthetic milk and traditional dairy is required to evaluate the effects this new technology will have on the future of traditional dairy products.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86824 Watch 1103 Impact of milk components on cheese quality. 5 R. Rahn casein micelle rennet coagulation time milk components R. Rahn1, C. Zaring1, E. Eckelkamp1 1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN Cheese has become the most consumed dairy product in the United States. Coagulation though chemical component interactions with rennet is required in most cheese. Casein (CN) is the major component of milk protein that interacts with rennet to form coagulum. This coagulum involves gel formation or the denaturing and restructuring of milk proteins. The CN micelle is composed of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and can be influenced by various factors such as breed, nutrition, somatic cell count, and stage of lactation. Phosphorus contributes to CN micellular structure by binding to Ca and creating crosslinks with soluble Ca2+ which is vital for the secondary phase of rennet coagulation in curd formation. Milk with higher dry matter (13.5 ± 0.7 g/100g), fat (3.99 ± 0.44 g/100g), lactose (5.01 ± 0.06 g/100g), protein (3.69 ± 0.29 g/100g), Ca (129.5 ± 11.1 mg/100g), and P (106.6 ± 9.9 mg/100g) concentrations was more likely to be optimal (ideal curd size, firmness, and coagulation time) for cheese making (Malacarne et al., 2013). According to Priyashantha et al. (2019), CN micelles in milk can be present as a small micelle (SM; 149.8 nm) or a large micelle (LM; 161.6 nm) with larger CN micelles requiring lower concentrations for coagulation to occur. Occasionally, coagulum is weak or unformed and could be corrected through adding Ca, citrate, or both. When adding only Ca to a milk sample, LM size decreased by 18% and rennet coagulation time (RCT) decreased while critical coagulation concentration (CCC) increased. The addition of only citrate did not result in significant differences in CN micelle size for SM and LM but did increase RCT. However, the addition of Ca and citrate together increased SM and LM size by 9% and 5% respectively, increased RCT, lowered CCC, and yielded a stronger gel (Priyashantha et al., 2019). Managing for higher component milk with adequate Ca and P would result in optimal cheese processing. In the case of abnormal coagulation, addition of Ca and citrate improved RCT and CCC regardless of CN micelle size.
ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods Oral Competition SAD Oral Competition ADSA-SAD Dairy Foods ORAL Competition 6/20/2022 11:00 t86935 Watch 1104 The emerging world of postbiotics. 6 C. Arrowsmith postbiotics immune health C. Arrowsmith1, D. Olver1 1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Many consumers faced lifestyle changes during the Covid-19 pandemic, with an especially large amount of attention directed toward immune function. The result has been an increased focus on gut health and the many methods of boosting it, including both pre- and probiotics. Postbiotics have been gaining attention for similar reasons. According to Zolkiewicz et al., postbiotics are substances that result from the metabolic processes of microorganisms in the intestinal system. Common forms of postbiotics are short-chain fatty acids, enzymes, and cell wall fragments. Like prebiotics and probiotics, postbiotics support immune health. Zolkiewicz found that butyric acid, a major postbiotic, is vital in the production of regulatory T cells. Additionally, the study found that cell wall fragments can improve the production of cytokines. Cytokines support the immune system and can also decrease inflammation, especially in the large intestine. Dr. Brian Weiner from Cleveland Clinic shares that it is important to have a strong immune response in the large intestine such as the one supported by postbiotics. This is vital since the bacterial concentration in the colon is one of the largest found in nature. One advantage postbiotics have over traditional probiotics is that many are much more shelf stable and do not need to be refrigerated. Research has helped demonstrate the value of postbiotics. A 2010 study by Kotani et al. involved 80 elderly individuals deemed healthy. A placebo group drank sterile water daily, while the test group was given a postbiotic in the form of lactic acid. After 12 weeks, the investigators discovered that those in the treatment group had a reduced risk of respiratory infection and a greater rate of antibody production to protect against bacteria and toxins. While there are postbiotics supplements available, they can also be found in many foods, especially dairy foods. Dairy products that increase the production of postbiotics include buttermilk, cottage cheese, kefir, and yogurt. While postbiotics may be unknown to many, they are an emerging immune health trend that will be fueled by dairy products.
Animal Health 2 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 14:00 s9895                  
Animal Health 2 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 14:00 t86793 Watch 1105 Magnitude of change in prepartum feed intake and its association with transition metabolism and performance. 1 M. G. S. Santos feeding behavior health M. G. S. Santos1, B. Mion1, B. V. Winters1, E. S. Ribeiro1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Our objectives were to identify factors associated with changes in prepartum DMI, and to evaluate its consequence to transition metabolism and performance. Cows (n = 273) were assigned to automatic feeding bins to measure DMI from 45 d prepartum to 98 DIM. Within parity and season, cows were ranked based on relative change in DMI from period 1 (d −21 to −12) to period 2 (d −4 to 0) and classified in terciles. After calving (study d 0), cows were milked twice a day. Blood was sampled on d −21, −14, −10, −7, −3, 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 for analyzes of selected metabolites. Rumination time (RT; min/d) was monitored by sensors. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX of SAS considering group, parity, diet, time, their interactions, season, and the random effect of cow. DMI was similar between groups in period 1 (13.3 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.60) but differed in period 2 (T1 = 9.1; T2 = 11.3; T3 = 12.5 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.01), resulting in major differences in the relative change in prepartum DMI (T1 = −30.7; T2 = −15.9; T3 = −4.6 ± 0.8%; P < 0.01). An interaction between group and d was detected (P = 0.02) for RT. From d −4 to 0, T1 had shorter RT (P < 0.05) than T2 and T3. Cows in T3 had lower prepartum BCS (T1 = 3.67; T2 = 3.65; T3 = 3.57 ± 0.03; P = 0.01) than T1 and T2. Cows in T1 were heavier (T1 = 786; T2 = 764; T3 = 750 ± 7 kg; P < 0.01) and had a less positive EBAL (T1 = 3.2; T2 = 4.2; T3 = 4.3 ± 0.3 Mcal/d; P < 0.01) than T2 and T3 in the prepartum period. Postpartum BW and yields of milk and ECM did not differ. An interaction between group and wk was detected (P < 0.01) for postpartum DMI. In wks 1 to 3, T3 had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than T1 and T2. Cows in T3 had a less negative postpartum EBAL (T1 = −2.1; T2 = −1.8; T3 = −1.0 ± 0.3 Mcal/d, P = 0.05) than T2 and T1. Through transition, cows in T1 had lower Ca (T1 = 2.27; T2 = 2.30; T3 = 2.32 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and cholesterol (T1 = 2.27; T2 = 2.33; T3 = 2.49 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.01), and higher NEFA (T1 = 0.51; T2 = 0.45; T3 = 0.40 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and BHB (T1 = 642; T2 = 564; T3 = 546 ± 18 µmol/L, P < 0.01) than T2 and T3. In conclusion, large reductions in prepartum DMI were associated with important changes in mineral and energy metabolism but not with the subsequent lactation performance.
Animal Health 2 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 14:00 t86625 Watch 1106 Association of β-hydroxybutyrate with time eating and ruminating as determined by an ear-based sensor in transition cows. 2 S. A. Hagerty feeding behavior hyperketonemia transition S. A. Hagerty1, A. F. Park2, P. D. French1 1PHD R&D, Fort Atkinson, WI, 2Cooperative Research Farms, Richmond, VA The objective of this study was to investigate the association of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) with feeding behaviors reported by an ear tag-based sensor and determine if differences exist between parities. Data from 4 transition (−21 to +21 DIM) experiments conducted at the same location which included 255 cows fitted with an ear-based sensor (CowManager, Agis, NL) and whole-blood BHB measured at 7 DIM (Precision Xtra, Abbott) were analyzed using logistic regression and the mixed model of JMP with hyperketonemia (HYK) status (n = Normal or HYK = blood BHB ≥ 1 mmol/L) at 7 DIM and lactation group (LG) at dry-off (LG1 = parity 1, n = 83; LG2 = parity 2, n = 102; LG3 = parity 3+, n = 70) as fixed effects and trial as a random effect. Since HYK incidence was not uniformly distributed by LG (11%, 17%, and 20% for LG1, LG2, and LG3, respectively) an equal number of N cows within LG and trial were randomly selected for analysis of HYK status. Data from all cows were used to fit linear (L), quadratic (Q), and cubic (C) effects of day partum, simple effects of BHB and LG, and 2-way interactions using forward stepwise regression. A reduction in prepartum (PRE) or postpartum (POST) eating time (ET) or ruminating time (RT) increased (P < 0.01) the odds of HYK. Cows with HYK had lower POST ET (166 vs 182 ± 6 min/d; P < 0.01) and LG1 and LG2 subsequently diagnosed with HYK had lower PRE ET. Although all LG subsequently diagnosed with HYK had lower (P < 0.01) PRE RT, only LG2 had lower POST RT (LG x HYK; P < 0.01). PRE ET decreased (L; P < 0.01) 14% over the last 3 wk of gestation and did not differ for LG. Although POST ET increased (L,Q; P < 0.01) for all LG, LG1 increased by 77%, LG2 by 65%, and LG3 by 52% (LG x Day; P < 0.01). PRE RT decreased (L,Q; P < 0.01) 68 min/d (14%), whereas POST RT increased (L,Q,C; P < 0.01) 207 min/d (63%). In conclusion, there was an association between BHB and feeding behavior. Cows of all LG with HYK had lower POST ET. PRE ET was less for LG1 and LG2 cows subsequently diagnosed with HYK indicating that cows may be predisposed before parturition and strategies that increase ET merit further investigation.
Animal Health 2 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 14:00 t85874 Watch 1107 Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia at calving and 7 days postpartum in grazing Holstein cows with spring parturitions in southern Chile. 3 P. Melendez calcium magnesium grazing P. Melendez1, F. Lopez2,3, J. Lama2, B. Leon2 1School of Veterinary Medicine, Texas Tech University, Amarillo, TX, 2Cooprinsem, Chile, Osorno, Chile, 3UACH, Valdivia, Chile Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia are typical metabolic disorders affecting dairy cattle worldwide. Although most studies have reported total plasma concentration of these 2 minerals, the ionized presentation is their biologically active form, which is considered a better indicator for blood Ca and Mg status in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of ionized Ca and Mg (iCa, iMg) in plasma (mean ± SEM) at calving and 7 d postpartum and the prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) and hypomagnesemia (SCM) in grazing Holstein cows with spring parturitions in southern Chile. The study was conducted during 2019. Eleven Holstein herds were randomly selected and 8 cows per herd were sampled at calving and 7 d postpartum to determine plasma iCa and iMg within an hour of sample collection, using a clinical analyzer. Of the total, 34.1% were lactation 1, 19.3% lactation 2 and 46.6% lactation ≥ 3. The mean ± SEM concentration at calving of iCa were 1.03 ± 0.10 mmol/L and of iMg were 0.62 ± 0.07 mmol/L. iCa concentration was 1.064 ± 0.13, 1.024 ± 0.13 and 0.89 ± 0.17 mmol/L and for iMg was 0.63 ± 0.06, 0.60 ± 0.07 and 0.61 ± 0.12 mmol/L, for lactations 1, 2 and ≥3, respectively. With a cut-off value of 1.0 mmol/L for iCa, and 0.52 mmol/L for iMg, the prevalence of SCH and SCM are shown in the table. It is concluded that SCH and SCM based on iCa and iMg determination are more common metabolic conditions than expected in southern Chilean grazing Holstein cows with spring parturitions. Table 1.
Item At calving (%) 7 d postpartum (%)
Subclinical hypocalcemia    
 Total (n=88) 64.8a 30.1b
 Lac 1 (n=30) 40.0a, * 21.7b
 Lac 2 (n=17) 54.5a, ** 23.5b
 Lac 3+ (n=41) 86.7a, *** 42.3b
Subclinical hypomagnesemia    
 Total (n=88) 21.6a 48.9b
 Lac 1 (n=30) 0a, * 33.3b, *
 Lac 2 (n=17) 17.7a, ** 35.3b, *
 Lac 3+ (n=41) 24.4a, *** 53.8b, **
a, bStatistical differences (P ≤ 0.05) between days within lactation. *, **, ***Statistical differences within day between lactations (P ≤ 0.05).
Animal Health 2 In-Person Oral Animal Health 6/20/2022 14:00 t86720 Watch 1108 Effect of glycerol supplementation across the transition period on energy balance and inflammation in multiparous dairy cows milked with automated systems. 4 B. J. Van Soest glycerol ketosis transition cows B. J. Van Soest1, M. N. Pereira3, T. F. Duffield2, M. A. Steele1, T. J. DeVries1 1Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 2Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, 3Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Lavra, Lavras, MG, Brazil The objective of this study was to quantify the effect supplementing transition dairy cows with dry glycerol in the prepartum and postpartum periods has on markers of energy balance and inflammation. Multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 60) were enrolled in a 2x2 factorial design study. From d 21 to calving, cows individually received (in automated bins) a dry cow diet with either: 1) 250 g/d glycerol supplementation (66% pure glycerol; n = 30), or 2) no supplementation (n = 30). After calving, cows were individually assigned to: 1) 250 g/d glycerol product (66% pure glycerol; n = 30), or 2) no supplementation (n = 30) to their partial mixed ration (PMR) for the first 21 DIM. All cows were milked and offered a target of 5.4 kg/d pellet (23% of target total DMI) by an automated milking system (AMS) and followed for 21 d. Blood samples were collected 7 d before calving and 3, 7, 10, and 14 DIM for analysis of glucose and BHB, as well as 3 and 7 DIM for NEFA and haptoglobin (HAP). Initial dry cow BW, initial lactation BW, calf BW, as well as the −7 DIM blood sample measure were tested as covariates. Treatment factors and their interaction were analyzed using mixed-effect linear regression models. Postpartum NEFA was reduced in cows that received glycerol prepartum (0.54 vs 0.70, ± 0.05 mmol/L; P = 0.03) and postpartum (0.54 vs 0.71 ± 0.05 mmol/L; P = 0.01), such that those cows with supplementation pre- and postpartum had the lowest NEFA (0.44 ± 0.07 mmol/L) and those not supplemented had the highest (0.77 ± 0.07 mmol/L). No difference (P > 0.24) in blood glucose levels were detected due to supplementation during prepartum (2.74 ± 0.05 mmol/L) or postpartum (2.74 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Cows supplemented with glycerol prepartum tended to have reduced blood BHB levels compared with those without (0.67 vs 0.81 ± 0.05 mmol/L; P = 0.08). Postpartum glycerol supplementation tended to decrease BHB levels at 7 DIM (0.70 vs 0.87 ± 0.07 mmol/L; P = 0.09). No differences in postpartum HAP were detected (P > 0.25); cows supplemented with glycerol pre- and postpartum had the lowest concentration (0.62 &plusm