An abstract is a communication of restricted length that permits informed readers to evaluate significant contributions of a scientific study, scientific method, teaching technique, or extension technique. An abstract becomes a part of the permanent literature. Therefore, clearly stated, simple sentences with exact wording must be used to ensure clarity and brevity.

An abstract should meet the following requirements:

  1. The objectives of the presentation are clearly and concisely stated at the beginning of the abstract.
  2. Pertinent methodological conditions (such as the population and sample, design, instrumentation, methodology used, assessment of methodology, data collection, and data analysis) are included to define the scope of the work.
  3. The information in the abstract includes those details that directly influence the interpretation or enhance the understanding of the results or methodologies presented.
  4. The results are compiled, condensed, and presented with great care. Only information that is discussed is presented. Only data relating to the objectives are reported. Any statistical inferences shall be sufficiently detailed to authenticate interpretation of the data. One simple, illustrative table may be used if it is the most effective method to convey the results in a clear manner.
  5. Abstracts detailing teaching or extension philosophy must be innovative, such as a new idea or creative modification or application of an existing idea. Abstracts should also be of national significance to demonstrate application of said philosophy and to provide an evaluation of their effectiveness.
  6. A clearly stated conclusion is essential.

An abstract is unacceptable if it

  • contains grammatical errors or meaningless statements such as “The results will be presented,” or both;
  • presents data without appropriate statistical analyses or measurements of data variability;
  • includes no data or statements relating to the objectives;
  • does not use the metric system;
  • contains typing errors;
  • fails to comply with submission requirements; or
  • presents opinion or speculation with no demonstrated use in a teaching or extension experience.

The quality of an abstract for presentation is a direct reflection of the reputation of the author(s) and the American Dairy Science Association. If you need clarification of, or additional information on, abstract quality or submission, please contact us at